FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA U.N.A.M. DIVISION DE EDUCACION CONTINUA A LOS ASISTENTES A LOS CURSOS - PDF Descargar libre (2024)

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1 .... ' FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA U.N.A.M. DIVISION DE EDUCACION CONTINUA A LOS ASISTENTES A LOS CURSOS., Las autoridades de la Facultad de Ingeniería, por conducto del jefe de la División de Educación Continua, otorgan una constancia de asistencia a quienes cumplan con los requisitos establecidos para cada curso. El control de asistencia se llevará a cabo a través de la persona que le entregó las notas. Las inasistencias serán computadas por las autoridades de la División, con el fin de entregarle constancia solamente a los alumnos que tengan un mínimo de 80% de asistencias. ' Pedimos a los asistentes recoger su constancia el día de la clausura. Estas se '. ' retendrán por el periodo. de un.año, pasado este tiempo la DECFI no se hará '.. ~,~. ~ responsable de este documento... -=:~-~~~ ~- -~ t ' ',.,,r ~, ~., "-, r, ' ' ~~ ' ' '' ~-.~ ~- ~ :.;~ t, (....., lt' Se recomienda á IÓs. asistent~~ particip.; r r act~i'niti~ té ' con SUB ideas y : } : ' ~!-~' :. ' experiencias, pues los cursos que ofrece la' División, están planeados para que ~,. ' los profesores expongan una tesis, pero sobrl!'.todo; para que coordinen las. < -~~.., ;. :~-Y \._:.:,. ~,.,~,;~,"':-~;-';; opiniones de todos los interesados, constituyendo verdaderós!seminários.....,,.. '! ' ''>,.,, ' ' Es muy importante _que. todos los asistentés llenen' Y 'entreguen au hoja de ' ''fl inscripción al inicio del curso, información,. que serltirá P-ara_ integrar un ; directorio de asistentes, que se entregará oportüñamente. Con el objeto de mejorar los servicios que la División de Educación Continua ofrece, al final del curso 'deberán entregar la evaluación a través de un cuestionario diseñado para emitir juicios anónimos. ~. Se recomienda llenar dicha evaluación conforme los profesores impartan sus clases, a efecto de no llenar en la última sesión las evaluaciones y con esto sean más fehacientes sus apreciaciones. Palacio de Mineria Calle de Tacuba 5 Telefonos: Atentamente División de Educación Continua. Primer piso Deleg. Cuauhtemoc Mexico, D.F. APDO. Postal M Fax AL 26.

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5 FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA l.jnanl DIVISIÓN DE EDl.JC:::AC:::IÓN C:::C>NTINl.JA DIPLOMADO EN INGENIERÍA DE CALDERAS Y RECIPIENTES A PRESIÓN ' ~ MÓDULO II: MATERIALES, SOLDADURAYCALDERASDE POTENCIA TEMA ESPECIFICACIONES DE MATERIALES. SECCIÓN II DEL CODIGO A S M E ' EXPOSITOR: ING. ALFREDO SÁNCHEZ FLORES PALACIO DE MINERÍA MARZO DEL2003 Palacio de Mineria, Calle de Tacuba No. 5. Pnmer piso, Delegación Cuauhtémoc. CP 06000, Centro Histórico, México D.F., APDO Postal M 2285 Tels: ol24, y n Fax:

6 MATERIALES PARA USO EN BAJA TEMPERATURA TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑO COMPONENTE menos 425 a menos 32 F CUERPOS, CABEZAS Y REFUERZOS SA 240 TP304 (Plantillas y Collares) SA 240 TP304L Forja Forja BRIDAS CIEGAS Placa SA 82 F304 SA 82 F304L SILLETAS ldem cuerpo FALDÓN a.2 m. de línea de tangencia SA 283 C CUELLOS para Boquillas ldem cuerpo COPLES SA 82 F304L Apoyos de Platos y Soportes Internos ldem cuerpo Mamparas y Colectores ldem cuerpo TUBERIA INTERIOR.SA 32 TP304 SA 32TP304L CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA 403 WP-304 SA 403 WP-304L CUELLOS DE BOQUILLAS Y SA 32 TP304 CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA 32TP304L TORNILLERIA INTERIOR SA 320 B8 y SA 94-8 TORNILLERIA EXTERIOR SA 94-8

7 MATERIALES PARA USO EN BAJA Tí:.MPERATURA ' - ' TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑO COMPONENTE menos 50 a menos 9 F - CUERPOS, CABEZAS Y REFUERZOS SA203 E SS (Plantillas y Collares) SA203 D SS BRIDAS CIEGAS Forja ldem cuerpo - Placa SA 3SO LF 3 SILLETAS ldem cuerpo FALDÓN a.2 m. de línea de tangencia SA 283 C CUELLOS para Boquillas ldem cuerpo COPLES SA 350 LF 3 Apoyos de Platos y Soportes Internos ldem cuerpo Mamparas y Colectores ldem cuerpo TUBERIA INTERIOR SA CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA420 WPL-3 CUELLOS DE BOQUILLAS Y SA CONEXIONES SOLDABLES TORNILLERIA INTERIOR SA 320 L7 y SA 94-4 TORNILLERIA EXTERIOR SA

8 MATERIALES PARA USO EN BAJA TEMPERATURA TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑO COMPONENTE menos 50 a menos 4 F CUERPOS, CABEZAS Y REFUERZOS SA S5 (Plantillas y Collares) SA 203 B S5 BRIDAS CIEGAS Forja ldem cuerpo Placa SA 350 LF 2 SILLETAS ldem cuerpo FALDÓN a.2 m. de línea de tangencia SA 283 C CUELLOS para Boquillas ldem cuerpo COPLES SA 350 LF 2 Apoyos de Platos y Soportes Internos ldem cuerpo Mamparas y Colectores ldem cuerpo TUBERIA INTERIOR SA CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA420 WPL-6 '..,. CUELLOS DE BOQUILLAS Y SA CONEXIONES SOLDABLES TORNILLERIA INTERIOR SA 320 L7 y SA TORNILLERIA EXTERIOR SA 94-4

9 MATERIALES PARA USO EN MEDIA TEMPERATURA TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑO COMPONENTE menos 40 a más 60 F CUERPOS, CABEZAS Y REFUERZOS SA S5 (Plantillas y Collares) SA S5 Placa ldem cuerpo BRIDAS CIEGAS Forja SA 350 LF 2 SILLETAS ldem cuerpo FALDÓN a.2 m. de línea de tangencia SA 283 C CUELLOS para Boquillas ldem cuerpo COPLES SA 350 LF 2 Apoyos de Platos y Soportes Internos ldem cuerpo Mamparas y Colectores ldem cuerpo TUBERIA INTERIOR SA CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA420 WPL-6 CUELLOS DE BOQUILLAS Y CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA 32 TP304 TORNILLERIA INTERIOR Y EXTERIOR SA 93 B7 SA 94-2H 7

10 MATERIALES MAS COMUNES PARA USO EN MEDIA TEMPERATURA TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑO EN GRADOS FARHENHEITH COMPONENTE -40 a a +650 CUERPOS, CABEZAS Y REFUERZOS SA S5 SA285 C (Plantillas y Collares) ; SA'56 65'S5 SA Placa ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo BRIDAS CIEGAS Forja SA 350-LF 2 SA 05 SILLETAS ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo FALDÓN a.2 m. de línea de tangencia SA283 e SA283 e CUELLOS para Boquillas ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo COPLES SA 350 LF 2 SA 05 Apoyos de Platos y So~ortes Internos ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo Mamparas y Colectores ldeni cuerpo ldem cuerpo TUBERIA INTERIOR SA SA 53-B SA234WPA ~ CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA420WPL-6 - SA234WPB CUELLOS DE BOQUILLAS Y SA 53-B CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA 32 TP304 SA 06-B SA 93 B7 SA93B7 TORNILLERIA INTERIOR Y EXTERIOR SA 94-2H SA 94-2H 9

11 MATERIALES PARA USO EN ALTA TEMPERATURA TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑO COMPONENTE 65 a 775 F CUERPOS, CABEZAS Y REFUERZOS SA (Plantillas y Collares) Placa ldem cuerpo BRIDAS CIEGAS Forja SA 05 SILLETAS FALDÓN a.2 m. de línea de tangencia CUELLOS para Boquillas ldem cuerpo SA 283 C ldem cuerpo COPLES SA 05 Apoyos de Platos y Soportes Internos Mamparas y Colectores TUBERIA INTERIOR CONEXIONES SOLDABLES ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo SA53B- SA234WP B CUELLOS DE BOQUILLAS Y SA 06-C CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA 06-B TORNILLERIA INTERIOR Y EXTERIOR SA 93 B7 SA 94-2H

12 MATERIALES PARA USO EN ALTA TEMPERATURA TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑO COMPONENTE 85 a 050 F. SA 387 CL2 CUERPOS, CABEZAS Y REFUERZOS SA 387 CL2 (Plantillas y Collares) Ciad SA263 Placa con ldem cuerpo BRIDAS CIEGAS Forja SA 82 F JI SILLETAS FALDÓN a.2 m. de línea de tangencia ldem cuerpo SA 283 C SA264 CUELLOS para Boquillas ldemcuerpo..... :~ COPLES -. - SA 82 F... Apoyos de Platos y Soportes Internos... '"... ldem cuerpo Mamparas y Colectores ldem cuerpo. TUBERIA INTERIOR.. SA 335-PII. - CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA234 WP CUELLOS DE BOQUILLAS Y CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA 335-PII TORNILLERIA INTERIOR Y EXTERIOR SA 93 B7 y SA 94-2H 2

13 '.. FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA UNAIV\ DIVISIÓN DE EDUCACIÓN CC>NTINUA DIPLOMADO CALDERAS Y, RECIPIENTES A PRESION, MODULO II: MATERIALES, SOLDADURAS Y CALDERAS DE POTENCIA TEMA Materiales Para Recipientes A Presión.. EXPOSITOR: ING. ALFREDO SANCHEZ FLORES PALACIO DE MINERÍA MARZO DEL2003 Palacio de Minería. Calle de Tacuba No 5, Pnmer pso. Delegación Cuauhtémoc, CP 06000, Centro Histórico, México D.F.. APDO Postal M-2285 Tels al 24, y Fax:

14 . Materiales para Recipientes a Presión y Calderas Manuel Cabrera Moreno Buen Tono 42, Col Industrial México, D.F. Tel y Fax o FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA - UNAM " DIVISION DE EDUCACION CONTINUA 3 SECRETARIA DEL TRABAJO Y PREVISION SOCIAL

15 4 COLEGIO DE INGENIEROS MECANICOS Y ELECTRICISTAS (CIME) ESCUELA SUPERIOR DE INGENIERIA MECANICA Y ELECTRICA (ESIME) 5 DIPLOMADO EN INGENIERIA DE CALDERAS Y RECIPIENTES SUJETOS A PRESION 6 " El proceso de diseno de un recipiente sujeto a presión, ya sea que vaya o no a ser sometido a fuego directo consiste básicamente en el arreglo y disposición de una serie de elementos o formas geométricas, tanto metálicos como no metálicos, de tal manera que soporten las cargas y/o la presión en forma segura, cumpliendo las funciones especificas para las que es diseiiado.. 2

16 7 CONDICIONES BASICAS o El recipiente debe cumplir los requisitos de SEGURIDAD y funcionales " Los elementos estructurales que lo conformen deben ser capaces de soportar la presión y las cargas a las que estará sometido. <~~ Debe ser la construcción más económica. 8 CONCEPTOS BÁSICOS n DISEÑO ESTRUCTURAL m TIPOS DE FORMAS GEOMETRICAS Y LAS RELACIONES ENTRE LAS MISMAS e ANTECEDENTES HISTORICOS QUE SE TENGAN SOBRE LAS MISMAS \-,. 9 CONCEPTOS BÁSICOS COMPOR AMieNTO DE LAS DISTINTAS t:orm.!\s ~STt~UCTURALES CONCEPTOS DE DISEÑO <' FACTORES DE SEGURIDAD <> CODIGOS Y ESPECIFICACIONES 3

17 0 DISEÑO ESTRUCTURAL HERRAMIENTAS PARA EL DISEÑO MECANICO ESTRUCTURAL ~ Conocimiento de las propiedades de los materiales. " El análisis de la resistencia estructural o mecánica. " Los códigos, especificaciones y estándares. 2 PASOS LÓGICOS PARA REALIZAR EL DISEÑO Requisitos de compórtamiento del recipiente. ~ La forma y ubicación del recipiente. G Condiciones de carga y operación. f!, Diseño preliminar. 4

18 3 PASOS LÓGICOS PARA REALIZAR EL DISEÑO e Análisis. o Selección de materiales, formas y espesores. & Diseño secundario. 4 FORMAS GEOMETRICAS Y SUS INTERRELACIONES r:. 5 TIPOS DE FORMAS GEOMETRICAS Y LA TRANSICION ENTRE LAS MISMAS 'tll: Para este punto, se debe considerar las distintas especificaciones de materiales y en que formas o perfiles se encuentran comercialmente. tipo o tipos de refuerzo que se requieren para garantizar la continuidad en la resistencia y comportamiento estructural de los distintos miembros que componen el recipiente. f'l El 5

19 6 ANTECEDENTES HISTORICOS QUE SE TENGAN SOBRE LAS FORMAS GEOMETRICAS 7 ANTECEDENTES HISTORICOS QUE SE TENGAN SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LA GEOMETRIA EN LAS ESTRUCTURAS MECANICAS ~Es muy importante tener en cuenta los antecedentes históricos que se tengan sobre determinados diseños o configuraciones geométricas. 8 ANTECEDENTES HISTORICOS QUE SE TENGAN SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LA GEOMETRIA EN LAS ESTRUCTURAS MECANICAS u Los códigos se encargan de resumir los distintos comportamientos que se han observado a lo largo de años de servco bajo distintas condiciones de operación. " Estas reseñas se presentan como adendas o como interpretaciones en el código ASME. 6

20 9 COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS FORMAS ESTRUCTURALES 20 COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS FORMAS ESTRUCTURALES o El comportamiento de los aceros y materiales estructurales está definido por dos de sus propiedades- básicas, su resistencia y s~--~uctilidad. " Estas propiedades normalmente se presentan por medio de gráficas esfuerzo-deformación. 2 Gráfica#...,._..--, e u.-. Tlp c Eal-''0 O.forrn coon ""'"' Ac ro. al Carbono 7

21 22 COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS DISTINTAS FORMAS ESTRUCTURALES o Una gráfica esfuerzo-deformación "comercial" puede o no mostrar las cuatro zonas principales que la componen, que a su vez representan los cuatro estados típicos de comportamiento de los metales. 23 COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS DISTINTAS FORMAS ESTRUCTURALES o Estas zonas son: El rango elástico El rango plástico El rango de deformaciones permanentes El rango de adelgazamientofractura-ruptura 24 COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS DISTINTAS FORMAS ESTRUCTURALES., Las gráficas "comerciales", pueden o no mostrar las cuatro áreas, pero todas cuando menos muestran los rangos elásticos y plásticos. 8

22 25 Gráfica Esfuerzo-Deformación "Comercial" 26 CRITERIOS DE DISEÑO 27 CONCEPTOS DE DISEÑO., El comportamiento de las formas geométricas y estructuras metálicas al ser sometidas a cargas o presión, puede estar controlada por uno o más criterios. Estas propiedades se conocen como "límite de utilización estructural" y de entre ellas destacan: 9

23 28 CONCEPTOS DE DISEÑO o e El Punto de Cedencia Hipotético La Máxima Resistencia Plástica Las Deformaciones Máximas a las condiciones de servicio " La Inestabilidad " La Fatiga o La Fractura 29 DISEÑO <> Como resultado de la combinación de los "límites" anteriores, se desarrollaron sistemas de disefto, entre los cuales están el método del "esfuerzo máximo permisible" y el de "diseño plástico" Diseño por el Método del 30 "Esfuerzo Máximo Permisible" El método de diseño por "esfuerzo máximo permisible", requiere considerar los siguiente: e Punto de cedencia hipotético, e Inestabilidad o Fatiga y, frecuentemente la ~, Máxima resistencia plástica 0

24 3 "Diseño Plástico" El método de diseño por "disefio plástico" requiere se consideren, obligatoriamente, o La Máxima resistencia plástica o La Inestabilidad 32 FACTOR DE SEGURIDAD 33 " El término "factor de seguridad" se ha introducido como un elemento comercial de confiabilidad, a la luz de los registros estadísticos que se han realizado en un gran número de recipientes sujetos a presión bajo las más distintas condiciones de operación. ' --

25 34 El "Factor de Seguridad" no debe considerarse como la posibilidad de sobrecargar o sobrepresurizar un recipiente. G Para seleccionar un margen de seguridad, considerar: 35 Factor de Seguridad ~ Aproximaciones e incertidumbre en el método de análisis., Calidad de la Mano de Obra.. Presencia de esfuerzos residuales y concentraciones de esfuerzos 36 Factor de Seguridad <> Posibles deficiencias en el material ' Adelgazamiento en las secciones calculadas " Ubicación recipiente y utilización del 2

26 ' 37 Factor de Seguridad G Cargas a las que estará sometido. (adicionales a las consideradas en el cálculo). 38 <> Un método preciso para obtener un valor adecuado para el "factor de seguridad" requiere de análisis estad isticos del comportamiento de cada miembro en esa posición esji(li:ifica, ya que pueden presentarse variaciones al cambiar de posición o de tipo de servicio. 39 Factor de Seguridad ' La mayoría de los accidentes que han ocurrido en la industria, involucrando el uso de estructuras metálicas en general, han sido resultado de la combinación de los puntos mencionados, los cuales han sido ignorados o analizados separadamente, por lo que no deben desdeñarse o considerarse exagerados algunos factores de seguridad considerados en los códigos y/o especificaciones. 3

27 40 CODIGOS Y ESPECIFICACIONES 4 CODIGOS Y ESPECIFICACIONES "Esta es la parte esencial que nunca debe olvidar un diseñador.., Las especificaciones son puntos torales de la construcción. 42 CODIGOS Y ESPECIFICACIONES Son la principal herramienta que guía al ingeniero hacía procedimientos de diseños seguros y universalmente aceptados, además de ser la mejor referencia en la selección tanto de materiales como de métodos de trabajo y/o proceso. Su utilización es recomendable. 4

28 43 CODIGOS Y ESPECIFICACIONES o Los códigos representan un conjunto de reglas de construcción que comprenden los aspectos de seguridad y bases comerciales por lo que su cumplimiento es obligatorio por Ley. e El seguimiento de las especificaciones y códigos, representan para el comprador, una garantia de que el recipiente cumple con los requisitos b3sicos de seguridad, funcionamiento y economía. 44 MATERIALES MATERIALES "' El uso de materiales metálicos, especialmente los aceros, en la construcción de recipientes sujetos a presión, se atribuye a sus excelentes propiedades mecánicas, a la abundancia de las materias primas para fabricarlo y a su precio competitivo. 5

29 46 "La principal cualidad del acero y de los materiales metálicos es que pueden producirse con una amplia gama de propiedades físicas y mecánicas, las cuales pueden controlarse con mucha precisión para obtener las características y propiedades deseadas. 47 MATERIALES '"Para la construcción de calderas y recipientes sujetos a presión existe una gran cantidad de aceros y materiales metálicos identificados bajo designaciones estandarizadas por diversas asociaciones, entre las que destacan las de ASTM, Al SI, DI N, 85, JIS, etc. 48 MATERIALES PROPIEDADES IMPORTANTES "'La herramienta principal de que dispone un diseñador para determinar el comportamiento mecánico, son los diagramas esfuerzo-deformación. 6

30 49 MATERIALES Flu F>lóost co l'"'"tricto Rengo Elioabco 50 MATERIALES Las propiedades importantes a considerar son: " Punto de 9edencia ' Punto de fluencia., Nivel de esfuerzo de cadencia "' Límite proporcional., Resistencia a la tensión., 5 MATERIALES " Ductilidad e Módulo de elasticidad ~, Mér~uic de dé:fvrmüc:on psnnanente <> Relación de Poisson ' Módulo de elasticidad cortante " Soldabilidad " Maquinabilidad "' Formabilidad 7

31 52 MATERIALES e Resistencia a la corrosión y a la abrasión,. Resistencia a la fatiga o Tenacidad o Resistencia a la fractura frágil o Sensibilidad a las grietas o Resistencia al impacto 53 MATERIALES "' Resistencia al deslizamiento (creeping) " Relajación. 54 MATERIALES FACTORES QUE AFECTAN LAS PROPIEDADES MECANICAS 8

32 . 55 Los factores que afectan las propiedades mecánicas de los aceros y de los materiales metálicos son principalmente: 56 MATERIALES Composición química 2 Tratamiento térmico 3 Historia.de su deformación 4 Géometria 5 Temperatura 6 Relación de deformaci:ín 7 Estado de esfuerzos 57 MATERIALES o Los tres primeros dependen exclusivamente del proceso de manufactura del material base. o Los cuatro restantes dependen de. la aplicación, de la funcionalidad del diseño y de los detalles de diseño de cada miembro o componente. 9

33 58 DETERMINACION DE LAS PROPIEDADES MECANICAS o Esta es una parte Importante del proceso de diseño-fabricación. En diseños de alto riesgo, deben tomarse probetas normalizadas y someterlas a las distintas pruebas indicadas en los códigos y/o especificaciones para corroborar que el material recibido cumple con las características mecánicas consideradas en el diseño. 59 DETERMINACION DE LAS PROPIEDADES MECANICAS <>La ASTM cuenta con procedimientos escritos, incluyendo la descripción de los aparatos requeridos para la determinación y evaluación de todas y cada una de las propiedades que debe tener un material conforme a una especificación predeterminada y los criterios de aceptación -rechazo. 60 DISPONIBILIDAD DE ACEROS Y MATERIALES MET ALICOS t~ Es importante asegurarse que realmente existen en su forma comercial los materiales considerados en nuestro diseño. 20

34 6 DISPONIBILIDAD DE ACEROS Y MATERIALES METALICOS e Es común encontrar que determinada especificación solo se produce comercialmente hasta o a partir de determinado espesor o diámetro y que en caso de que se nos fabrique deberemos comprar un mínimo de "x" toneladas y este material tendrá un tiempo de entrega de "n" meses. 62 DISPONIBILIDAD DE ACEROS Y MATERIALES METALICOS Esta situación puede resolverse comparando la concordancia entre las especificaciones ASTM con las DIN o con las JIS, etc., de tal manera que se evalúe en que grado son iguales o en que nos afectan las variantes que se presenten, recalculando los factores esenciáles que puedan afectar el comportamiento de nuestro diseño. 63 IMPORTANCIA DE LA SELECCION DE MATERIALES " Para cumplir los requisitos de seguridad, funcionamiento y economía, existe una amplísima variedad de materiales de donde escoger, siguiendo las especificaciones y los procedimientos de trabajo para los distintos materiales. " El reto para el diseñador es seleccionar el material más conveniente para un trabajo especifico 2

35 64 IMPORTANCIA DE LA SELECCION DE MATERIALES La selección debe basarse en: o El cumplimiento de las condiciones de servicio predeterminadas o El cumplimiento de las condiciones de seguridad predeterminadas., El cumplimiento de las expectativas mecánicas de los materiales o La economía 65 SELECCION DE MATERIALES o En el aspecto económico, considerar el precio del material base, fletes, los costos de fabricación, efectos del peso.muerto en los costos de las estructuras y cimentaciones, áreas o espacios de operación y otros factores. 66 SELECCION DE MATERIALES "'También considerar que en ocasiones es más económico utilizar materiales base más resistentes, aparentemente más caros pero, que requerirán espesores menores y consecuentemente estructuras y/o cimentaciones más ligeras. 22

36 67 SELECCION DE MATERIALES "'Este criterio debe utilizarse al analizar materiales resistentes a la corrosión o a la abrasión, estudiando la posibilidad de utilizar materiales revestidos (ciad), soldadura de revestimiento, etc. 68 SELECCION DE MATERIALES o Bajo ninguna circunstancia, violar el código sobre el que está basado el diseño en aras de la economía o de alguna condición o~rativa. o NO-ES NEGOCIABLE NI ESTÁ SUJETO A ANÁLISIS NI CONSIDERACIONES DE NINGÚN TIPO LA SEGURIDAD QUE DEBE TENER EL RECIPIENTE DURANTE LA OPERACIÓN SELECCION DE MATERIALES e Es obligación del diseñador el realizar análisis exhaustivos sobre el comportamiento de distintos materiales para garantizar la funcionalidad y seguridad del recipiente dentro de los marcos de seguridad establecidos. 23

37 70 SELECCION DE MATERIALES e Todos sus hallazgos y decisiones en este sentido debe consignarlos en la MEMORIA DE DISEÑO Y CÁLCULO DEL RECIPIENTE a fin de que, cualquier otra persona debidamente calificada pueda revisarlos y rehacerlos cuando así sea necesario. 7 SELECCION DE MATERIALES., El diseñador nunca debe olvidar que todo tiene solución, menos la muerte. <'DE UN BUEN DISEÑO DEPENDEN LA FUNCIONALIDAD Y LA ECONOMÍA, PERO TAMBIÉN LA VIDA ÓE LAS PERSONAS. 72 Tablas de Selección de Materiales 24

38 73 MATERIALES MAS COMUNES PARA USO EN BAJA TEMPERATURA 74 MATERIALES PARA USO EN BAJA TEMPERATURA 75 MATERIALES PARA USO EN BAJA TEMPERATURA ' ""'"""',...,.,,"''"'"'o' '-- ~-,. E:~~!..~.. ~... ~. ~~~~~~ -- e-=-- - ~.. --~"!~ '"".. l "...,...,. :o"<o>c< ~~ <, > l co"'"o"' o ;.~: :!...~----::-;;:;:,>;:-~~-:... '"'::.:::... ~---:.~:::/:..:--~~; 25

39 76 MATERIALES PARA USO EN BAJA TEMPERATURA 77 MATERIALES PARA USO EN BAJA TEMPERATURA 78 MATERIALES PARA USO EN BAJA TEMPERATURA 26

40 79 MATERIALES PARA USO EN MEDIA TEMPERATURA QBR:&~~~ M,_JIIE,_,.: la s.s. ~-, ~~ ~-' o!sw...s!fou0.. 2"'"'_"'_ --~ m o,, ' ~-- a ' ~ ~- ~- -.~~ MGl>Y'l~ ~- - tcuw::sile~v m-!ci:klkh3~ ~e m - j'ii:i'n.j.b\0,~ ~ ~~ 80 MATERIALES PARA USO EN MEDIA TEMPERATURA 8 MATERIALES PARA USO EN MEDIA TEMPERATURA 27

41 82 MATERIALES PARA USO EN ALTA TEMPERATURA 83 MATERIALES PARA USO EN ALTA TEMPERATURA 84 MATERIALES PARA USO EN ALTA TEMPERATURA 28

42 85 MATERIALES PARA USO EN ALTA TEMPERATURA 86 MATERIALES PARA USO EN ALTA TEMPERATURA ' F?l:;;;. 87 MATERIALES POR TIPO DE SERVICIO ~ _nov~ioit"'-oc:<h ~ ~ "'"'"'''''"'- L O!UJO... I. J - '-- j~-::c "' --, :::::.:.:...:~:...:-... \:::::: ::.~""-" '... ;:;::: ,~::-.:.:..::-.:::-:=:.::::::::: -... ' «.. :::::: :::.="-::":::::::.... ' ~~T;.. ~_.:. =.=: ~.::,:.=.=-. "" ~ «-~,,.. c,- "'~' f 29

43 88 Selección de Materiales e Es importante que al seleccionar un material en particular se revisen cuidadosamente las especificaciones correspondientes a fin de contemplar en que rango es aplicable, ( temperatura, presión, espesores), y que pruebas indica el Código que se deben realizar, (metalográficas, de impacto, tratamiento térmico previo, durante y después de la soldadura, etc.) 89 Selección de Materiales otodos los requisitos que indique el Código se deben consignar en la Memoria de Diseño y Cálculo del Equipo y también se deben indicar en los Dibujos de Fabricación, en la Especificación de Procedimiento de Soldadura, en la Hoja Viajera, etc. 90 Selección de Materiales NO ES NEGOCIABLE NI ESTÁ SUJETO A ANÁLISIS NI CONSIDERACIONES DE NINGÚN TIPOLASEGURIDADQUEDEBE TENER EL RECIPIENTE DURANTE LA OPERACIÓN. 30

44 9 Corolario DE UN BUEN DISEÑO DEPENDE LA FUNCIONALIDAD Y LA ECONOMÍA, PERO TAMBIÉN LA VIDA DE LAS PERSONAS Y LOS BIENES PATRIMONIALES DE LAS EMPRESAS. 3

45 Gráfica-#.,, Esfuerzo Rango Plástico Deformación Permanente ' ; Adelgazamiento: y ' Fractura ' ' - ' +--Rango Elástico Curva Típica Esfuerzo Deformación para Aceros al Carbono Deformación

46 Gráfica Esfuerzo-Deformación "Comercial" Esfuerzo (() 4 ~. 4 Flujo Plástico lrrestricto L ~lujo Plástico Contenido. Deformación Permanente --i ~ +- Rango Elástico Deformación >::>>>>

47 MATERIALES Esfuerzo (() ' t ---t>' Flujo Plástico lrrestricto ' t '~ ~~rj-.o--p-i~á~s~ti~c~o~~~~~~~~~-----.~ Contenido, Deformación ' Permanente. ' +- Rango Elástico ' Deformación >::.>>> 3

48 MATERIALES POR TIPO DE SERVICIO SERVICIOS TIPICOS Fluidos con corrosividad mediana Agua fria o caliente Aceites sulfurados, fríos o calientes hasta 300 oc Hidrógeno gaseoso, gases con contenido de Azufre MATERIAL Aceros al Carbono Aleaciones Ferriticas, Carbono-Molibdeno, o Molibdeno Aceros al al Cromo- Servicio moderadamente corrosivo, componentes Aceros en configuración ferrítica con en contacto con compuestos sulfurados o que contenido de Cromo. tengan Azufre como impureza. Servicio con corrosión no sulfurosa, corrosivos en Aceros Austeníticos al Cromo-Níquel. general. Manejo de compuestos salobres, aguas de mar, Aleaciones de Cobre, Admiralty, Latón compuestos con contenido de Halógenos. alumínico, Cupro-Níquel. Acidos Minerales, ácidos y compuestos clorados. Aceros con alta aleación de Níquel Cromo-Molibdeno Compuestos salobres con sólidos en suspensión, Aceros al Titanio. Recipientes sometidos a esfuerzos alternos presiónvacío. Ambientes severamente corrosivos Ambientes con diferenciales de temperatura Ambientes altamente ácidos o alcalinos Recipientes multiusos o multiprocesos. Tecnología Ciad Revestimientos de Plomo, Hule, Vidrio Revestimientos con resinas epóxicas Revestimientos con refractarios Recipient'es de Carbón-acero. 4

49 MATERIALES MAS COMUNES PARA USO EN BAJA TEMPERATURA TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑO EN GRADOS FARHENHEITH COMPONENTE -425 a a a a a -4 SA 3S3 (9% Ni) CUERPOS, CABEZAS Y REFUERZOS SA 240 TP304 SA SS3 TP- SA 203 E SS SA 203 B SS SA S6-6S SS (Plantillas y Collares) SA240 TP304 SA 240 TP304L SA 240 TP304L SA203 D SS SA203 A SS SA 203 B SS Forja Forja Forja ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo BRIDAS CIEGAS SA '522 (9%. Ñif' Placa SA 82 F304 SA 82 F304 SA 3SO LF 3 SA 3SO LF 3 SA 3SO LF 2 SA 82 F304L SA 82 F304L SILLETAS ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo FALDÓN a.2 m. de línea de tangencia SA283 C SA 283 C SA283 C SA283 C SA283 C CUELLOS para Boquillas ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo COPLES SA 82 F304L SA 82 F304L SA 3SO LF 3 SA 3SO LF 3 SA 3SO LF 2 Apoyos de Platos y Soportes Internos ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo Mamparas y Colectores ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo SA TUBERIA INTERIOR SA 32 TP304 SA 32 TP304 SA SA SA SA 32TP304L SA 32TP304L SA420 WPL-8 CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA 403 WP-304 SA 34TP304 SA 420 WPL-3 SA420 WPL-3 SA420 WPL-6 SA 403 WP-304L SA 32TP304L SA CUELLOS DE BOQUILLAS Y SA 32 TP304 SA 32 TP304 SA SA SA CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA 32TP304L SA 32TP304L SA 320 B8 SA 320 B8 SA 320 L7 SA 320 L7 SA 320 L7 TORNILLERIA INTERIOR SA 94-8 SA 94-8 SA 94-4 SA 94-4 SA 94-4 TORNILLERIA EXTERIOR SA 94-8 SA 94-8 SA 94-4 SA 94-4 SA

50 MATERIALES MAS COMUNES PARA USO EN MEDIA TEMPERATURA TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑO EN GRADOS FARHENHEITH COMPONENTE -4Ó a a CUERPOS, CABEZAS Y REFUERZOS SA S6 70 SS SA 28S C (Plantillas y Collares) SA S6 6S SS SA SS 70 Placa ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo BRIDAS CIEGAS Forja SA 3SO LF 2 SA 0S SILLETAS ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo FALDON a.2 m. de linea de tangencia SA283 C SA 283 C ~. CUELLOS para Boquillas ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ' C9_fLES SA 3SO LF 2 SA 05 Ap~oyos de Platos y Soportes Internos ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo Mamparas y Colectores ldern cuerpo ldem cuerpo " TUBERIA INTERIOR sa SA S3-B SA234 WPA CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA420 WPL-6 SA234 WPB CUELLOS DE BOQUILLAS Y SA 53-B CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA 32 TP304 SA 06-B SA 93 B7 SA93B7 TORNILLERIA INTERIOR Y EXTERIOR SA 94-2H SA 94-2H 6

51 MATERIALES MAS COMUNES PARA USO EN ALTA TEMPERATURA TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑO EN GRADOS FARHENHEITH COMPONENTE 65 a a a a 50 SA 204 B SA 387 CL2 CUERPOS, CABEZAS Y REFUERZOS SA , s~294 e SA 387 CL2 SA 204 TP304 (Plantillas y Collares) Ciad SA263 Ciad SA 263 BRIDAS CIEGAS con SA264 con SA264 Placa ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo Forja SA 82 F (B) Forja SA 05 SA 82 F2 ( C) SA 82 F SA 82 F304 H SILLETAS ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo FALDÓN a.2 m. de línea de tangencia SA283 C SA283 C SA283 C SA283 C CUELLOS para Boquillas ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo COPLES SA 05 SA 82 F2 ( C) SA82FII SA 82 F304 H Apoyos de Platos y Soportes Internos ldem cuerpo ldern cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo.. Mamparas y Colectores ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldem cuerpo ldern cuerpo TUBERIA INTERIOR SA53 B SA 335-PI SA 335-PII SA 32 TP304 H CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA234 WP B SA234 WP SA 234 WP SA 403 WP304 H CUELLOS DE BOQUILLAS Y SA 06-C CONEXIONES SOLDABLES SA 06-B SA335 PI SA 335-PII SA 32 TP304 H SA 93 B7 SA 93 B7 SA 93 B7 SA 93 B8 TORNILLERIA INTERIOR Y EXTERIOR SA 94-2H SA 94-2H SA 94-2H SA

52 FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA UNA/V\. DIVISIÓN DE EDUCACIÓN CC>NTINUA DIPLOMADO EN INGENIERÍA DE CALDERAS Y RECIPIENTES A PRESIÓN...:._ ~. MÓDUT.Q II: MATERIAl.ES, SOT.DADURA YCAT.DERAS DE POTENCIA TEMA ESPECIFICACIONES DE MATERIALES SECCIÓN II DEL CÓDIGO ASME EXPOSITOR: ING. ALFREDO SÁNCHEZ FLORES MARZO DEL 2003 PALACIO DE MINERÍA ' Palacio de Mineña, CaRe de Tacuba No. 5, Primer piso, Delegación Cuauhtémoc. CP 06000, Centro Histórico. ~Jb;co D.F., APDO Postal M-2285 Tels: al24, y fax:

53 MODLJlOII s soldadw~ y cald~ras lle potonc<a ~ODULD Matenalas soldadura ycalde<as de potencia MODULO U TEMA ESPECIFICACIONES DE MATERIALES SECCIÓN DEL CÓDIGO ASME t\n Jit.lll<illJ, ~\p!ill'doilck ], \ltt>liih d~ [,illll~ ll'l<>ll dcc.ddli " ICLijliLillC~ d p~\hlll l'i.t n~cc>id, J d~ L ~lll~lllill j, ~\jlor\.t~,j~ j\ c>diicio> ~ lnlll,l<i<" IIL >\ éllciiilu arno>l Cllll do<; COilJiCI"IK '> t lic '>~ coii[i.ipoiicii ~ jl~l]lltilc':iiiiiiilsllol CoilCIJII~IICI,J enju, lliciciidus L\l~il<<fCS :>,onl!i> Si~IIICillC'i, "" 0 j., LltllL \ ' ", \',,j L LLdL ~ 'k l<>llljll. '[lle ',e e e ohcll Lll L,~ C.lllljlLl. l'<>lll!' Lnndlclull llldlijiij[l q ~< v.t"' '"""' "'' v.l.ll l.d,iil: I<>, l.<tr' e.pc< k:" '"IIL' rld r.< li~, \\\. dl,, \r,,,ld,,l \"'' IIL.IJL,, dl \'<.IIIU,, \\o L.ti<IL< o, ',,, J.ul< ol " d ', 'cjj., ',[,llll)loll[, > lll i<>, j>l >dllll< > lo \,<]< >,, jj, \\,\\). t',[ol I"IJ!jl< IHII,HIIl jl.llol ~~ ctii >Jco,,J,o lll'ojllllio!) diii,iiiic d lj!<lljl< jl LHibllllcLIOII jloi,..,. ''""',,,,.,,, '' ti ' '' "''' ''""' ""' "", "''"' /,JII,, "' p < ' ''''' "' '" r drro "'' ',.,...,,, [''... "''' '[.'' \' lllt,, ',.,,,,,,.,,,,,,.,,,,.,.,,.,,., l'urolr.r p.utc Jcsdc l.cc rn.t; d~ tr~tn.jilo~ luiki<>rl.l peiltl.lll~llt~rn~ntcdcnt<o Je \ :>. 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J nnpon~ntes firma; fahnc~ntcs de CljUI[l<.'. jl<e>i<lll <'~\l!<> p.~ '>k co nlll< dc l ~<JI<>'>~ Jj,l (<LIIIlohl<> de,<',,!,<>,8 < d, ll>'> : (J,\. h,lhil njn p~cp.ijo per~ml.ll de L<lllljl.lill,l'> dc ~e g t"> lii!!<'iiil'j<>~ eo>ll'>uh<>le'' ~ IUIIL'I<>Il,ll h>~ de gub!<'lrh> r:~,~p<'ltlllll> sdí.l,u que del gilii'o <JliC h.m!nr<ll.ldu <;l eomne de C.Jidcr,Js y rce<p<o:ntes J presron.!fes llli.!c!l!cios h.m '>U>lent.IJL' e'\alllcn' fuetoo apt<>b,ul<" en l<ls : U A. por el N, unn.tl llo; rd ~nd l'rcssure \' ~ssel Jnspcct<>J s. L'Omo mspcctor~s cjjiik, dn> de c.lderjs } rcc<p<cntes a preson El p!ocedl<lllcntn que,e )l, sc,;njo dcnu" de c~lc gltlpll para dclc'mllnjr SI o:~ o no posble el owrgumento del sello o centfk,do de,hiioi )I,Jcoon. en l<'nnmo~ gencr.tlcs es como a C(llllmuac<ón se md<ca - Se c\tgc al t".ilmeatc que propnrewnc JJ c<.! d nl,llllldl de pro~cdnmcntos pjra lj lhbnc.tcron. JUntO con una ~nlclllrd que P'<'' ia<n~ntc S<' le lw propotewn:~do ~-'\e ctud. la dt>~iiiiiciii,jcloll,mt~~ cn. d.t i,e Jll<'~hl un,t '> sade <llspeceiün Je cormm,lcuerdo con el so) cnantc >. \e ~.. j, '\!. de llhjlclliihl p.u.l \ c'l [ e,ll jp e't.ii>jc Lllhl C/ ei,,tl d~ pwe~diilil'> jlili<l J.thiiC.Jel< > \ ~ tk,jlll~' de. ICI,lli:lll/old<' J. JII:LI~t lol jllllli,j, h>> do,dhi~. Jllll< ~dillli<'iiiio\ de t.tih ~,\Cillll )' 2

54 MODULO Malerrales s~<j,rduoa y cald~ra~ de >ul~flci ' pi Ll\ ]l, <; \L detl'l llllll.l (jll~ ludo C'il,l Jc oll lictdo Ll'll d ~odi:o:" ', \~f\ fl:. U t\ \:>,] L,\ <., \ _ ClliOIILel ICI,I pohlt Ol<llg,U d U le> tki \dio LUII Clpulldlt'IHe,,,,]mcule el COIIllle de cjider,,; y ICCipltiiiCI a pttlr;,n lf,lh.l[,lt'n el c,t, hkemm nto> <k Llll ll'llo de,, lal,ul ',\\ \! ' urv: '.lalo \' J<'ull" teho lllll'rll:ot'u n.ll '" ' 'ollllil.ll..l'iip ",\ <.,,\ " lwl.r 'e/ ljlic' :oml>n. ' ll p.ld.rl,l llll>lll,l I<'LIIOIP'!I Il!ll,lll,l(i,l,,. )!, l'udl!.!< \ 'llll'l'i llle<.llll,mu \ < 'llll,,.,,], l,o ' ''\ \ lo"l p.ll.l' ll<lllllj>lllllll'lllo.< II' IIIIJi.ll<" me m t.ihd.rd ::- JIILCit" de u.. dlili< I dcnllu dd.llc.mcc dclcod ~o p.rr,llugr.h eqtlll"'' que l'"ed,mc\lllll'elll \ jll'l lllii,hl l. p.u llllllaci(>ii <k,\ '\ICO en \ S lllciejdll'i ITIICTTI,ILU ndie<; :; f'l C<'ITIIIl' Je t.ridll :, \' CCijliCII\e<; il jlll'\lun h,l hl'<:lw JIITer H'l menle C'oiU\ pl.lllle:lltllt'lll<>> a.', -<0<,,,,,' < '''"" < lllt'~.o.>\", dd """lile lo~,,,".d<>p.. ohllllu t llt'< '""'t'rllltc'lll<> ollu.rl dt <.< t' di!'" "'' In t u,d < oll'ohkl,<\ ~.lhlc cll< 'l< de c,lt nh <'ll\" IJe (.t, lll.itili ol.~ UHl<.liLIUJll'\ <jul' ~L e'\lgt.:ll Cll e~\. TIJ.t[CIIJ tk tujl~uuttiuil ~l'l lolll l.t~,!.'.<'' tt'qmsnos ~ comltete>nes de f.tbrcacron y sc ;urnhd estar i:m tambtcn.tsl atal..tdos pkn:ltljcilll' pt r el sello de cahjad r\~/\.ie. en esta forrn.t ~lt'\i<:o estara en posthldade; de CC'ncur~ar 't'ih.ij0~3nll'le con ~u~ puduc!os terrnrnndos en el mcrcadt uuctn,jcioihii Por lo ames e'\pue~to se puede conchm de!.m.mej '>tgtnt'llll' Ls rndtspensablc comar en,\ic\ico cnn un codgo que nome el dseñn. fabncaeon rnspccli<>n e rmt.ti.ición de calder.ts y recpentc~ n pte'iión que garantice la segundad_:- 'llic csk sea el que rne n se.tdaptc al mcd0} recurso~ nac,on.tlc~ : - [> llcce<;a!l<l cl ec<'i0ciiliw<> Jc C'>l' L\l(ilgo (jlic l'll ]. l.lih Fe.ILI<>ll g, r,ulce t LIC i. jh odtl< L'lllll pciitiii,i resgtjdl d.u un pre<;tlgl<"> tiht.:lfltl d de aucr do con la 0ncntauon tcndcntc hac,,, l. c\j)<" t.iupii i- '>t h.ll",l<l" \ W \ICliC '" <<, l<'tiipi<>g del u dtg<' \:>.IJ:>-! -.\~~fl_dt <.lidtl.h \ ltt'li'i<'iiit'' l'lt'll<'" "" p.llll' tk. llllll,l~ de '"!!ellll'l, de tc!;piilllld,lll"lll'l '<' ''',,U,lll\' l'll ''",, j'ltlllc',llll'llc' de L'<'tnl'l.l ><H ]," l.dh lt',lllle' t'll <.u o; dr k, nc proce"" :- P"',,, lll'p"'li<hl'l ele c"llll' ''" " de ""'''"''"" n <~ c't>llli'i.uio<t'' "' llldkll,tlc> d,pt nhlc~ :-.> ~~.Hin~ e'll MC'>.Il'" 'e cl.li><>l.lll p,u, nunplu C<>ll ll'(]lllll\"' do: nnt. P(lt l,l)l'' UlllC(H d,ltlte<, <."<' <" k l, o l'~)'<'eiiíc,it'l<llll'~ dt lll.lle'!. de l'lil' <"<- di:o'<',., lll'lc~.u o agolu..,:u }.ICdt'l,u IL<S \l.lh.ji"' de jllcp,n.lt'll>ll t.ll'l<<><lig<> \.\IL\ [.,\,';:>. den U" dl'l C<!Uill' de IHIIlll,]S p.u,] C~hkr ;'li' ll't'jlll'iii<."s, JHeSI<lll 0: ~~>,j,, SI o 'l'l'ei<hil's 5 E> conenlentc que los pte>fli<'s usu.nn s las fírm.5 de mgcnll'ji.j." eomp.ll; s de wguros',,, consultores c\iijii e! cumplumenlo de Jo~ rcqu~o~ c~tal>k-ctln~ en d codgo. \\H.\ J:.,\'..:\: b Es nec.:sano est,tblcccr ~ ejl'rcer pwccdnmcntos rara m.mtcncr :rctu.iil?:ld.t b folllm de l'l.tlu.erun ~ c.tltllc,ocmn de f,,brrc..nlcs en hencfícu de ct>tnpr.nlrre') uo;u,lri<'' 7- :, rccnmendahle que el cunlltc' de cndct,ls) rt.:ci[hcntc:s,, prcsn" clectue.t calltic.icioii de rnspcctnlc'' tk u ni Je t,jiid.td en. l.d>ll<, e " dt t aldc '" \' eeq enk', p e '"' \ qrrc L,,,, ".ICI< n "' ' '",.,..,,,..,, lud,l " ~nn.l qrrc lltlnpl,, < nn In> ll'<jlll\\'> <jll<' c l < o>tnrlt dc'ltl ""'"' S- ; L<HI\L'TliCtllc que el <'<IIHIIC de,,.,,,," jl.ll.lc,tkkl."! relllllt'llil''<,, jlll''<ihii cl,h"l~.rd" "'lll>.ol '< di!!<'.\:'\:>.:,\'),\ij: ((< jl.lic de Hti,rp[, l[oili]uc Ullle,potld.I,L ]no lecl!i""> mdu>ttl,lil'l '"''"'' ckliiil'tj,<l TI~Cl<lll,il.lllld \C? 'IL<C c lc< thg<' <;C,IIet<lll<<('ldn p]íci,lllllcilll' ') [~ l<'ll\ ento:nl~ que el t onute de C.lldc l,,., \ H'lljliL'tlll.''.t pte"o>n ot g.oll :- Tt',lhLt,un n.u "" c< tl,,.,,, lo<; <;CCtmc< IIIICil'~, Jp<; fl.ll.l crc,u t o\tici<'ilcia p< ~ l a "" lo~.phc,\'0 ', lc.mcc <kl "",!!" \\\:. \ ":>. E ltt [<;te comrté con;ijer.l wce~jiin Ll c.r concletlt'i~ t'nttc U'ill.tii05 e Oll'>llltl>l,., L<>np.ul:o' dt o;eglllt ::- de l!lspeccjon <.le la po tanela del sello c:.~lrd.ij,\:..:>.!f corno :ar ;JntJJ de s< :urrd.td J L;J WIC.lS dt'! \ adas de la~ reuillúlll's de e~tc COilllll'. hjccii UCCCS.lflO t]lic l,. \ \ll.\ E.<; llllll'lld,tdco; 'l l,t lllici:lll' a prr ;Jd.t pa!tic!pen erl fmm,.cl' a l'tl el dcs.uwllo de los uab.t o> del c0tllllc que h.: pmiblt

55 MOUiiLC alcs solt!d<lur, y tal<leras de rotencoj MODULO Maten~ les soldadura y cald<~~as de polencra SOLDADURA CajlfiC.;oo 'J de bs Procec.in'lleniOS de Soldadtfd TEMA 2 SOLDADURAS, SECCIÓN IX DE ASME la necesidad de productos conlrables aunado él la necesld d de conservar los rea.usos y preservar la segundad de Jr s trall,ij:'lflor<-s ) a hccto que léi r..ahdad de las so!déldura:. sea cada vez de mayor rmportanaa La fabncaaon de productos rnel<lllcos confiables dcbe comprender Dseilos documentados BCnas Practrcas de Manufactura Un Srsterna de Control ue CahcJad Cahfrcacion de los Procedimientos de Soldadura C:.trrcauon rjp lo~ ;otrj;r!lr;res Lu Cahficac0n del Procc<Mlrento de Soldadura. es el docwnento donde se constgnaran las vanables reales ernpteadas.l.ls pruebas efectuadas y tos resultados obtemdos, en un cstableamento en partrcu!ar Calrlicaaon de bs soldadores Este proceso srrve para cahficar la liabrldad de un soldador, o de un operador de maquna de soldar, para demostrar que es capaz de efectuar depósrtos de soldadura con la calidad establecrda en el drseño, apbcando procesos especrficos. con drslintas soldaduras y/o procesos y en drstmtas posk:rones LOS PROCESOS DE SOLDADURA l<l cahf!caaon de los procedrmrentos de soldadura, aunadas a un control estnclo de los procesos son las herrciitllentas capaces de demostrar que la construccron soldada propuesta tendra las propiedades mecancas consrderatlas en los cata.jlos de drseño IJelrnrr..0nes trnpatantes SOLDADURA t a docurnentaaon de tos drsei'ios se consrgna, t;asrc<jmente. en la f.\emona de Drseño y Cála.tlo de cada Equrpo, en tos drbu os de fabncaaón y en el control de los rll<jtenafes ernplt~ados Los Bu<..'ll<IS Practoc..ts de M.. muf<lctura se obtienen Apegrmdose a los ordenamrentos del C0drgo que se esto apltcando Es ta coatescenaa localizada de dos o mas metates producida por el catenlarmento de los mrsmos a temperaturas convenrcntes con y sin el uso de matenales de apote, con o su la a~~caaon de prestón, o por la sola aphcaaón de pres0n SOLDABILIDAO Es l<t C<ip<lcrdad de un matenal p<:.ua ser unrdo él otro rnedrante soldadura, ba o condtclones y procesos espcclfrcos y tener un desempeño satrslactono en un con unto estructural predefinido Re~pet<lnr!o ids E.speaflcaCJor es ernanad;t.s de los C<Jlculo~ Usando nmqulllana en buen estado MA,S USUALES PROCESOS DE SOLDADURA Emple;mdo solo personal califir..ado Procesos de SClidattlra mas usuales Ststerna de Cwtrd de CalKiad,,~ SMAW {SIHelded Metal Are Weldrng} Un Sisterna de Fahnc.aaon confro~j,jr~ p_qruere del estahtcanuento de SstemcJs de Calrdad que contem~en ; eslalllecimiento de un Mdnual del Srstema de Calrdad El estableamrento de un Manual de Procedrmrentos de Operaaon Sistema de Control de Calidad El establewnrento de InstruCCiones de TrabaJO La exstenca y aplrcacron de Formatos de Control de las dtslrnlas operaaones del proceso Es un proceso de soldddur<j el cual produce la co<j!escenaa por el catentamrento de los metales medrante un arco etectnco entre un electrodo de metal recubierto y el metal base El aporte se obtrene del electrodo y la Cltlllerta protectora de la descomposiaoll del revesttmrento del mrsmo Procesos de Soldadra mas usuales (['/' SAW (Submerged Are Weldmg) Es un proceso de soldadura el cual produce la coalescencra por el calentamrento de los metales mediante un arco o arcos etectncos formados entre un electrodo de metal desnudo y el metal base El aporte.se obtrene del electrodo y la cubterta protectora de una capa de matenal fundtble aplicada al arco y al metal fundido 6

56 MOOULO Mateoales s< Procesos de Soldadlxa mas usuales CJr GTAW (Gas Tungsten Are Welding)[tg] Es un proceso de soldadura el rual produce la coalescenaa por el calentamiento de los metales mediante un arco eléclnco fonnado entre un electrodo de tungs!p.no (no consumible) y el metal base Puede o no usarse matenal de aporte y la cubierta protectora se obtiene medante la aplicación de un gas o mezda de gases Procesos de Soldadura mas usuales MOOU.O Matenales soldadu"a y calderas de polenc:.a JUNTAS (JOINTS) QW-402 Nolas a QW-402 JUNTAS (JOINTS) METALES BASE (BASE METAL$) OW-403 \lietales DE APORTE (FfUER METAL S) QW-404 POS!CION (POSmON) OW-405 PRECALEN ramtento (PREHEA ) OW-400 qr GMAW (Gas Metal Are Weld0g)[mg] Es un proceso de soldaduia el ami proouce la coalescenaa por el calentamiento de tos metales mediante un arco eléctnc:o fonnado entre un electrooo metahco (consumible) y el metal base, TRATN.ENTO (POST"WEW OW-407 TERMICO HEAT POSTERIOR TREATMENT) El aporte se obbene del electrooo y la cuberta protectora se obtene medante la aplicación de un gas o mezda de gases y un fundente GAS (GAS) OW-408 Procesos de SoldacUa más usuales CARACTERISTICAS (ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIST/C) QW-409 ELECTRICAS WFCAW (Flux Cored Are Weldmg) Notas a OW-409 Es un proceso de soldadura el cual proouce la coalescenaa por el calentamiento de los metales mediante un arco eléc!nco formado entre un electrooo metallco contmuo (consumible) y el metal base TECNICA (TECHNIQUE) QW-40 La cuberta protectora se obtiene de un fundente contendo dentro del electrodo tubular y, opcionalmente med mle la apcaaon externa de un gas o mezcla de gases Espealieaaon de ProcedUTllell!O de SoldaciJra WPS EPS PREPARACION DE UN PROCEDIMIENTO CONFORME A LA SECCION IX DEL COOIGO ASME lderltdi::aaón de la Comparlía y del Procedmlefllo!denbfr:ac:IOO de Resp::nsableS del Procedmlento QW-482 EPS (VVPS) Versión en Inglés QW-482 SUGGESTED FORMAT FOR WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICA TION (WPS) (See QW-200. Sect0n IX. ASME BoJ/er and Pressure vesse/ Code) Identificación del documento TECNICA (TECHNIQUE) OW-4 io (IXlnllnuaoón) RESUMEN DE PARAa\ETROS DEL PROCEDIMIENTO REGISTRO DE DE PROCEDIMIEN0 DE SOlDADURA f'0rrv\to SUGERIDO CAUFICACION DE UN PROCEDIMIENTO CONFORME A LA SECCION IX DEL CODIGO ASME ldenllfx::aoon de la Compañía y del Procedumenro ldentrficaclón de Responsables del Proceduruento QW-483 RCP (IAIPO) Vers0n en Inglés Identificación del documento JUNTAS (JOINTS) QW 402 CAliFICACION

57 ~IODUI ú ~s s()jdadufa y calderas de poenca MOOU..OII Matenales soldadura ycaltletasoe potenca r,ietales BASE (BASE METALS) QW-403 METAlES DE APORTE FILLER METALS) OW.404 POSICION (PQSITION) QW-405 PRECALENl MENTO (PREJ-IEA T) OW-406 lhatar<aienjo TER/J!ICO {POSHVELD HEAT QV/407 GAS {GAS) OW 408 r J '/I,JI l r, ltr,/ ', tu~c lf<ical CHARACTERISTIC) OW-400 -CII/(,/ ( IU~IIN/0/3) IN /40 Pn)f:bas de TenSKXJ (Tenssle Test) QW-50 Pruebas de [)objez GrJ<Jdo (Gwded-Bend Tests) OW-60 Pruebas de TenacdOO (Toogmess Test) OW-"0 Prueba Fdde de Soldadl.-a (F //et-wekj Test) QW-60 Otras Pruebas (Ott~er Tests) RegiStros tmllspansalllcs Observaaones POSTrRIOR TREATMENT) Para realizar un0nes soldadas en reapentes a pres0n, las empresas u organzaaones que quieran hacerlo deberan de conlar con un Sistema de Conlrol tal que. garantice que todas las unrones mediante soldadura salisfa*gan los reqursi!os m mimos de calidad y eficienci<j necesanos en estos eqwpos ReqUISitos MlnilTIOS ORGAIJI7/,CION Debe contar con una estructura que defina con claridad los limites de autoridad y responsabrlidall de calla funcionario PROGRH,l/> lje ASEGUR/;/.lENTO DE la CALIDAD Que defina las especificaciones del producto y descnba los controles, procesos y métodos de prueba p<tra garantizar su cumplimi!hiio. Rió-qliiSitOS IAJJIIITlOS J ) Id JI JI j',f f-[ l.ol ljtl< hl'fd, < ', '.<, l, <~olilr.ou<>fl y > [. rjr. IJI<Ii<JII)J()', y q.ji.ji IIU: o:l j j. l dj)(:ijo.,,,, ''' ''' l) r~j<.j<,p<' CO/HROt [JE II!JOUISICIONES las espeafic;jciones al [lfovecdof deben enlrcfjilrse por eswto y el reabo de los rn;jtr.na[r_',l.unlji(,rl,,,,.., rlor:umr;ntarse Ambo, (]r r;un<mloh clehr~n r.l)lnr~ J r ReqUI~tos Mrumos PROCEDIMIENTOS E INSTRUCTIVOS Se debe asegurar que todo trabajo se realice medrante lnstnjcaones claras y completa~ CONTROL DE DOCUMENTOS Debe exrsllr un Sstema tal que, permta recolectar y controlar toda la documcntac.ón de un eqlllpo haaendo rastreable su utdrzac0n Reqlisrtos Mwumos CONTROL DE PROVEEDORES Se debe contar con un sstema de control que evalue a los proveedores, los cuales deheran de con!<lr con Srslemas de Caldatl srnulares al nuestro IDENTWICACION Y CONlROL DE MATERIAl ES Se debe cootar con un Sistema de marcas que permjta la KJenlfCar~on plena de los matenales empleados en el equrpo y sus sobrantes ReqUSIIOS Mrnmos El detalle de regstro de las pruebas es solamente ilustrativo y puede ser modrficado conforme al tipo y número de pruebas requendas por el Códgo (Detall of record of tests aro il/ustatlve only and may be modfied ro contorm ro tite type and number of tests required by the Code) ASEGURAMIENTO DE I.A CALIDAD EN SOLDADURA Es evdente que cas CJa!quer persona puede realzar una unrón mediante soldadura. pero para hacer umones soldadas para calderas o rea~entes sujetos a pres00 se requeren muchos otros trabajos adjcjonates y eqwpos espeaa~zados ASEGURAMIENTO DE la CALIDAD EN SOLDADURA CONTROL DE PROCESOS ESPECIALES Se debe garant zar que todos tos procesos espeaales, nctuyendo los de soldadura se efeduen ba o condaones controladas INSPECCION Se de.l>e contar con un sstema de Ulspecaón, rndependente del area de prüducaon, que garanlrce el cumplrrnrento de las especlficaaooes en cada etapa ReqUISitos Mm0S CONTROL DE PRUEBAS Y METODOS Todas I<Js pruebas que se lleven a cabo deben efectarse SIQUiendo métodos esmtos y documentar los resullaóos CONTROL DE EQUIPO DE MEDICION Y PRUEBA Se debe contar con un Sistema tal que garantce la :rects6n y calrbraaon de todas las herramrentas usadas en tas pruebas 9 0

58 .rlrlcr,, de polcncr~ MANEJO DE NO CDNFOHMIDADES Se debe cootar con un srstema tal que permrta reconocer clasrfrr..ar y dsponer de todos los maten.jies y equ pos no c-.. onformes coo sus especiflcanones ACCIONES CORRECTIVAS. Se debe contar con un srstema l<ll que defina los nrveles de autond,jd responsabilidad para ordena y controlar las conecrones ReqliSII.os Minmos AUDITOR las Se debe contar con un SIStema que permrla audrtar penodcamente la ef crenaa y aplrcabtltd<jd de las pohttcas, los metodos, procedtmrenlos, mstructrvos y formatos usados en las.3reas productrvas y el apego de todas ras are<s de la empresa al Srstema de Calidad de la empresa Los resultados se deben documentar

59 MOOULOII os ~ol!ladur~ y cai<mras Ue fxllencra MODULO MatenaiBs soldadura y cald~rj:; d~ potenca MODULO TEMA 3.- CALDERAS DE POTENCIA INGENIERIA DE CALDERAS A. COMPOtJENTES Y ACCESORIOS DE UNA CALDERA B CJRCULACJON C. ESPECIFJCACION Y EVALUACION DE CALDERAS D DISENO TERMJCO E USO EFICIENTE DE LA ENERGJA DE CAlDERAS F CODJGO ASME DE CALDERAS Y RECIPIENTES A PRESION G COMPARACION DE CODIGOS DE CALDERAS ASME-CODIGO ALEMAN PRESENTACION PREGUNTAS. CALDERAS DE POTENCIA COMPONENTES Y ACCESORIOS SISTEMA DE PARTES A PRESJON AGUA-VAPOR SISTEMA DE AIRE GASES BOMBAS DE AGUA DE AUMENTACION VENTILADOR DE TIRO FORZADO VENTILADOR DE TIRO INDUCIDO SOPLADORES DE HOLLIN BOMBAS DE COMBUSTIBLE CALENTADORES DE COMBUSTIBLE CIRCULACION EN CALDERAS CONCEPTOS BASICOS TIPOS DE CIRCULACION TERMICA O NATURAL CIRCllt.ACION CONTROLADA CIRCULACION FORZADA CRITERIO DE DISEÑO QUEMADORES SISTEMA DE COMBUSTION EQUIPOS AUXILIARES ACCESORIOS MEDICION CONTROL Y PROTECCION IMPORTANCIA DE LA CIRCULACION EMBULLICION NUCLEADA- DNB ESPECIFICACION Y EVALUACION DE CALDERAS c. VA A ADQUIRIR UNA CALDERA NUEVA? ALGUNOS PROBLEMAS CON LAS CALDERAS EN SERVICIO COMPONENTES DE LA CALDERA CORAZA. TUBOS. ESPEJOS. REFLECTORES -TIRANTES -BOQUILLAS DOMOS CABEZALES PAREDES BANCOS GENERADORES BAJANTES SOBRECALENTADORES- ATEMPERADORES RECALENTADORES ECONOMIZADORES CUBIERTAS - ESTRUCTURA CAMARA DE COMBUSTION DUCTOS - COMPUERTAS JUNTAS DE EXPANSION - SOPORTES - REFRACTARIO - AISLAMIENTO - CHIMENEA PRECALENTADORES DE AIRE EQUIPOS AUXILIARES ALGUNAS SOLUCIONES ESPECIFICAR ADECUADAMENTE CAUSAS DE ESPECIFICACION DEFICIENTE ESPECIFIACION DEMASIADO ABIERTA ESPECIFICACION DEMASIADA CERRADA EVALUACION DE CALDERAS DISENO TERMICO MODOS DE TRANSFERENCIA EN UNA CALDERA CONOUCTANCIA 2 3

60 MODULO Malenales, sol :aldera> de porer.ca MODULO Malenales soldadura y calderns de polencra TRANSFERENCIA POR RADIACION TRANSFERENCIA POR CONVECCION MECANISMOS DE TRANSFERENCIA COMBINADA OTRAS FORMAS DE TRANSFERENCIA CONDENSACION EVAPORACION TRANSFERENCIA DE CALOR AL AGUA AL VAPOR EN EL HORNO RADIACION AL AMBIENTE ABSORCION EN DIFERENTES COMPONENETES BALANCE TERMICO ES UNA CALDERA USO EFICIENTE DE LA ENERGIA EN CALDERAS USO RACIONAL USO EFICIENTE EL GENERADOR DE VAPOR IMPORT ANClA ENERGETICA DE LA GENERACION DE VAPOR DIAGNOSTICO ENERGETICO GENERACION DE VAPOR APLICACIONES- CAPACIDADES- CONDICIONES OPERACION EFICIENTE OPERACIÓN SEGURA FACTORES QUE INFLUYEN EN LA SEGURIDAD EFICIENCIA EN CALDERAS DIFERENTES CONCEPTOS DE EFICIENCIA CONTROL Y PROTECCION Vs. EFICIENCIA. METODOS DE CALCULO CODIGO ASME- SECCION CALDERAS DE POTENCIA PARTES DEL CONTENIDO PG PW PR PWT PFT PFH PMB PEB PVG REQUISITOS GENERALES PARA TODOS LOS ME TODOS DE CONSTRUCCION CALDERAS FABRICADAS MEDIANTE SOLDADURA CALDERAS FABRICADAS MEDIANTE REMACHADO CALDERAS ACOUTUBULARES CALDERAS DE TUBO DE HUMO OPCIONALES PARA CALENTADOR DE AGUA DE ALIMENTACION DENTRO DEL ALCANCE DE LA SECCION CALDERAS MINIATURA CALDERAS ELECTRICAS GENERDORES DE FLUIDOS ORGANICOS VAPORIZANDO PARTE PG- REQUISITOS GENERALES MATERIALES DISEÑO ABERTURAS Y COMPERSACION TUBERIA EXTERNA A LA CALDERA TUBERIA EXTERNA A LA CALDERA VALVULAS DE SEGURIDAD Y DE ALIVIO FABRICACION INSPECCION Y PRUEBAS CERTIFICACION POR MEDIO DEL SELLO Y REPORTE DE DATOS PARTE PW- CONSTRUCCION SOLDADA DESEÑO - JUNTAS - TRANSICIONES - ABERTUAS - CONEXIONES - TIRANTES NDT - TRATAMIENTO TERMICO FABRICACION - PROCESOS - CALIFICACION - REGISTROS - PREPARACION DE SUPERFICIES - ALIMENTACION. LA ASME NO "APRUEBA", "CLASIFICA", 0 RESPALDA NINGUN(A) PARTIDA, CONSTRUCCION, DISPOSITIVO O ACTIVIDAD LA ASME NO TOMA NINGUNA ACTITUD CON RESPECTO A LA VALIDEZ DE ALGUNOS DERECHOS DE PATENTES DEFENDIDOS EN RELACION CON TALES PARTIDAS MENCIONADAS EN ESTE DOCUMENTO, Y NO SE COMPROMETE PARA DAR SEGURIDAD A ALGUNO QUE UTILIZA UNA NORMA CONTRA RIESGOS POR VIOLACION DE ALGUNA PATENTE DE PRIVILEGIO, NI SE ATRIBUYE NINGUNA RESPONSABILIDAD TAL LOS USUARIOS DE ALGUN CODIGO O NORMA ESTAN ADVERTIDOS EXPRESAMENTE QUE LA DETERMINACION Y LA VALIDEZ DE ALGUNOS DERECHOS DE PATENTES Y RIESGO DE VIOLACION DE ESOS DERECHOS ES ENTERAMENTE DE LA RESPONSABILIDAD DE ELLOS 4 5

61 r.00ul o s sollladura yc~lderas Ue potencra MODULO Matenales soltjadura y cald~ras de petenera LA PARTICIPACION DE PARTE DE REPRESENTANTE($) AFILIADAS A LA INDUSTRIA NO ES PARA INTERPRETARSE COMO RESPALDO DEL GOBIERNO O INDYSTRIA DE ESTE CODIGO 0 CONJUNTO DE NORMAS. LA ASME ACEPTA LA ESPONSABILIDAD SOLAMENTE PARA AQUELLAS INTERPRETACIONES EMITIDAS DE ACUERDO CON LOS PROCEDIMIENTOS Y POUTICAS DE GOBIERNO DE LA ASME, LAS QUE HACEN IMPOSIBLE LA E:MISION DE INTERPRETACIONS POR VOLUNTARIOS INDIVIDUALES. ELEMENTOS DE SEGURIDAD EN EL PRIMER CODIGO MATERIALES CON PROPIEDADES CONOCIDAS FORMULAS DE OISEIJO- FACTOR DE SEGURIDAD MINIMO METODOS DE CONSTRUCCION RECONOCIDOS f.l.'. ',r '' J. r ' '/ -:. r,. r.t d l, Id - ~r J t/d '''', INSPECCJON Y PRUEBAS- TALLER Y CAMPO SELLO DE CUMPLIMIEtJ ro A CODIGO RELACION CON OTROS CODIGOS ALCANCE DEL COOIGO ASME JURISDICCION ASME SECCION t EL CODIGO "TRD" INCLUYE REQUISITOS PARA ESTRUCTURA, REFRACTARIO Y ENVOLVENTE EQUIPO DE COMBUSTION EQUIPO EN EL CUARTO DE CALDERAS PRECALENTADORES DE AIRE Y VENTILADORES SIS fe MA DE REMOCION DE GASES Y CHIMENEA CALENTADORES Y LINEAS DE AGUA DE ALIME~HACION ~(JIIHI.Ct.l.EI J I UUHES -I<ECALL:NT AUUHCS A T CMF'EHAUOHES TUBERIA DE VAPOR Y AGUA CALIENTE DENTRO DEL CUARTO DE CONTROL ANQUES DE EXPANSION TODO EL EQUIPO NECESARIO PARA LA OPERACIÓN DE LA CALDERA. COMPARACION DE CODIGOS DE CALDERAS COOIGO ASME- ESTADOS UNIDOS DE NORTEAMERICA REGLAS TECNICAS "TRD" PARA CALDERAS DE POTENCIA- ALEMANIA DIFERENCIAS ENTRE LOS DOS CODIGOS DEFINICION DE CALDERA DE POTENCIA CODIGO ASME CODIGO ALEMAN CLASIFICACION SUGUN "TRD" GRUPO - CAPACIDAD MENOR DE 0 LITROS GRUPO - CAPACIDAD MAYOR DE 0 LITROS PRESION MENOR DE BAR TEMPERATURA MENOR DE 20 C (AGUA CALIENTE-VAPOR) GRUPO - CAPACIDAD MAYOR DE 0 LITROS Y MENOR DE 50 LITROS PRESION MAYOR DE BAR PRODUCTO PRESION -CAPACIDAD MENOR DE 000 (AGUA O VAPOR) GRUPO IV- CALDERA NO CUBIERTA POR GRUPO, Y! CODIGO TRD TODO EL MATERIAL USADO PARA LA OPERACIÓN DE LA CALDERA MATERIAL PERMISIBLES COOIGO ASME MAYORES EXIGENCIAS QUE ASME SECCION CERTIFICACION DE AGENCIAS DE INSPECCION AUTORIZADAS MATERIAL -SOLDADURA- APLICACION- PRUEBAS VALORES PERMISIBLES DE ESFUERZOS DE DISEÑO ASME- EL MENOR DE ESTOS VALORES (APENDICE A-50) /4 RESISTENCIA A TENSION M IN. (TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE) /4 RESISTENCIA A TENCION (TEMPERATURA DE DISENO) 23 RESISTENCIA PUNTO DE CEDENCIA (TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE) 23 RESISTENCIA PUNTO DE CEDENCIA (TEMPERATURA DE DISENO) CODIGO TRD ESTABLECE USAR EL MENOR DE ESTOS VALORES RESISTENCIA A TENSION A 20 C/2 4 RESISTENCIA PUNTO DE CEDENCIA A TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑ0/.5 6 7

62 MODULO M.lteroatcs s~d~ MODULO ti M;rtenales sold, rlu<~ y calderas de polenc,, MAYORES EXIGENCIAS DE DISEÑO EN CODIGO TRD QUE EN ASME SECCION PLACA DE REFUERZO ABERTURAS BOQUILLAS ESFUERZOS TERMICOS Y CARGAS CICLICAS DISEÑO DE LA CALDERA REVISADO POR AGENCIA DE INSPECCION AUTORIZADA. FABRICACION. ASME REQUIERE CERTIFICACION DE HABILIDAD DE DISEÑO Y FABRICACION A CODIGO Y EXTIENDE CERTIFICADO DE AUTORIZACION Y USO DEL SELLO "S" A FABRICANTES CODIGO TRD TIENE REQUISITOS SIMILARES CON MENOR FORMALIDAD PARA LA CERTIFICACION QUE EXTIENDE LA AGENCIA AUTORIZADA DE INSPECCION. TRIANUALMENTE INSPECCION INTERNA PRUEBA HIDROSTATICA CAOII9 AÑOS -.3 VECES LA PRESION MAXIMA DE TRABAJO MODULO INGENIERIA DE CALDERAS COMPONENTES Y ACCESORIOS DE UNA CALDERA OTRAS EXIGENCIAS DEL CODIGO TRD FORMADO Y DOBLADO CUPONES DE PRUEBA DE MATERIALES CALIFICACIONES DE SOLDADURA CAUFICACION DE PROCEDIMIENTOS DE SOLDADURA TRATAMIENTO TER MICO PRUEBAS NO DESTRUCTIVAS (NOE) CERTIFICADO DE CALDERA INSPECCION Y PRUEBA REGISTROS INSPECCIONES EN SERVICIO TIPICAS EN ESTADOS UNIDOS Y GANADA ANUALMENTE INSPECCION EXTERNA ANUALMENTE INSPECCION INTERNA 6 MESES DESPUES DE INSPECCION EXTERNA POR DECRETO EN ALEMANIA ANUALMENTE INSPECCION EXTERNA CIRCULACION ESPECIFICACION Y EVALUACION DE CALDERAS DISEÑO TER MICO USO Er:ICIENl E DE LA ENERGIA DE CALDERAS CODIGO ASME DE CALDERAS Y RECIPIENTES A PRESION. COMPARACION DE CODIGOS DE CALDERAS ASME-CODIGO ALEMAN PRESENTACION - PREGUNTAS CALDERAS DE POTENCIA COMPONENTES Y ACCESORIOS SISTEMA DE PARTES A PRESION AGUA-VAPOR SISTEMA DE AIRE GASES SISTEMA DE COMBUSTION EQUIPOS AUXILIARES ACCESORIOS MEDICION CONTROL Y PROTECCION 8 9

63 I~Oflll!0 MODULO Materiales, solde jura y calderas de polr!olcia COMI'ONEN TES DE LA CALDERA CORAZA- TUBOS- ESPEJOS- DEFLECTORES -TIRANTES -BOQUILLAS DOMOS -CABEZALES -PAREDES -BANCOS GENERADORES- BAJAN TES SOBREBRECALENTADORES- ATEMPERADORES- RECALENTADORES- ECONOMIZADORES ESPECIFICAR ADECUADAMENTE CAUSAS DE ESPECIFICACION DEFICIENTE ESPECIFICACION DEMASIADO ABIERTA ESPECIFICACION DEMASIADAOCERRADA EVALUACION DE CALDERAS CUBIERTAS - ESTRUCTURA - CAMARA DE COMBUSTION JUNl AS DE EXPANSION - SOPORTES - REFRACTARIO PRECALENTADORES DE AIRE EQUIPOS AUXILIARES QUEMADORES BOMBAS DE AGUA DE ALIMEfJTACION VEN ILADOR DE TIRO FORZADO VENTILADOR DE TIRO INDUCIDO SOPLADORES DE HOLLIN BOMBAS DE COMBUSTIBLE CALENTADORES DE COMBUSTIBLE CIRCULACJON EN CALDERAS CONCEPTOS BASICOS TIPOS DE CIRCULACION TERMICA 0 NATURAL CIRCULACION CONTROLADA CIRCULACION FORZADA CRITERIO DE DISEÑO IMPORTANCIA DE LA CIRCULACION EBULLICION NUCLEADA- DNB ESPECIFICACION Y EVALUACION DE CALDERAS VA A ADQUIRIR UNA CALDERA NUEVA? ALGUNOS PROBLEMAS CON LAS CALDERAS EN SERVICIO ALGUNAS SOLUCIONES DUCTOS - COMPUERTAS AISLAMIENTO - CHIMENEA DISEÑO TER MICO MODOS DE TRANSFERENCIA EN UNA CALDERA CONDUCTANCIA TRANSFERENCIA POR RADIACION TRANSFERENCIA POR CONVECCION MECANISMOS DE TRANSFERENCIA COMBINADA OTRAS FORMAS DE TRANSFERENCIA CONDENSACION EVAPORACION TRANSFERENCIA DE CALOR AL AGUA Al VAPOR EN EL HORNO RADIACION AL AMBIENTE ABSORCION EN DIFERENTES COMPONENETES BALANCE TERMICO ES UNA CALDERA USO EFICIENTE DE LA ENERGIA EN CALDERAS USO RACIONAL USO EFICIENTE El GENERADOR DE VAPOR IMPORTANCIA ENERGETICA DE LA GENERACION DE VAPOR DIAGNOSTICO ENERGETICO GENERACION DE VAPOR APLICACIONES -CAPACIDADES. CONDICIONES OPERACION EFICIENTE OPERACIÓN SEGURA 20 2

64 MOO JLo Mate~t~s. Sl caldera; dq polencoa FACTORES QUE!Ni-LUYEN EN LA SEGURIDAD MODULO Matenale~,ojd;>dura y caldm.ls de wtencoa FABRICACION - PROCESOS - CAUFICACION - REGISTROS - PREPARACION DE SUPERFICIES - ALIMENTACION PG PW PR PWT PFT PFH PMB PEB PVG EFICIENCIA EN CALDERAS DIFERENTES CONCEPTOS DE EFICIENCIA CONTROL Y PROTECCION Vs EFICIENCIA. METODOS DE CALCULO CODIGO ASME- SECCION CALDERAS DE POTENCIA PARTES DEL CONTENIDO REQUISITOS GENERALES PARA TODOS LOS ME TODOS DE CONSTRUCCION CALDERAS FABRICADAS MEDIANTE SOLDADURA CALDERAS FABRICADAS MEDIANTE REMACHADO CALDERAS ACUOTUBULARES CALDERAS DE TUBO DE HUMO OPCIONALES PARA CALENTADOR DE AGUA DE ALIMENTACION DENTRO DEL ALCANCE DE LA SECCION CALDERAS MINIATURA CALDERAS ELECTRJCAS GENERDORES DE FLUIDOS ORGANICOS VAPORIZANTES,. PARTE PG- REQUISITOS GENERALES MATERIALES DISEÑO ABERTURAS Y COMPENSACJON TUBERIA EXTERNA A LA CALDERA TUBERIA EXTERNA A LA CALDERA VALVULAS DE SEGURIDAD Y DE ALIVIO FABRICACION INSPECCION Y PRUEBAS CERTIFICACION POR MEDIO DEL SELLO Y REPORTE DE DATOS LA ASME NO "APRUEBA", "CLASIFICA", 0 RESPALDA NINGUN(A) PARTIDA, CONSTRUCCION, DISPOSITIVO O ACTIVIDAD LA ASME NO TOMA NINGUNA ACTITUD CON RESPECTO A LA VALIDEZ DE ALGUNOS DERECHOS DE PATENTES DEFENDIDOS EN RELACION CON TALES PARTIDAS MENCIONADAS EN ESTE DOCUMENTO, Y NO SE COMPROMETE PARA DAR SEGURIDAD A ALGUNO QUE UTILIZA UNA NORMA CONTRA RIESGOS POR VIOLACION DE ALGUNA PATENTE DE PRIVILEGIO, NI SE ATRIBUYE NINGUNA RESPONSABILIDAD TAL LOS USUARIOS DE ALGUN CODIGO 0 NORMA ESTAN ADVERTIDOS EXPRESAMENTE QUE LA DETERMINACION Y LA VALIDEZ OE ALGUNOS DERE:CHOS DE PATENTES Y RIESGO DE VIOLACION OE ESOS DERECHOS ES ENTERAMENTE DE LA RESPONSABILIDAD DE ELLOS LA PARTICIPACION DE PARTE DE REPRESENTANTE($) AFILIADAS A LA INDUSTRIA NO ES PARA INTERPRETARSE COMO RESPALDO DEL GOBIERNO O INDUSTRIA DE ESTE CODIGO O CONJUNTO DE NORMAS. LA ASME ACEPTA LA RESPONSABILIDAD SOLAMENTE PARA AQUELLAS INTERPRETACIONES EMITIDAS DE ACUERDO CON LOS PROCEDIMIENTOS Y POLITICAS DE GOBIERNO DE LA ASME, LAS QUE HACEN IMPOSIBLE LA EMISION DE INTERPRETACIONS POR VOLUNTARIOS INDIVIDUALES ELEMENTOS DE SEGURIDAD EN El PRIMER CODIGO MATERIALES CON PROPIEDADES CONOCIDAS FORMULAS DE DISENO- FACTOR DE SEGURIDAD MINIMO ME TODOS DE CONSTRUCCION RECONOCIDOS ACCESORIOS Y VALVULAS DE SEGURIDAD APROPIADAS INSPECCION Y PRUEBAS- TALLER Y CAMPO SELLO DE CUMPLIMIENTO A COOIGO RELACION CON OTROS CODIGOS COMPARACION DE CODIGOS DE CALDERAS COOIGO ASME- ESTADOS UNIDOS DE NORTEAMERICA REGLAS TECNICAS "TRO" PARA CALDERAS DE POTENCIA- ALEMANIA PARTE PW- CONSTRUCCION SOLDADA DISENO - JUNTAS - TRANSICIONES TRATAMIENTO TERMICO ABERTURAS CONEXIONES - TIRANTES - NDT DIFERENCIAS ENTRE LOS DOS CODIGOS DEFINICION DE CALDERA DE POTENCIA CODIGO ASME CODIGO ALEMAN 22

65 :.')0ULO ljies soldadurd y <:alder~> de potenc a MODUlO Mate~as soldadura y caderas de polenca CLASJF!CACION SUGUN ''TRD" ASME- El MENOR DE ESTOS VALORES {APENDICE A-50) GRUPO. CAPACIDAD MENOR DE 0 LITROS GRUPO CAPACIDAD MAYOR DE 0 LITROS PRESION MENOR DE BAR TEMPERATURA MENOR DE 20"C (AGUA CAUENTE.VAPOR) GRUPO llf. CAPACIDAD MAYOR DE 0 LITROS Y MENOR DE 5) LITROS PRESIO/! MAYOR DE BAR PRODUCTO PRESIOfJ -CAPACIDAD ME!~OR DE 000 (AGUA O VAPOR) r:.hijpo '/-CALDf:RA 0 CUBIEfH/ POH GRIJPU, Y IU ALCANCE DEL CODIGO ASME CODIGO TRD JllRISOICCION ASME SECCION [_ <.O DIGO "TRD" JfJI"":I IJYr F~H)IJI<)( J()S J Ar<A LS HUC Uf<A, Hl:.f'RAC F AHIU Y ENVULVt:N fe EQUIPO DE COMBUS fjon EQUIPO EN EL GUARrO DE CALDERAS PRECALENTADORES DE AIRE Y VENTILADORES SISTEMA DE REMOCION DE GASES Y CHIMENEA CALENTADORES Y lineas DE AGUA DE AliMENTACION SOBRECALENTADORES- RECALENTADORES ATEMPERADORES TUBERIA DE VAPOR Y AGUA CALIENTE DENTRO DEL CUARTO DE CONTROL TANQUES DE EXPANSION TODO EL EQUIPO NECESARIO PARA LA OPERACION DE la CALDERA. TODO El MATERIAL USADO PARA LA OPERACION DE LA CALDERA MATERIAL PERMISIBLES CODIGOASME MAYORES EXIGENCIAS QUE ASME SECCJON CERTIFICACION DE AGENCIAS DE INSPECCION AUTORIZADAS MATERIAL -SOLDADURA- APLICACION -PRUEBAS VALORES PERMISIBLES DE ESFUERZOS DE DISEÑO 4 RESISTENCIA A TENSION MIN (TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE) 4 RESISTENCIA A TENSION (TEMPERATURA DE DISEÑO) 23 RESISTENCIA PUNTO DE CEDENCIA (TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE) 2/J RESISTENCIA PUNTO DE CEDENCJA (TEMPERATURA DE DISENO) CODJGO TRD ESTABLECE USAR EL MENOR DE ESTOS VALORES RESISTENCIA A TENSION A 20uC/2 4 RESISTENCIA PUNTO DE CEDENCIA A TEMPERATURA DE DISEN0/ 5 MAYORES EXIGENCIAS DE DISENO EN CODIGO TRD QUE EN ASME SECCION PLACA IJE REFIJ~RZO AI:JERTURAS BOQUILLAS ESFUERZOS TERMICOS Y CARGAS CJCUCAS DISENO DE LA CALDERA REVISADO POR AGENCIA DE INSPECCION AUTORIZADA. FABRJCACION ASME REQUIERE CERTIFICACION DE HABILIDAD DE DISENO Y FABRICACION A COOIGO Y EXTIENDE CERTIFICADO DE AUTORIZACION Y USO DEL SELLO "S" A FABRICANTES. CODIGO TRD TIENE REQUISITOS SIMILARES CON MENOR FORMALIDAD PARA LA CERTIFICACION QUE EXTIENDE LA AGENCIA AUTORIZADA DE JNSPECCION OTRAS EXIGENCIAS DEL CODIGO TRD FORMADO Y DOBLADO CUPONES DE PRUEBA DE MATERIALES CALIFICACIONES DE SOLDADURA CAUFICACION DE PROCEDIMIENTOS DE SOLDADURA TRATAMIENTO TER MICO PRUEBAS NO DESTRUCTIVAS (NDE) CERTIFICADO DE CALDERA INSPECCION Y PRUEBA 24 25

66 uoou_o Matenates sok.alde.as de potencoa REGISTROS INSPECCIONES EN SERVICIO TIPICAS EN ESTADOS UNIDOS Y GANADA ANUALMENTE INSPECCION EXTERNA ANUALMENTE INSPECCION INTERNA 6 MESES DESPUES DE INSPECCION EXTERNA POR DECRETO EN ALEMANIA ANUALMENTE INSPECCION EXTERNA TRIANUALMENTE INSPECCION INTERNA PRUEBA HIDROSTATICA C~DA 9 ANOS - 3 VECES LA PRESION MAXIMA DE TRABAJO 26

67 FACULTAD DIE INGIENDIE!RiÍA UNA!V\ DDVDSDÓN DIE IEDILJCACBÓN CC>I"JTJ N UA DIPLOMADO EN INGENIERÍA DE CALDERAS Y RECIPIENTES A PRESIÓN, MODULO II: _ MATERIALES, SOLDADURA Y CALDERAS DE POTENCIA EXPOSITOR: ING. ORLANDO R. RIVERA PALACIO DE MINERÍA MARZO DEL2003 Pa!aoo de Minería. Ca!le de Tacubc No. 5, Pnmer pso. Delegación Cuauhiérnoc. rp 06000, C:cfliro Hisiónco, Méxco D := APDO Posta! N'l-2235 :l T,:o!s S e\ 24, y 5623 '297 ~ Fm :.~

68 _sc.:::cltotj VIII '!)\V, :L CONTENTS A Detailed Contcnts Prec::edes Each P,lrt and the Appendices Foreword.... Srarcments of Policy Personnel Introduction V VÍI ix Subscction A Pan UG Gl'ncral Requircmcnts General Rcquircments for All Methods of Construction and.-\ ~:faterials 3 Sub'iection B Requircments Pcrtaining to ~lcthods of Fabrication of P:lft C\V Part LF p Jr[ l"ll Prcssurc Ves~cls Rcquirements for Prcssure Vcsscls Fabncated by Weldmg Requircments for Prcssurc Ves\cls F:.J.bncatcd by Forging RequtremcrHs for Pn:s~urc Vc:-.sels Fabncatcd by Brazing ) Subsection C Part UCS Part V:"JF Part UHA Pan UCI Part UCL Pan UCD Part UHT Rcquircments Pcrtuining to Classes of ~latcrials Rcquirements for Prcs~ure Vessels Constructcd of Carbon and Low Alloy' Stecls Requirements for Pressure Vcsseb Constructed of Nonferrous Materiah Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of High Alloy Steel Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of Cast Iron Requirements for Welded Pressure Vesseis Constructed of Matenal With Corrosion Resistant Integral Cladding, Weld ~letal Overlay Cladding, or With Applied Linings... Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of Cast Ductile Iron... Requ rements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of Ferritic Steels \Vith Tensile Properties Enhanced by Heat Treatment....! XIX

69 Part ULW Part ULT Requirements for Pressure Vessels Fabricated by Layered Construction... AltematJve Rules for Pressure Vessels Constructed of ~aterials Havmg Higher Allowable Stresses at Low Temperature ) 265 Tables.... Mandatory Appendices Nonmandatory Appendices SI Units.... lndex ) ) ) ' /

70 <::;e: e í o rj PART PG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION.). ' PG- SCOI'E GENERAL (g) Adequatc safety rclicf valves and controls are providcd. Thc rcquirl!mcnts of P:tn PG apply to power boilcr\ and hgh pre.'-surc, high-tcmpcrawrc water boilcrs <lnd to pans and appunen~ukcs therdo aml shall be uscd m conjuncti~.jn whii thc 'PCC!Iic rcquircments thc applic:lblc Parts of th:-; Scctwn that pcrtain to thc mcthods of con~trw.:tion uscd. I'G-J REFERENCED STANDARDS SpccJfic cdition-; l)f standards rcfercnccd in ths Scc IIOJI.rc shnwn in :\ppendi:\ A-360 ) PG-2 SERV!CF U~IIT,\TIONS PG-2. Tll.:: ntlc:-. of tlw; Sccton are applicab!c w thc ft)llowin~... cr\'lcc... : íi lhikt:.. \\'hll"h '-IC.trn orthilcr \apor ~ gencj;.jtcd at : prcs...,urc t)f more ]un l ~ p... ig ( 03 kpa): ( h J!ngh-tcmpcraturc \\.Hcr bt)l krs iml!njcd for opc a tlon al prc,sutcs C'\Cccdin~ lóo p:-.g (l 00 kpa) and/or tempc!:iiuics L'.\CCcdin_g ~50 F ( 2! C). PG-2.2 Fnt scrnct:s t'cio\\ thosc spccilicd in PG :?.. it is intendcd th;ll ru!l's \_)f Section IV apply: ho'' L'' cr. holas for sulh scrykc" m ay be constructcd ami stamped m accord~uh.'l' with ths Section providcu all.pplicahlc requijelh'llh are met. PG-.3 Cotl-typc hot '',ncr twllcrs whcre the water can tlash into :-team '' hcn released Jircctly to thc atmosphcrc through a rn:muall~ operated nozzle may be exemptcd from the njlcs of this Section provided the tollowing condition'.\re mcr. (a) Thcrc is no drum. header. or other steam space. (b) No steam is gencr:hed \\ nhin the COl!. (e) Tubing outsde di.meter does not exceed in. (25 mm). (d) Pipe sizc Joes rwt cxceed NPS 3 / 4 (DN 20). (e) Nominal \vater c.pacity dl)cs not exceed 6 gal (23 ll. (0 \Vater temperaturl' does not exceed 350 F ( 77"Cl. GENERAL MATEIUALS P(;-5. i\latcnal subjcct to suc:-.s Juc to prcssun.~ sh:ll conform to pnc of thc spccillcations givcn in Scction,lJid ~hall be linll(cd to thosc that :uc listcd in thc Tablc:-. of Scction JI. Pan D. cxccpt as othcn\'isc pcrmrttcd rn PG-X 2. PG-RJ. PG-0, ami PG- Material..., shall not be uscd at tcmpcraturcs abovc tho:-.c for which stress valucs are limucd. for Scction construction. in thc Tablc.-: of Scction. Pan D. Spcclíic addtional rcquircmcnts dcscribed PG-5 thwugh PG- 3 'hall he mct as applicabk. PG-5.2 Material covered by spccficjtions in Section is not restrictcd <JS to thc method of production unlcs:.. so statcd in the 'ipcclfication. and as long as thc product complics with thc requircments of the :-,pcciflcation. PG-5.3 lf. in the development of the art of borler construcuon. it is Llesired to use materials other than those herein descrihed, data should be submiued to the Boilcr and Prcssure Vessel CorTimittee accordancc with the requirements of Appendix 5 of Secuon, Pan D. Material not completely identified wuh any approved Code specifications may be used in the construction of boilers under the conditions outlined in PG-0. PG 5.4 Materials outside the hmits of SJZC or thickncss given in thc titlc or scope clausc of any specitkation 5

71 PG SECT!ON PG in Section II may be used if the material is in compliance with the other requircments of the specificauon, and no similar lirmtation is given m the rules for construction. PG-5.5 The use of austemtic alloy steel is permitted for boiler pressure parts that are steam touched in normal operation. Except as specifically provided in PG-9. l. PG-2. and PEB-5.3. the use of such austenitic alloys for boiler pressure parts that are water wctted in normal sen ice is prohibited. PG-6 PLATE PG-6. Stcel plates for any part of a bciler subject to pressure, whether or not exposed to the fire or products of combustion. shall be of pressure vessel quality in accordance wnh one of the following specifi. cations: SA-202 Prc"urc Vcsscl Platcs. Alloy Stccl. ChromJum-Manganesc-S icon SA-20-l Prcssurc Vcsscl Plates. Alloy Steel. Molyb Jcnum SA-2-lll (Typc.JOS only) Pressurc Vcsscl Platcs. Alloy Stcc\ (Fcn iuc Staullcss). Chromium SA-2S5 Prcssurc Vcssd Plates. Carbon Stecl, Lowand Intcnncdiatc-Tcnsde Strength SA-299 Prcssurc Vc%ci Plates. Carbon Stce\, Manganc~.c-Silict~n SA-302 Prcssurc Vcssc! Plates. Alloy Stcel. Manganesc-MnlybJcnum and ~ angancse-l'volybdent:m Nickcl SA-3R7 Prcssurc Vcsscl Platcs. Alloy Steel, Chromiurn-Mnlybdcnum SA-55 Prc:-.:-.uic Vl!sst::l Plates. Carbon Steei, for íntermcdt:ltc- ami Iighcr-Tcmpcrature Servicc SA-56 Pcssurc Vcsscl Plates. Carbon Stcel. formoderate- ami Lower-Temperature Ser. icc SA/EN-002R-2 Flat Products Made of Stcels for Pressure Purposes PG-7 FORGINGS PG-7. Seamlcss stccl drum forgings made in accordance with SA-266 for Carbon-Steel and SA-336 for Au<;temttc :llloys,rc \USccptble to mtergranular corroswn and stress corroston crack.mg when u<;cd tn bmler apphcatwns m water wetted ~en ice Factor~ th:ll affect the sensllivity to these metallurgical phenomena are.pplted nr residual stress and water chemistry. Susceptibtltty to :mack. ~~ usually enhanced by usng the matenal in a stressed conditton wnh a concemrauon uf corrosive agents (e.g., chlorides, cau~ttc. or reduced sulfer ~pecies). For successful operation m water cnvironment~. resdual and applied stresses must be mimm zed and caretul attention must be pald to continuous control of water chemistry. Alloy Stcel may be used for any part of a boiler for whtch pressure vessel quality is specified or pemitted. PG-7.2 Forged flanges. fittings, nozzles, valves. and other pressure parts of the boiler shall be of material that conforms to one of the forging specifications as listed in PG-9. PG-7.3 Drums. shclls. or domes may be of seamlc" drawn construction, with or without integr;:ll heads. provided the material conforms to the requiremems of the Code for shell material. PG-8 CASTINGS PG-8. Except for the limited usage permitted by PG- 8.2 and PG-8.3. cast material used in the construction of vessels and vessc\ parts shall confonn to one of thc speciflcations l!::.tcd in PG-9 for which maximum o.\lowable stress values are given m Tables \A and lb of Secuon. Part D. The a!lowable stress values shall be multiplicj by the applicablc casting quality factor gtvcn in PG-25 for a\l cast matcrials cxcept cast iron. \Vhcn casr ron is used as allowed in PG- for stand~ud pressure parts. it shall confom to one of thesc standards: ASME B 6 l. Cast!ron Pipe Flanges and Flangcd Fttllngs ASME B 6.4. Cast!ron Thrcaded Fiuings i'vatt;t al cont'onning to ASTM A :26 m ay be u sed subjcct to all rcqujrcments of the parttcular standard. Such magc ts subjcct also to all the requjrements for the use of cast iron gtven in PG-8.2 ami othcr paragraphs of thts SectJOn. PG-S.2 Casi!ron PG-8.2. Cast iron shall not be used for nozzlcs or flanges attached directly to the b0\er for any pressure or tempcraturc. PG Cast iron as designated in SA-278. Gray Iron Castings for Pressure-Containing Parts for Temperatures up to 650 F (343oC) may be used for boi!er and superheatcr connections under pressure, such as pipe fittings, water columns, valves and their bonnets, for pressures up to 250 psi ( 720 kpa). provided the steam temperature does not exceed 450 F (232oC). PG-8.3 Cast Nodular Iron. Cast nodular iron as desrgnated in SA-395 may be used for boiler and superheater connections under pressure, such as pipe fittings, water columns, and valves and their bonncts, for pressures not to exceed 350 psi (2 4 O kpa). provided the steam temperature does not excecd -l)0 F (232 C). 6

72 PG-SA PART PG - GENERAL REQUIRE\IE:'-iTS ) '\..:J PG-XA Nonferrnus. Bronze cjstings shall confnrm to SB-6 :nd SB-62 and may be uscd only for the fol!owug: PG-S.4. For Jlan~c:s and llangcd or thrcaded titt~ngs complymg with thc pressure anj tcrnperature rcqlllrcmcnts of ANSI 86.5 or 86.2-L cxcept that such tittg.s shall not be uscd \\ hcre stcel or othcr matenal rs specrtica!ly rcquirej. Thrcadeti!lttings shall not be uscd where llangcj types ~re spccified. PG-X.4.2. For v:l!ws at allowable stress valucs nor to cxcccd those grven in Tabk: 8 of Section JI. Part D. with maximum allowable tcmpcratures of 550aF (288'C) for SB-6 and.j06'f (208'C) for SB-62. PG-S For p.:ms of safcty v-al ves or safcty rclief valvc:. subject to lirmrations of PG re-9 PIPES. TUBES. Ai\'D PRESSURE CONTA!Nil\G PARTS Pipe~. tuh~~.,md prc~:;un? cont~ll!llng pats uscd in boiles shal! conform lo ont' of thc ~pccitica[lons h.'\lcd m this par;tgraph für \\hicl,l_rn:txunum allow~lble stn::~~\?s ~rc givcn in Tahk' A :uld 8 nf Secu0n Ir. Part D. Thc stn.:.-.:-. value... si\'cil lll IhC\l' [; bies Illcludc thc appl icahk: oull cfllcicnc~ factor fnr weldcd pqx:" and tubcs. Open-IH.:;nth. L'!cctnc lunucc. 0 h;lsic O:\)gcn stc-.: "hall be uscd for b()jicr prc-::-;urc part.<; C:\poscd to thc tire ur prntiucls of comhu:-lll)ll. \Vhcn uscd for intenta! pressurc. thc rn:herial strc:-:- ~md dimcnsions :-.hall rncct thc appropri;hc reqtticilll':lt:' of PG-27 and Pan P\V and be accordancl' with tlle fnlhnvng: 0 - PG-9. Boi!cr pan.-; shall be of thc followtng spccttications only: SA-53 \Vcldcd ami Sc~nnkss Stcel Pipe (excluding galvanizcd) SA- 05 Fnrgtngs. C\rbon Stcel. for Pipmg Components SA-06 Seamless Ctrbon Steel Pipe for High-Tempcrature Servtce SA-78 Elcctric-Resistance-WeldcJ Carbon Stecl Boller Tubes SA- 8 Forgcd or Rullcd S te el Pipe Flanges, Forgcd Fittings. and Valvcs and Parts for General Service SA- 82 Forged or Rollcd.-\Jioy-Stecl Pipe Flanges. Forged Fittings. and' V:hes and Parts for High Tempcrature Servicc (fcj!hic only) SA- 92 Scamless Carbon Steel Bniler Tu bes for High Pressurc Scrvicc SA-209 Scamlcss Carbon;Molybdenum Alloy-Stcel Boiler and Supcrheater Tubes SA-2 O Seamlcss Medio m Carbon Steel Boiler and Supcrhc;ner Tubcs SA-23 Se:Hnlcss FerritJc ami Austenitic Alloy-Stecl B0kr. Superhcater and Hcat Exchanger Tubes (fcrritic lmly) SA-26 Carbon Steel Castings Suitable for Fusion Wcldtng for -figh-temper::hurc Service SA-27 Alioy-Stecl Castings for Pressure-Conrainmg Pans Suitable for High-Temperature Servicc SA-234 Ptping Fittmgs of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderare and Elevated Temperatures SA-250 Elcctnc-Resistance-Welded Carbon-Molybdcmnn.-\lloy Stecl Boiler and Superheater Tubes SA-266 Carbon Steel Seamless Drum Forgings SA-268 Seamless and Welded Ferritic Stainlc" Steel Tuhing for General Servtcc SA-335 Scamks~ Fcrriuc Allny Steel Pipe for Htgh Tcmpcraturc Sct vice SA-336 Alln~ Stccl Seamlc.'.. s Drum Forgings (ferritic nnly) SA-423 Scamlcs~ and Electric \Veldcd Low~ Alloy Sted Tubcs SA-6ó0 Ccntrifugal!y Cast C<Hbon Steel Pipe for High Tcmpcr<Hurc Scn tcc SA-73 Sc:unk:-.~. \Vctdcd Fcrrutc. ami Martcnsioc Stainkss Stcd Pipe PG- J.J.l Botlcr pans on oncc-through boilcrs shall be any of thc spccilication\ listed in PG-9. or any of thc followin~~: SB-407 NJCkei-Jron-Chrornillrtl.-\lloy Seamlcss Pipe and Tubc SB-40R Nidel-Jrnn-Chrornium.-\lloy Rod and Bar SB-409 Niclel-lron-Chromium Alloy Piare, Sheet. and Stnp SB-423 Nickcl-lron-Chromium-Molybdenum Seomless Pipe and Tubc SB-424 Nickel - i un-chromium-molybdenum-copper Alloy Plate. Sheet. and Strip SB-425 Nickel-lron-Chromiurn-Molybdenum-Copper Alloy Rod and Bar SB-5 5 Welded Nickel-lron-Chromium Al! o y Tu bes SB-564 Nickcl Alloy Forgings PG-9.2 Superheater parts shall be of any one of the specifications listed in PG-9. or one of the followtng: SA-82 Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forgcd Fittings. and Valves and Plates for High Tempcrature Sen ice ~Thc maxunum recornmcnded feedwater-dissolved solids concentra!lon for oncc-through hodcr~ ~~ O OSO pplll 0.,t. 7

73 PG SECTION PG-0. SA-23 Seamless Fcrritic and Austemtic Alloy Steel Boiler. Superhcatei and Heat Exchanger Tubes SA-240 Stainless and Heat-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Steel Plates. Sheet and Strip for Fu.s0n-Weldcd Untircd Pre.ssure Vessels SA-249 Wclded Austenu c Steel Boiler. Supcrheater, Heat Exchanger. and Condenser Tubes SA-32 Scamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe SA-336 Alloy Steel Seamless Drum Forgings SA-35 Ferritic and Austenitic Steel Castings for High-Temperaturc Serví ce SA-369 Femtic Alloy Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High-Temperature Sen ice SA-376 Seamless Austenitic Steel Pipe for lligh-temperature Central-Station Servicc SA-430 Auslenitic Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High-Tcmpcraturc Ser\'ice SA-479 Stamless anj Heat-RcsJsting Stecl Bars and Shapcs ror U~L- in Bollcrs ami Othcr Prcssurc Vessels SA-73 Seamk:s~. \Vclded Fcrntic. ami MartensJtlc Stamlcss Stcel Pipe SB-63 Seamless Nckel and Nickel Alloy Condcnser and Hcat Exch:mgcr Tubcs SB-66 Nickel-Chronuum!ron Alloys (LINS N N0660 l. N :md N060~5) and Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molyhdcnum Alloy (UNS N0667) Rod. Bar. ami \Vire SB-67 Nickcl-ChHHllÍurn!ron Alloys tuns N N0660. N ;.,' :md N06045) Seamiess Pipe and Tube SB-6X Nickel-Chromium!ron Alloys (LINS N NOG60, N Nll6026. :md N060-5) and Nickci Chronuum-Cob:ilt-" lolyhdenum A!lo y ( UNS N0667) Platc. Sheet. nd Strip SB-366 Factory-Madc \Vrought Nid.cl and Nickcl Alloy Fittings SB-407 Nickel-hon-Chromium Allov Seamless Pipe and Tube SB-408 Nickel-lron-Chromium Alloy Rod and Bar SB-409 Nickel-lron-Chromium Alloy Plate, Sheet. and Strip SB-423 Nickel-lron-Chromium-Molybdenum Seamless Pipe and Tube SB-424 Nickel-lron-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper Alloy Plate, Sheet. and Strip SB-425 Nickel- lron-chromium-molybdenum-copper Alloy Rod and Bar SB-435 N \V and R30556 Plate, Sheet, and Strip SB-54 Welded Nickel-lron-Chromium Alloy Pipe SB-55 Welded Nickel-lron-Chromium Alloy Tubes SB-56 Welded Nickei-Chromium-lron Alloy ( UNS N06600). UNS N and UNS N06045 Tubes SB-57 Welded Nickel-Chronuum-lron Alloy (UNS N06600). UNS N ami UNS N06045 Pipe SB-564 Nickel Alloy Forgings SB-572 Nickei-Molybdenum-Chromium-lron Alloy Rod SB-69 Welded Nickel and Nickei-Cobalt Alloy Pipe SB-622 Scamless Nrckel and Nickei-Cobalt AlloY Pipe and Tube SB-626 Welded Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt AIIO) Tube S PG-9.3 Copper or copper alloy pipe or tubes shall not be '!sed in the b0ler proper for any service where the temperature excceds 406'F (208'C). Copper and copper alloys sha\ be seamless. having a thickne.ss not less than ANSI Schedule 40 standard ptpe, and shall comply to one of the following specifications: SB-42. Seamlcss Coppcr Prpe. Standard Sizes: SB-43, SeamleS> Red Brass Pipe. Standard Sizes: SB-75. Seambs Copper Tube: or SB-. Copper and Copper-Alloy Seamlcs" Condcn:)er Tubcs.md Fenule Stock. PG 9.4 Bimctallic tu bes. h.:wing a con~ of an acceptab\e bojjcr and supcrheater material. and haying an externa\ cladthng of anothcr metal alloy, may be u sed providcd thc requircments of PG are met for establishing nunimum thickncss of the core. The permis ~iblc variaton Hl wa\ thickness tolerancc of SA-...J.SO or SB-63. as.rpplicable. shall apply tn thc IOi:rl waii thickncss Thc tlhckness and o\ er and undcrtoil'rancc~ of the cladding :-.hall be lncludt.'d m the ordering information. Markmg of the bimetallic tubular product shall mcct the ~pccitication requrcrnents of thc core matcnal. but sh:il also..;uitahly dcnufy thc cladding,t\loy. PG-9.5 ER\\' products shall be Ji mued toa ma'<.imum thickncss of / 2 in. for interna! prcssure applicatiom. For externa\ pressure applications, ER\V products shall be limitcd to ~~ maximum thickness of / 2 in. and a maximum stze of NPS 24. The thickness and diameter limitations notl'd nbo\ e shall be within tolcw.nccs stated by the product material specification. PG-0 MATERIAL IDENTIFIED WITH OR PRODUCED TO A SPECIFICA TION NOT PERMITTED BY THIS SECTION, AND MATERIAL NOT FULL Y IDENTIFIED PG-0. ldentified With Complete Certification From the ~laterial Manufacturer. Material identified with a specification not perrnitted by this Section. or material procured to chemical composition requirements 0

74 PG-!. P.-\RT PG - GENERAL REQUIRHIE:-ITS PG l ) ) and identiflcd to a single projucuon lot as requircd by ~~ pcrmitted specitic:ltlon may be accepted as satisfying the rcqunemcnts llf a :;pecificatjon permittcd by this. Scction providcd thc conditions sct forth in PG- 0. or PG are satistlcd. PG-0.. Rcccrtilication by an organization othcr than thc boller or pa rnanufacturcr: PG-0... All rcquirements. including but not limited to. mclting rncthod, melting practice. deoxidatlon. quality. and hcat trcatmcnt. of the specification permitrcd by this Section. to which the material is to be reccrtified. h:wc been demon~trated to ha ve been mct. PG-IO.LL2 A copy of thc certification by the maten al manuf;jcturer of the chemcal analyss requircd by the perrnuteú specitication. with documenta!ion showmg the requremcms to \\ hjch the material was projucr.::j and purcllascd. :nd \\hich demonstrates that there is no conllict with tllt rcquucmcnts of the pcrmitteú -;pccitication. has bl'cn furni~hcd tn the boikr or pan manufacturcr p(;-ju.l.l.j,\ n~rtificl!jl that the material was manufactun:d and tc~ted! accord~mce \Vith thc requijcmcnts of thc spccdicjuwn ttl which the nwtenal is rcccrtiticd. t::\cluding thc :-.pc~.- llic rna ~ng requircmenls. has bccn furni~hcd tt? the builcr or part manufacturcr. wgcthcr '.'. Hh copie:~ of.dl Jucurnr.::nt<; ami test repon~ pcruncnt tn thc dr.::rnon;:; ~n on of..::onform.mcc to the tr.::quircmcnh of thr.:: pcml!l!cu spcciticatlon PG Documentat!On is avai!able to the Inspector that demonstrates that the metallurgical structure. mechan co.l property, and hardness requiremenrs of the pcrmitted spc:cificmion have been mct. PG For matcnal recertifled toa permittej speclfication that requm:s a fine austenitic grain size or that requrcs that a!ine gram practce be used dunng rnelting. documentation s availablt: to the Inspector that dcmonstrates tlwt the heat trcatment rcquirements of thc permitted specification havc been met. or wrll be mct dunng fabrication. PG The material has marking. acceptable to the Inspector. for Jdennticauon to the documentation. PG \Vhen the confomance of the material with the permitted specitkation has been established. thc material has becn markcd a~ cquircd by thc pcrmitted spccdication PC-i0.2 \laterial Identitied to a Particular; Production Lotas Requircd h.y a Spccitication Pcrinitted by This Section but That Cannot lle Qmtlified Under PG-0.. Any material IdentitiL'd toa particular productjon lot as requircd by a spcci!ication pcrmitted hy this ScctJon, but for whch the documcnwtion cquijcj in PG- ]().] is nor a\'ailable. may he :cc~pted as s:~ti~:fy:n; thc requircmcrlls of the specdication pcrrmttcd by thi~ Section pro\'idcd th~h thc conditu'~s :-.ct fvrth below are satistled.,.., PG-IO.I.I...J Thc atcn:li. and thc Certitlcate of Compli:mcc nr thc r vf.ttt nal T t'st Repon ha\'e bccn idcnhikd with thc desq;n:jtjon ~ thc spccification to whil.:h thc lll<lll'nal is rccc!tdied.md with the notation _.. Cert t\cd per PG-0 PC-0.2. Recertdication by an organization othcr than thc boller or part rnanuf:cturcr - not pe: :maed. PG Rcccrtificatwn by thc boder or pa manufacturer. PG-0..2 Rcccrtitic.llton b~ rnanufacturcr: the boiler or part PG A cnpy of the certification by the materio.l manufacturer of thc che mcal analysis required by the pcrmitteu spcci!ication. with documentauon showing the requirements to which the material was produced and purchased. which dcmonstmtes that there is no contlict with thc rt'quirements of the permitted specification. is availabk to the Inspector. PG For application~ in which the maximum allowab!c so cs~cs,u e o.;ubjcc\ toa note of Table A of Section!. Part D. requinng the use of ktlled steel. documcntatron is av:ulab!e tv the Inspector that establishes that the matcn;d is a i-.illed steel. PC Chemical analyses are made on diffcrcnt picces from thc lot to c::stablish a mean analysis which s to be acccptcd as Jepresentauve of the lot. The picccs chosen for analyses shall be selected at random from the lot. The number of pieces selected shall be at least 0% of the number of pieces in the lot, but not less than three. For lots of three pteces or less, each piece shall be analyzed. Each individual analysis in the permitted specitico.lion and the mean for each element shall conform to the heat analysis limits of that specification. Analyses need to be made for only those elements required by the permitted specification. However, consideration should be given to making analyses for elemems not specified in the specification but which would be deleterious if present in excessive amounts. 9

75 PG SECTION PG-.. PG \kchamca\ propeny tests are madc m accordance with thc requirements of the permitted specjficauon and the results of the tests conform to the speciflcd rcquirements. PG Fur applicatiom in \Vh!ch the maxjmum allowable stn::sscs are subject to a note of Table \A of Section. Pan D. requiring the use of ki\\ed steel, documentation is availabk: to the Inspector which establishes that the matenal s a killed stcel. PG-IO.l.2A \Vhen the requirements of the permitted spccification include metjilurg cal structure requiremcnts (i.e.. fine au:.tenitic grain size), tests are made ami the rcsults are sufficient to establish that those rcqlllrements of the spccification have ~een met. PG \Vhcn thc rcqunements of the permittcd spcciticauon include heat treatment, the material is heat trcated tn accordance with those requirements. eithcr prio to or dunng fabrication. the tensile strength of only one of the two specimens need conform to the maxtmum requirement. PG The provsions of PG , PG and PG are mct. PG When the identty of the material wlth the permitted specific~uion has been established in accordance with PG \ and PG ca eh piece (or bundle. etc.. if permitted in the specfication) ts marked wlth a marking gtving the pennitted spectfication number and grade, type. 9r class as applicablc and a serial number identifying the panicular lot of material. A suitable report. c\early marked as being a "Repon on Tests of Nonidentified Material." shall be complcted and ccrtified by the boiler or part manufacturer. This repon. when accepted by the Inspector, sha\ constitute authority to use the material in lieu of material procurcd to the requircments of the pennittcd specification. PG \Vhen the conformancc of the material with thc pcrmmcd speclflc.mon has been established. the material has beco marked ~ls required by the pemlittcd specdicalion. PG-IIU i\laterial 0ot Fully ldentified. Material whjch cannot be qu~lilcd undcr the provisions of either PG- 0. X PG-l O 2. ~u eh a~ m.jtcrial not fully dentjtlej as requtrcd by thc pctmjttcd spcciflcatwn oras umdenttficd rnatcnal. may be acccptej as sattsfymg the requjrcrncnts of a ~pccjlicnjon pennittcd by this Section providcd that thc cnndttjons ::-ct fonh below are satisficd. PG Qualiflc;: tion b) an organization mher than thc boiler or pan m;:mufacturer - not permmed PG Qu,diticatJon by the boiler or part manufacturer: PG Each piecc is tested to show thnt it mcets the chermcal cornposiuon for product analysis and the mech;:mical propertics requirements of the permiued specification. Chemical :malyses need only be made for those elements required by the permitted specificatton. However. considcratton shall be given to making analyses for elemcnts not specified in the specification but which would be deleterious if present in exccssive amounts. For plates. when the direcuon of final rolling is not known, both a transverse Jnd a longitudinal tension test specimen shall be taken from each sampling locjtion designated m the permitted specificatwn. The results of both tests shall conform to the rmnimum requtremcnts of the specification. but PG- i\iiscellaneous PRESSURE PARTS Prcfabncated or preformed pressurc parts for boilcrs which are subject to allowable working stresses due to intema\ or externa\ pressure in the botler and which are furnished by other than the shop of the Manufacturcr rcsponsible for thc completed boilcr shall conform to all applic.able rcqlllrcments of the CoJe for the complctcd boder, includmg mspection m the shop of the parts manufacturer and the furnishing of Manufacture( s Partial Data Rcports as providcd for in PG exccpt as pennittcj in PG-!!.!. PG-!.2, :md PG-.3. PG-. Cast. Forged. Rol\ed, or Die Formed Standard Pressurc Parts PG-.. Pressure parts such as pipe fittings. valvcs, ftanges. nozzles. welding necks. welding caps, manhole frarncs and covers. and casings of pumps that are pan of a boiler circulating system that are whol\y formcd by casting. forging, rolling, or die fonning shall not require inspectton. mi test reports. or Panial Data Reports. Standard pressure pans that comply with sorne ASME Standard 3 sha\ be made of materials pennitted by this Section or of materials specifically listed in an ASME product standard listed elsewhere in this Section but not of materia\s specifical\y prohibited or beyond use limitations listed in this Section. Standard pressure ' These are pressure parts that comply with sorne ASME product standard accepted by reference in PG- n. The ASME product standard estabhshes the basts for the pressure-temperature rating and markmg. 0

76 PG-II.LI P\RT PG - GENERAL REQUIREMENn I'G-.3.4 ) parts that comply wjth J manufacturer's standard 4 5 shall be madc of rnatcri:j.l5 permjtted by this Section. Such parts shall be markej \\ ith the n:j.me or trac.kmark of thc parts manufacturcr.nd <.,uch other marking.s as are requircd by tlle ~tand.lfj. Such nurkings shall be considered as the p.:irts rn;mufacturcr s certjtlcation that the product complie'i wirh Lhe materi.ll specl!lcatjom, and standards indicated and is witable for seryice at the rating indicated. The intent of the pgragraph will have been met if. n lieu L'f the dctailed marking on thc pnrt itself. the parts describej herem have been marked in any permanem ür tempora0 m::umer that will serve to identify the p:trt wnh the pans manufacturer's written Jisting of the panicu!jr irems and such!istings are available for ex.unin;hjon by thc Inspector. PG~..2 Pans of sm:ll size fnlling within this category for which it i\ djfticult or rmpo-;siblc to obtam idcntilled material or that ma~ be qock~d amj for which mil! test reports or ccrtificató cannot be cconmmcally obtained and are not custl'fll:lri!y fumishcd, and that do not apprcciab\y affcct the :-~lfcty of thc vcsscl. rnay be uscd for rclativdy unimp~jnant pjrt Dr parts :-.ucsscd to not more th~m 50% of the.'.trco;s ':duc pcnniued bv this Scction, and!jsted in Tables! A and B of S~ction IL Part D. pro\~kd tllcy ~re :-uit;jb!c flh thc ptn pose m tended anj rnc.~t thc :lppro\ al ot rhc f nspccror. Thc \fanufacturcr of thc C\llll!)lctcd \'6Scl... hall sal!-.fy h m:>c!f that thc pan ' '>Ullabk fnr thc dc-:gn conditon-; 'pccilicd for tllc complctcd \ ó,ej. PG~.2 Cast. Fnrgcd. Rollcd. or Die Formrd Nnnstandard Prcs!'lurc P:.trt.s. Prc~-.urc pan.r., sucll,..., shclls. heads. rermwab/c and acces" opcmng con.=r plate:.;, tlwt ;:,re whoiiy lomed by ca:<otmg, forging. rolling. or die forming. rnay be.'.upplicd h;~<;ica!ly as m~terials. All.\uch parrs shall be made of materi:ls perrnined under this Section. :md the rnanufacturer of the pan shall furnish mili test rcpons or orher Jcceptablc evh..iencc ro that cffecl Such pan"! sha!l be marked with thc namc or tradcmark lf the parts manufacturer and With such othcr markin::;s as wdl sen e to identify the particular parts with accompanying matenal identification. The Manufacturer of the completed boiler shall satisfy himself that the pan s suitjble for the design conditions specificd for the completed b0ler.,. These :re pres~urc parts that compl~ wuh J parh manufncturcr s standard that dellnes the pres,ure-temperature raung marked on the pan ara.l de~cnbed tn the parts manufac urer' ~ literaturc. The Manufacturcr of the compkted \t"'-'d 'hall ~au~fy tüm:-.clf lhal the part!s ~uilable for the de, gn comiiuons of the completed ves,el 5 Pressure p:.trts may be in accordance \\ th an AS~IE product '\landard no! covercd by foon0e 4, but,uch p.ns ~hall ~atp.iy!he requiremenh apphcnhk to a parts m:mui:jcturcr'', ::mdnrd Jnd foolnoie fl. PG-.3 Wcldcd Standard Prcssur< Parts for Use Othcr Than thc Shell of a Vesscl.t' Prc<>surc parts such as weldcd swndard pp~ litllng~. caps. \alvcs, and flangcs that are fabm:.ucd by nnc uf thc wclt.hng proccssc" recognizcd by thi... SectJOn shall nor rcquire nspcctjojl. mill test replrts. or ;"vlanuf<lcturcrs Partal Data Rcpms providcd. PG-.3. Standard prcssur~ parts that comply with somc ASME producr standard.j shall be nwde of material... permlttcd by this Secuon or of rnatcriab specjiica!ly hstcd in an ASiviE product standard accepted and listed elsewhcre this Sccuon but not of matenals specifically prohibited or beyond use limnntions!isted in this Sect0n. Standard prcssurc parts thar comply \Vlth a manufacturcr's standard.j.s shall be rnadc of matcnab penmrtcd by this Scct0n. PG-.3.2 \Vclding t'tlr prcssurc pans that comply \VIth a manufacturcr's st:lih..iarj.. 5 shall comply \vith the requrcmcnts of PW-26 th0ugh P\V-39. Wekling for prc~... urc pan... th<lt comp!y with.;;omc.-\s(i.,fe product standard 3 shall cornply \\'ith tllc Jequirement~ of P\V- 26 throu~h P\V-39 or. ;.-; a nllnimum. may. comply \\'Jth the welding rcqu rcnh.:nl~ of Sr\-23-L Markings \\'herc appllcablt.~. or ccnitic.llhhl by the p:trt'> manufac!lircr wllcre markings are not :pplic:blc :-htdl be acceptcd ; -: cvidcncc of compliancc wth tht~ abo ve wc!d ng_ rc.~ uilcments. Such part.-: sha!l he markcd :~ rcqtnrcd by PG-.. l. PG~.3.3 lf radiog:r; phic ex:mw:tion 0 hcat treatrncnt is rcquied by the apphcable ulc'\ of thi~ Section. it may be pcrfonncd cithcr in the pl:lnt t_ f thc pans manufacturcr or in thc pbru of thc i\ianufactura of thc comp!etcd vcs~cl. If thc radiographic cxjminauon i:-~ done undcr the control of rhe parts manufacturcr. thc completed radiographs. propcrly idcntified. wnh a rad0graphc inspccrion.rcport. shall be forwardcd to t!e vesscl mánufacturer and shall be availablc to thc Authorized Inspector. PG-.3.4 lf heat treatmcnt is performed at the plant of the pms manufacturer, certlftcation by the parts manufacturer that such trcatment was performed shall be accepted as evidence of compliance wiih applicablc Code paragraphs. This certification shall be available to the Authorized Inspector. The Manufacturer of!he completed vessel shall satisfy himself Ihat thc fl FU\IOn welded ptpe. wuh added tiller metal, for u~e a~ lhe she!l of he vesscl ~hall be 'iubject lo the :.ame requtrenwnt~ as a ~hell fabncated from pi ate, tncluding inspe~-:on nt thc pmm nf manuf~cnrn: and ManufaciUrer.~ Parlial Data Repons 7 For rcqurrcmcnt~ for wcldcd w:uer colunm,, :-ce P\\' 42,; ' JI

77 PG SECT!ON l PG-8 p~n is suttable for the design conditions specified for the completed vessel. PG-2 GAGE GLASS BODY AND CONNECTOR i\ia TERALS Gage glass body and connector materials shall comply wth a Manufacturer's standard that defines the pressurctemperature rating marked on the unit. The materials used may includc austenitic stainless steel. PG-3 STAYS Threaded stays shall be of steel complying with SA- 36 or SA-675. Searnless stcel tubes for tlueaded stays shall comply with SA-92 or SA-20. Staybolts, stays. through-rods, or stays with ends for attachrnent by fuswn wc\ding shall cornply with SA- 36 or SA-675. PG-ló GENERAL DESIGN PC-6.i Thc desgn of pnwer boders. high-tcmpcr::: ture water boilcrs. and othcr prcssure parts includcd within th~ :-,cope of thc~c rules shali conform to the general dcsign rcquircments in thc following paragraphs and in addition to the spectfic rcquirements for dcsgn gvcn in the applicab\c Parts of this Section that pertam to thc methods of constructwn used. p(;-6.2 Whcn thc pressurc parts of a forccd-oow stcam gencrator with no tixed ~team and waterlinc are designcd for different pressure levels as pennittcd in PG-2.2. thc owner sha\l provide or cause to be provided J boilcr pre~sure system design diagram. certificd by J Professional Engineer expericnced in the rnechanical design of power plants, which supplies the following information. PG-6.2. The relative location of the variuus pressure parts within the scope of Section, wth respect to the path of water-stearn flow. PG A line showing the expected maximum sustained pressure as described in PG-2.2, indicating the expected variation m pressure along the path of water-steam flow. PG The maximum allowable working pressure of thc various pressure parts. PG The location and set pressure of the overpressure protection devices. Copy of this diagram shall be attached to the Master Data Report per PG-3. PG-6.3 Minirnum Thicknesses. The minimum thickness of any boiler plate under pressure shall be / 4 in. (6 mm) except for electric boilers constructed under the rules of Part PEB. The minimum thickness of plates to which stays may be applied in other than cylindrical outer shell plates shall be 5 / 6 (8 mm) in. When pipe over NPS 5 (DN 25) is used in lieu of plate for the shell of cylindrical components under pressure, its mimmum wall shall be / 4 in. (6 mm). PG-6.4 Undertolerance on Plates. Plate material that is not more than 0.0 in. (0.3 mm) thinner than that calculated from the formula may be used in Code constructions provided the material speclfi.cation permits such platc to be fumished not more than 0.0 in. (0.3 mm) thinner than ordered. PG-6.5 Undertolerance on Pipe and Tubes. Pipe or tube material shal\ not be ordered thinner thjn that calculated from the applicablc formula of this Section. The ordcred material sha\ include provision for the allowed manufactunng undertolerancc a:: given in Section II in thc apphc3.ble ppe or tube specdlcation. PG-7 FAilRICATION BY A COMBINA TION OF METHODS A boiler and parts thereof may be designed and f3.bricated by a combmation of the mcthods of fabncation given in ths Section. provided the rules applying to the respective methods of fabrication are followed and the bmler is lim!ted ro the service permitted by the method of fabrication havmg the most restrictive requirements. PG-8 HYDROSTATIC DEFORMATION TEST Where no rules are given and it is impossible to calculate with a reasonable degree of accuracy the strength of a boiler structure or any part thereof, a full-sized sample shall be built by the Manufacturer and tested in accordance with the Standard Practice for Making a Hydrostatic Test on a Boiler Pressure Part to Determine the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure, given in A-22 or in such other manner as the Committee may prescribe. 2

78 l -. ' j i ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE AN INTERNATIONALLY RECOGNIZED CODE SECTION JI Materials Part A - Ferrous Material Specifications.,.t ; 995 EDITION JUL Y l. 995 ' AS/..tE BOILER.ANO PRESSURE VESSEL COMMITTEE SUBCOMMITTEE ON MATERIALS THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS United Engineering Center 345 East 47th Street New York, N.Y. 007

79 Date of Issue- July, 995 (lncludes all Addenda dated December 994 and eariler) This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meetmg the criteria for Americ:ln Nationa.l Standards. The Consensus Committee lhat approved the code or siandard was balanced to assure that mdividuals from competent and concerned interests have had an opportuniry to participate. The proposed code or standard was made avatiable for publc revtev. and comment whlch provtdes an opportunity for addiuonal public mput from mdustry, academia, regulmory agencies. and the pub\lc-at-large. ASME does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item. constructwn, proprietary device, or activjty. ASME does not take any positíon with respect to the validity of any patent nghts asserted in connection with any nems menuoned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone ul!hzing a standard agamst liablltty for infnngement of any apphcable Letters Patent, nor assume any such liability. Users of acode or standard are expressly advised that deterrnmation of the validtty of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such nghts, is entirely their own responsibility. Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with mduslry is not to be interpreted as govemment or industry endorsem*nt of this code or standard. ASME accepts responsibility for only lhose interpretauons issued in accordance with goveming ASME procedures and policies which preclude the issuance of interpretations by individual volunteers. ASME collecttve membership mark The abo"e ASME symbots are registered in the ü S Patent Office. "AS~tE" is the rrademark of the Amencan Society of Mechamcal Engineers. Copynght 995 by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS Al/ Rights Reserved The Specifications published and copyrighted by The American Society for Testing and Materials are reproduced wtlh the Soctety's pennission. No part of this document may be reproduced in any fonn, in an electromc retrieval system or otherwise, wilhout the prior written pemussion of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: Printed in the United States of America Adopted by the Council of the Amencan Society of Mechanical En8ineers, 94. Revised 940, 94, 943, 946, 949, 952, 953, 956, 959, 962, 965, 968, 97,974, 977, 980, 983, 986, 989, 992, 995

80 ) Specifications Listed in Numeric Sequence ' ) ) -' SA-6/SA-6M SA-20/SA-20M SA-29/SA-29M SA-36/SA-36M SA-47 SA-53 SA-05/SA-!OSM SA-06 SA-34 SA-35 SA-!78/SA-!78M SA-!79/SA-79M SA-!8!/SA-!8M SA-!82/SA-82M SA-92/SA-!92M SA-!93/SA-!93M SA-!94/SA-94M SA-!99/SA-!99M SA-202/SA-202M SA-203/SA-203M SA-204/SA-204M SA-209/SA-209M SA-2 O/SA-20M SA-23/SA-23M SA-24/SA-24M SA-26/SA-26M SA-27 /SA-2 7M SA-225 isa-225m SA-226/SA-226M SA-232 SA-234/SA-234M SA-240 SA-249/SA-249M SA-250/SA-250M SA-263 General Requirements for Rolled Steel Plates, ShUpes, Sheet Piling, and Bars for StnJcturaJ Use.... General Requirements for Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels General Requirements for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Hot Wrought and Cold. Finished Structural Steel....." Femtic Malleable!ron Castings... 5 Pipe. Steel. Black and Hot-Dipped. Zinc-Coated \Vclded and Seamless Forgings, Carbon Steel, for Piping Components Searnless Carbon Steel Pipe for High.Temperature Service Pipe, Steel, Electric-Fusion (Arc)-\Velded (Sizes NPS 6 and Over)... 7 Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe... : Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel and Carbon-Manganese Steel Boiler Tubes Se:unless Coid-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat Exchanger and Condenser Tubes... 9 Forgings, Carbon Steel, for Generai-Purpose Piping Forged or Rolled Alloy Steel Pipe Flanges, Forgcd Fittir.gs, and Val ves and Parts for High-Temperature Service... : Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes fqr High-Pressure Servicc Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Belting Materials for High-Tcmperature Service Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-Pre$Sure ~nd High-TcmperaLun:: Servce... : 235 Searnless Cold-Drawn lntermediate Alloy Steel Heat Exchanger and Condenser Tubes. 247 Pressure Yessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium-Manganese-Silicon Pressure Vessel P!ates. Alloy Steel, Nickel Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel. Molybdenum Seamless Carbon-Molybdenum Alloy Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes Seamless Medium-Carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat Exchanger Tubes Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Stee! Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes Steel Casungs, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding for High-Temperature Service Steel Castings, Manensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure Containmg Parts Suitable for High-Temperature Service,..., Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Manganese-Vanadium-Nickel Electric-Resistance-We!ded Carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes.for High- Pressure Service Chromium-Vanadium A!loy Stee! Val ve Spiing Quality \Vire Piping Finings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and Elevated Temperatures Heat-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stain!ess Steel Plate. Sheet. and Strip for Pressure Vessels...,...,..., Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes Electric-Resistance-Welded Ferritic Alloy-Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes Corrosion-Resisting Chromium Steel Ciad Plate, Sheet. and Strip xxxix

81 SA-264 SA-265 SA-266/SA-266M SA-268/SA-268M SA-275/SA-275M SA-278 SA-283/SA-283M SA-285/SA-285M SA-299/SA-299M SA-302/SA-302M SA-307 SA-32/SA-32M SA-320/SA-320M SA-325 SA-333/SA-333M SA-334/SA-334M SA-335/SA-335M SA-336/SA-336M SA-350/SA-350M SA-35!/SA-35!M SA-352/SA-352M SA-353/SA-353M SA-354 SA-358/SA-358M SA-369/SA-369M SA-370 SA-372/SA-372M SA-376/SA-376M SA-387/SA-387M SA-388/SA-388M SA-395 SA-403/SA-403M SA-409/SA-409M SA-4!4/SA-4!4M SA-420/SA-420M SA-423/SA-423M SA-426 SA-430/SA-430M SA-435/SA-435M SA-437/SA-437M SA-449 SA-450/SA-450M SA-45 SA-452 SA-453/SA-453M SA-455/SA-455M SA-476 Stainless Chremium-Nickel Steel Ciad PI ate, Sheet, and Strip Nicke! and Nickel-Base Alley Ciad Stee! Plate Forgings, Carbon Steel, for Pressure Vessel Components Seamless and Welded Ferritic and Manensitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Ser. ice Magnetic Panicle Examination of Steel Forgings Gray Iron Castings for Pressure Containing Pans for Temperature Up to 650 F Low. and Interrnediate-Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates... : Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Low- and Intenned!ate-Tensile Strength Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Manganese-Silicon Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Manganese-Molybdenum and Manganese- Me!ybdenum-Nickel... : Carben Steel Belts and Studs, Psi Tensi!e Strength Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe Alley Steel Belting Materials fer Low-Temperature Service Structural Belts, Steel, Heat Treated, 2005 Ksi Minimum Tensile Strength.." Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low-Temperature Service Seamless and Welded Carbon and Alloy Steel Tubes for Low-Temperature Service Seamless Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service Steel Fergings, Alley, fer Pressure and High-Temperature Pans Forgings. Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel, Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Components Steel Castmgs, Austenitic, Austenitic-Ferriuc (Duplex), for Pressure-Containing Pans Steel Castings, Ferritic and "Martensitic, for Pressure Containing Parts Suitable for Low-Temperature Service Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, 9 Percent Nickel, Double-Normalized and Tempered..., Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners Electric-Fusion-Welded Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Alloy Steel Pipe for High- Temperature Serv ice-... -; ! 9 Carbon and Ferritic Alloy Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High-Temperature Service. 527 Test Methods and Definition for Mechanical Testir.g of Steel Products Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Thin-WaJed Pressure Vessels Searnless Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Ternperature Centrai-Station Service Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium-Molybdenum Ultrasonic Examination of Heavy Steel Fc;gings Ferriuc Ductile lron Pressure-Retruning Castings for Use at Elevated Temperatures Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fiuings... : Welded Large Diameter Austenitic Steel Pipe for Corrosive or High-Temperature Service Steel Sheet Carbon for Pressure Vessels Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service 647 Seamless and Electric-Welded Lew-Alley Steel Tubes Centrifugally Cast Fenitic Alloy Steel Pipe fer High-Temperature Service Austenitic Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High-Temperature Service Straight-Beam Ultrasenic Examination ef Steel Plates Alley Steel Turbine-Type Belting Material Specia!ly Heat Treated fer High- Temperature Service Quenched and Tempened Steel Bolts and Studs General Requirements fer Carbon, Fenitic Alley, and Austenitic A!ley Steel Tubes..,. 689 Centrifuga!! y Cast Austenitic Steel Pipe fer High-Temperature Service Centrifugally Cast Austenitic Steel Celd-Wrought Pipe fer High-Temperature Service Belting Materials, High Temperature, 50 te 20 ksi [345 te 827 MPa] Yield Strength, With Expansion Coefficients Comparable to Austenitic Steel Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, High-Strength Manganese..., Ductile!ron Castings fer Paper Mil! Dryer Rells ) ) xl

82 ) \ ) ) SA-479/SA-479M SA-480/SA-480M SA-484/SA-484M SA-487/SA-487M SA-494/SA-494M SA-508/SA-508M SA-5!5/SA-55M SA-5!6/SA-56M SA-5!7/SA-57M SA-522/SA-522M SA-524 SA-530/SA-530M SA-533/SA-533M SA-537/SA-537M SA-540/SA-540M SA-54/SA-54 M SA-542/SA-542M SA-543/SA-543M SA-553/SA-553M SA-556/SA-556M SA-557/SA-557M SA-562/SA-562M SA-563 SA-564/SA-564M SA-574 SA-577/SA-577M SA-578/SA-578M SA-587 SA-592/SA-592M SA-609 SA-6!2/SA-62M SA-620/SA-620M SA-638/SA-638M SA-645/SA-645M SA-649/SA-649M SA-660 SA-662/SA-662M SA-666 SA-667/SA-667\ SA-67 Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure \ essels General Requirements for Flat-Rolled Stainlcss and Heat-Resisting Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip Gener~l ReqUiremems for Stainless and Heat-Resisting Bars. Billets, and Forgings Steel Castings Suitable for Pressure Service Castings, Nickel and Nickel AIIoy Quenched and Tempered Vacuum-Treated Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure \'essels Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Intermediate- and Higher-Temperarure Sen ce Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Moderate- and Lower-Temperature Service Pn:ssure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, High Strength, Quenched and Tempered Forged or Rolled 8 and 9% Nickel Alloy Steel F!anges. Fittings, Val ves, and Pans for Low-Temper:J.ture Service Seílmless C:il'bon Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and Lower Temperatures... 8 General Reqmrcments for Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered, Manganese-Molybdenum and.\anganese-molybdenum-nickel Prcssure Yessel PI ates, Heat-Treated, Carbon-Manganese-Silicon Steel Alloy Steel Boltmg Materials for Special Applic.ations Sted Forgings.. Carbon and Alloy, Quenched and Tempered. for Pressure Vesscl Components Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered Chromium-Molybdenum and Chrommm-Molybdenum-Vanadium-Titanium-Boron Pressure-Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered Nickel-Chromium-!\.olybdenum Pressure Yessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered 8 and 9 Percent Nickel Seamless Cold-Drawn Carbon Steel Feedwater Heater Tu bes Electnc-ResJStJnce-Welded Carbon Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes Pressure Ve<;s ;-J Platcs, C:lrbon Stee!, Manganese-Titanium for Giass or Dffuseo. ~et.3.l!jc Co.3.ttngs Carbon and Alloy Stcel Nuts Hot-Rolled and Cold-Finished Age-Hardening Stainless and Heat-ResJsting Steel Bars and S ha pes Alloy Steel So.:ket-Head Screws Ultrasomc Angl~:!-Beam Examination of Steel Platcs Straight-Beam U!trasomc Examination of Plain and Ciad Steel Plates for Special AppilcatJons Electric-Welded Low-Carbon Steel Pipe for the Chemical Industry High-Strength Quenched and Tempered Low-Alloy Steel Forged Fittings and Parts for Pressure Vesseb Castings, Carbon, Low-Alloy, and Martensitic Stainless Steel, Ultrasonic Examination Thereof Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, High Strength, for Moderate and Lower- Temperature Service Steel Sheet, Carbon, Drawing Quality, Special Killed, Cold-Rolled Precipuauon Hardening Iron Base Superalloy Bars, Forgings, and Forging Stock for High-Temperature Service Pressure Vessel Plates, 5% Nickel Alloy Steel, Specially Heat Treated Forged Steel Rolls U sed for Conugating Paper Machinery Centrifuga!ly Cast Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon-Manganese, for Moderare- and Lower-Temperature Sen ice Austeniuc Stainless Steel, Sheet, Strip, PJate, and Flat Bar Centrifuga!Iy Cast Dual Metal (Gray and White Cast!ron) Cylinders Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and Lower Temperatures xli

83 SA-672 SA-675 SA-688/SA-688M SA-69 SA-693 SA-695 SA-696 SA-703/SA-703M SA-705/SA-705M SA-723/SA-723M SA-724/SA-724M SA-727/SA-727M SA-73/SA-73 M SA-736/SA-736M SA-737/SA-737M SA-738/SA-738M SA-739 SA-745/SA-745M SA-747/SA-747M SA-748/SA-748M SA-75 SA-765/SA-765M SA-770/SA-770M SA-78/SA-78M SA-788 SA-789/SA-789M SA-790/SA-790M SA-803/SA-803M SA-82/SA-82M SA-83/SA-83M SA-84/SA-84M SA-85/SA-85M SA-832/SA-832M SA-834 SA-836/SA-836M SA-84/SA-84 M SA-905 SF-568 Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for High-Pressure Service at Moderate Temperatures Stee Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought, Special Quaity, Mechanical Properties Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes...,.... Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for High-Pressure Service at High Temperatures Precipitation Hardeníng Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Plate, Sheet, and Stnp.... Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought, Special Quahty, for Auid Power Applications.... Steel Bars, Carbon. Hot-Wrought or Cold-Finished, Specml Quality, for Pressure Piping Components.... Steel Castings, General Requirements, for Pressure Containing Parts.... Age-Hardening Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Forgings.... Alloy Steel Forgings for High-Strength Pressure Component Application.... Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Quenched and Tempered, for Welded Layered Pressure Vessels Forgings, Carbon Steel, for Piping Components With lnherent Notch Toughness.... Seamless, Welded Ferritic and Manensitic Stainless Steel Pipe.... Pressure Vessel Plates, Low-Carbon Age-Hardenir.g Nickel-Copper-Chromium- Molybdenum-Columbium and Nickel-Copper-Manganese-Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy Stee _... _... _..... Pressure Vessel Pates, High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steel... _... _ _.... Pressure Vessel?lates, Heat-Treated, Carbon-Manganese-Silicon Steel, for Moderateand Lower-Temperature Senf\ce.... Steel B:lrS, Alloy, l-!ot- Wrought, for Elevated Temperature or Pressure Containing Parts, or Both.... Ultrasonic Examination of Austenitic Steel Forgings Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel Castings...,.. :...,,.. Statically Cast Chilled White lron-gray Iron Dual Metal Rolls for Pressure Vessel Use Test Methods, Pr.:J.ctices, and Tenninology for Chemical Analysis of Steel Products,,.. C~on Steel and Low-Alloy Steel Pressure Vessel Component Forgings With Mandatory Toughness Requirements...,,,...,,.,...,,.... Through-Thickness Tension Testing of Steel?lates for Special Applications.... Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use.... Steel Forgings, General Requirements...,...,...,.... Seamless and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service... Seamless and Welded Ferritic/ Aust~nitic Stainless Steel Pipe.... Welded Ferritic Stainless Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes...,.,.,,.,.... Steel Sheet, High-Strength, Low-Alloy Hot-Rolled, for Welded Layered Prcssure Vessels...,.... Single- or Double-Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe.... Cold-Worked Welded Austemric Stainless Steel Pipe.... Wrought Ferritic, Ferritic/ Austenitic, and Martensitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings... Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium-Molybdenum-Vanadium-Titanium- Boron Common Requirements for lron Castings for General Industrial Use.... Forgings, Titanium Stabilized Carbon Steel for Glass-Lined Piping and Pressure Vessel Service.... Steel Plated for Pressure Vessels, Produced by the Thenno-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP)... _. _... _... _... _... _.. _.... Steel Wire, Pressure Vessel Winding.... Carbon and Alloy Steel Externay Threaded Metric Fasteners... _ ) xlii

84 SPECIFICATION FOR SEAMLESS CARBON STEEL PIPE FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE SERVICE ~ SA-06 (ldentical with ASTM A exccpl for editonal correclions in 20.-t and the delction of ASTM cavcat 5.) l. Seo pe. This specific;:uion co\ crs seamless carbon stccl ptpc for high-temperaturc Séf\'tcc (Note ) m NPS '/s to NPS 48 inclustvc, wuh nommal (average) wall thickness as given in ANS B36. JO. Pipe having othcr dimcnsions may be fumished provided such pipe comphes Wth all othcr requirernents of this spec fic<ltion. Pipe ordcred under this ~pecificatton shall be suitable for bcnding. flanging. and sunilur forming operations. ami for wclt..ling. \Vhc.::n thc ::tecl is to be wclded. it is prcsupposcd th<jt a wc!ding pr0ccuure ~uitablc to the grade of sted <.~nd intended use or sen icc will be ll[í Iized (Note 2) NOTE l-consjderauon -.hould be gtven to possihlc graphli!zl.jiton of!h~ mate na] :u the htgh~r rcmpera!llrc\ <H \\ hn.:h ti may be U\Cll. NOTE 2-Grade A rather!han G;-Jde B or GrJde C ptpe ~hould he u~ed for clo~c cot!mg, or cold bcndmg. The purpo~e fór whtch the pipe i\ w be used \hould be \latej the order. Tht~ note ~~ not tntcnded to prohhtt thc t:o!j bendmg of Grade B \C<unle~s pipe..2 Supplementary requirements (S to S4) of an opttonal nature are provided for seamless pipe intendcd for use in applications wherc a superior grade of pipe is requircd. Thesc supplementary requirements can for additional tests to be made and when destred shall be so stated in the order..3 When these products are to be used in applications confonning to ISO Recommendations for Botler Construction, the requirements of Specification A 520 (Mechanical Property Requiremcnts Section) shall supplement and supersede the requirements of this specificauon..4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. NOTE 3-Thc dimcnsilmless de~ign:.~tor NPS (nommal pipe ~izc) has ~en ~ub~nrutcd in th~ ~tandard for ~uch tr:hlition.d tenm a~ ~nommji dameter. ~ ".~Jze, ~.md "normn.~l \IZC -.5 DELETED 2. Refercnccd Documents 2. ASTM Standards: A 520 Spccification for Supplementary Requircmcnts for Se;.unless and Electric-ResJ:;tancc- WehkJ Carbon Steel Tubular Products for High-Temperoture Scn'ice Conforming to ISO RecommendJtion~ for Boiler Constmction ~ A 530/A 530M Specification for General Requircments for Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe E 29 Practice for Using Significan! Digits in Test Data to Determine Confonnance \Vith SpccJt' cations E 23 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Metal Pipe and Tubing E 309 Practicc for Eddy-Current Examination of Steel Tubular Products Using Magnetic Saturation E 38 Method of Macroetch Testing. Inspecti0C iuid Rating Steel Products, Comprising Bars, Billets, Blooms, and Forgings E 570 Practice for Flux Leakage Examination of Ferromagnetic Steel Tubular Products 2.2 ANSI Standard: ANSI B36.0 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe 2.3 Military Standards: MlL-STD-29 Marking for Shipment and Storage MIL-STD-63 Steel Mili Products. Preparation for Shipment and Storage!57

85 SA SECTION 2.4 Federal Standard: Fed. Std. No. 23 Marking for Shipments (Civil Agencies) Fed. Std. No. 83 Continuous ldentification Marking of!ron and Steel Products 2.5 Other Standards: SSPC-SP6 Surface Preparation Spec fication No Ordering Information 3. Orders for materials under this specification should include the following, as required, to describe the desired material adequately: 3.. Quantity (feet or number of lengths), 3..2 Name of material (seamless carbon steel pipe), 3..3 Grade (Table ), 5. The steel shall be killed steel made by one or more of the following processcs: open-hcarth, basicoxygen, or electric-fumace. The primary melting may incorporate separate degassing or refining, and may be followed by sccondary meltmg. using electroslag re:. rnelting or vacuum-arc remelting. If secondary mehing is employed, the heat shall be defined as all of the ingots remelted from a single pnmary heat. 5.2 Stccl may be cast in ingots or may be strand cast. Whcn steels of different grades are sequentially strand cast, identificauon of the resultant transition material is required. The producer shall remove the transition material by any established procedurc that positively separat~s thc grades "5.3 Pipe NPS /, and under may be either hot finished or cold drawn. 5.4 Unless otherwjsc specficd. pipe NPS 2 and o ver shall be fumished hot finished. When agreed upon between the manufacturcr and the purchaser, cold-drawn pipe may be furnishcd Manufacture (hot-fimshed or cold-drawn) Size (either NPS and weight class or schedule number. or both, or outside Jiameter and nominal wall thickness, ANSI 836.0) Length (specific or rjndom. Section 20), Optional requircments (SectJon 9 and S to S4), 3..8 Test report rcquired tsecuon on Certificauon of Spccification A 530/A 530~) Specification designatjon, 3..0 End use of material. 3.. Hydrostatic test in accordance with Specification A 530/A 530M or 3.3 of this specification. or NDE in accordance with Section 4 of this specification Special requirements. 4. General Requirements 4. Material fumished to this specification shall conform to the applicable requirements of the curren! edition of Specification A 530/A 530M unless otherwise provided herein. 6, Heat Trcatment 6. Hot-fimshcd ptpc need not be heat treated. Colddrawn pipe shall be hcat treatetl after the final cold. draw pass at a temperature of!200 F (650 C) or highcr. 7. Chemical Composition 7. The stecl shall confonn. to the rcquirements as to chemical composit0n prescnbed m Tables l and Heat Analysis 8. An analysis of cach hcat of steel shall be made by the steel manufacturer to determine the percentages of the elements specified in Section 7. lf the secondary mclting proccsses of 5. are employcd, thc heat analysis shall be obtained from one remelted ingot or the product of one remelted ingot of each primary melt. The chemical composition thus tletermined, or that determined from a product analysis made by the manufacturer, if the latter has not manufactured the steel, shall be reported to the purchaser or the purchaser's representative, and shall conform to the requirements specified in Section 7. S. Process 9. Product Analysis 9. At the request of the purchaser, analyses of two pipes from each lot (Note 4) of 400 lengths or fraction!58

86 i \ i. _ l l J ' : ) \.' ) thereuf, of each size up to, but not including, NPS 6, and from each lot of 200 lengths or fraction thereof of each size NPS 6 and over, shall be made by the manufacturer from the finished pipe. The results of these analyses shall be reponed to the purchaser or the purchaser's representativc and shall conform to thc rcquirements specified in Section lf the analysts of one of the tests specified in 9. does not conform to the requirements specified in Section 7, analyses shall be made on additional ptpes of double the original number from the same lot. each of which shall conform to requirements specified. NOTE 4-A lot sha!l consi~ of the nurnber of lengths spcctficd in Sections 9 and 20 of the same size and wall thickness from any nne heat of ~tccl. 0. Tensile Requirements 0. The material shall confonn to the requirements as to!ensile propemes prescribed in Table 3.. Bending Requirements. For pipe NPS 2 and unjer a sufllcient length of ppc shall stand bcing bent cold thro'ugh 90 around a cylindrical mandrrd, the d~mc~cr nf \;:hich i~ i2 tune~ th~ no m mal diamcrer of rhe ptpe. without devcloptng cracks. \Vhen Grdercd l"ur dosc culiing (Note 2), the ptpe shall ;tand bewg bcnt cold through 80" around a cylindncal nwndrel. thc Jiamctcr of whch is eight times thc nominal JiJmetcr of thc pipe, wjthout failme. PARTA- FERROUS MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS.2 For pipe whose Jiameter equals or cxceeds O in. (254 mm) a bend test may be conducted instead of the llattenwg test. The bend test specimens shall be bent at room tcmpemture through 80 without cracking on thc outside of the bent portian. The inside diameter of the bend shall be in. (25.4 mm). Substitution of the bend test for the flattening test shall be subject to the approval of the purchaser. 2. Flatlening Tests SA I06 2. For pipe over NPS 2 a section of pipe not less than 2 / 2 in. (63.5 mm) in length shall be tlattened cold between parallel plates until the opposite walls of thc pipe mcct. Flattenmg tests shall be n accordancc with Specilicatlon A 530/A 530M. except that the formula used to cjlculate thc ~H" value, thc following "e" constants shall be used: 0.08 for Grade A O.07 for Grades 8 and C 2.2 When Jow D-to-t ratio tubulars are tested. bc causc the stram imposcd duc to geomctry is unrcasonably high on the inside surface at the six and twelve o'clock locations, cracks at thcsc Jocations shall not he cause for rcjcction if the D-to-t ratio i~ less than O. NOTE b---thc -u- valuc'> havc hccn calcul<~tcd tor ;..tlc!>!mm.'ws 2 /! to 2-t. mdu<;jvc. ;:md.jrc ;..hown ln T<.~blc X oj h~ ~pcci frc:jtwn 3. Hydrost"tic Test IJ.l Each lcngth of pipe sholl be subjccted to thc hydrostatjc tesi., cxcept as provided for ). and / \Vtwn ~pccificd by thc purcha..,cr. pipe may hl tcsted by thc nondcstructvc clcctric test mcthc.d m \ c.u of thc hydro~wtic test as shown m Scct0n l.f. 3.3 \Vhcn specified in the order. ptpc.may be fur nished wuhout hydrostatic test and without thc NDE in Section /.f. In rhis case, cach lcngth so furnshed sha/ mclude thc mandatory marking of thc lettcr~ "N!l t When the hydrostatic test and thc NDE test are omltted and the Jengths marked with the letters "NH. the ccrtification. whcn requircd. sha/ clcarly ~tate.. Not Hydrostatically Tested," the specification number and material grade. as shown on the certification. shall be followed by the letters "NH." ).3 For pipe whose diameter exceeds 25 in. (635 mm) and whose diameter to wall thickness ratio is 7.0 or less. the bend test described in.2 shall be con ducted instead of the flattening test. NOTE 5-Diamctcr to wall thickne~5 rallo = ~pcctficd ouhtdc lhamcter/nomtnal wal! thtckncss.. Example: For 28 in. diameter in. thick pipe the diameter to wall thickness ratio ~ 28/5 = Nondestructive Electric Test 4. As an altemative to the hydrostatic test. and when specified by the purchaser. each pipe shall be testcd wuh a nondcstructive clectric test in accordance with Pracoce E 23. Practicc E 309. or Practice E 570. In this case. each length so fumished shall include the mandatory marking of the letters.. NDE: lt is the in- 59

87 SA SECTION Il tent of this test to reject ptpe with imperfections which produce test signals equal to or greater than that of the calibration standard. 4.2 When the nondestructive electric test is performed, the lengths shall be marked with the letters "NDE. The certification. when required, shall state "Nondestrucuve Electric Tested" and shall indicate which of thc tests was applied. Also the lettcrs "NDE" shall be appended to the product specification number and matenal grade shown on the certjfication. 4.3 The followmg inforrnation ts for the bcnefi of the uscr of this specification: 4.3. The reference standards defined in through are convenient standards for calibration of nondcstructlve tcsting equipment. The dirnensions of these standards ~houij not be construed as the minimum sizt.! imperfectmn detectable by such cquipment. ~.3.2 Thc ultrasunic tcsting can be pcrformcd to dctcct both longjtudinally and circumferentwtly oncnted dcfects. lt should be rccognized that dtffcrent techniquc~ shou!j be employed to dctect diffcrcmly oricntcd impcrfccuons. Thc examination may not dctcct short. dccp dcfcct: Thc eddy current examination rcfcrcnccd in thts spcctftcatlon has the Glpahihty of dctcctmg sig!!ric:!n! d!..,et)'!!!u!l!l:s. e"pcciail;' nf thr:.;hnrt :hr!!pl typc I~.J.4 Thc flux lcakage cxammauon rcferred to in thi~ spectficatwn is capahie nf detectmg thc prcscnce and iocjtjon of.-.ignificant longnudinaliy or transverseiy nrientcd th<;continuitic~. (t.shouid be recogmzcd that diffcrcnt tcchnique~ shouid be empioyej to Jetect diffcrcntly lh'!cntcd impcrfections The hydrostatic test rcferred to tn Section 3 has the capabihty of finding defccts of a SIZC pcrmitting thc test tlujd to icak through the tubc wa\ and may be cithcr v sually.secn or detected by a loss of pressure. ThJS test may not detect very tight. throughthe-wall defects or defccts that cxtend an appreciable distancc into the wall without complete pcnetration A purchaser interested in asccrtaining the nature (typc. stze. location, and orientation) of disconunuities that can be detected in the specific application of thcsc examinations should discuss this with the manufacturer of the tubular product. 4.- For ultrasonic testing, the calibration reference notches shall be. at the option of the producer, any one of the three common notch shapes shown m Pracu ce E 23. The depth of notch shall not exceed 2 /,'7o of the specified wall thickness of the pipe or in. (0.02 mm). whichever is greater. 4.5 For eddy curren! testing, the calibration ptpe shall contain, at the option of the producer, any one of the following discontinuities to establish a mimmum sensitivity leve! for rejection: 4.5. Drilled Hale-The calibration pipe shall contain depending upon the pipe diameter three hales spaced 20 apart or four hales spaced 90 apart and sufficiently separated longitudinally to cnsure separately distinguishablc responses. Thc hales shall be drilled radially and completely through the pipe wall, care being taken to avoid distortion of the pipe while drill mg. Depending upon the pipe diameter the calibration pipe shall contam the following hale: ::o; / m. o 039 In, (t mm) > ~~~""" ~/~ m m. ( 4 mm) > /~,::; 2 in o 07 in. {.8 mm) > 2 ~ 5 in tn. (2 2 mm) > 5 in. O!06 in {2.7 mm) ~.5.2 TmnS\'erse Tangetllial Notch-Usmg a round tool or file with a / 4 -in. (6.4-mm) diameter. a notch shall be filed or milled tangential to the surface and transversc to thc iongimdinai axis of lhc pipe. Said notch shall have a depth not exceeding 2'/,% of thc specificd wall thtckness of the ptpe or i~. (0. 02 mm). whichever is greater Longitudinal Nvtch-A notch 0.03 in. (i. 787 mm) or Jc.ss in wh.lth shall be machined in á radial plane parallel to the tube axis on the outside surface of the pipe, to have a depth not excceding 2'/,% or the specified wall thickness of the tube or O.OO.Jtn. (0.02 mm), whichever is greater. The length of thc notch shall be compatible with the testing mcthod Compatibiliry-The discontinuity in the calibration pipe shall be compatible with the testing equipmcnt and the method being used. 4.6 For flux leakage testing, the longitudinal calibration reference notches shall be straight-sided notches machined in a radial plane parallel to the pipe axis. For wall thickness under / 2 in. (2.7 mm), outside and inside notches shall be used; for wall thickness equal and abo ve / 2 in. ( 2.7 mm), only an outside notch shall be used. Notch depth shall not exceed 2 /,'Jo of the specified wall thickness, or in. 60

88 PART A - FERROUS MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS SA-06 (0. 02 mm), whichever ts greater. Notch length shall not exceed in. (25.4 mm). and the w dth shall not excced the depth. Outsidc di::j.mcter and nside thamctcr nolches shall be localed sufficiemly apart lo allow separation and identification of the signjls. 4.7 Pipe producmg a signa] equal to or greater than the signal produced by thc calihrauon standard shall be subject to rcjcci!on. Thc area producmg thc signa! may be rccxamined Test signals produccd by tmperfections which cannot be identificd. or produced by cracks or crack-like impcrfcctjom, shall rcsult m rcjection of thc pipe, unless is rcpaired and retested. To be accepted, the pipe must pass the sjme spccificarion test lo which it was ortginal!y subjcctcd. provided that the remaining wall thickness is not decrcased below that pcmitted by this specification. The OD at the pcint of grinding may be rec.juccd by the amount so rcduccd Test _:.; gna/s projuccd by \'Ísual imperfcct on.s :-.uch as tho~c Jistcd tx-luw may be evaluated m accurd~mc~ wuh the prm i~itms llr' Scction 2: Dtngcs Str~ughtcncr mar~:: Cuttm~ d;'r' Scrarchc: Stcei dtt' :;U!llp'> Sttlp marb. or l'tpc reduc cr nprk. l.j.s Thc tcsr mcthod~ dc::.(nbc(: in rhts scction may not be capahlc of HlSpectin~ thc L r;d port0n nf ptpcs. This condition i:.. rdcrrcd as "en~.: cffect. ~ Thc lcngth of the cnd effcct.'hall bl' dctcmw~_-d by the manufat> turcr and. whcn _.;.pecified n thc )'Urchase order, reponed lo the purchaser 5. Nipples 5. Nipples shall be cut from ptpe of the same dimensions and quality dest'ribed in this specification. 6. Dimensions. Weight. and Permissible Variations 6. Weight-Thc weight of an' i<ngth of pipe shall not vary more than loijc l'\'er JnJ 3.5% under that specificd. Unlcss tllherv. t.-.l' :tgrccd upon betwet!n the manufacturer and lhe purchaser. pipe in NPS 4 and smaller may be weighed in convenienl lots; pipe larger than NPS 4 shall be weighed separalely. 6.2 Diamerer-Variations in outside diameter shall not exceed those specified in Table Thickness-The mínimum wall thickness at any poinl shall not be more than 2.5% under the nominal wall thickness specified. NOTE 7-Thc nunimum wa/ thjcknes<;es on inspection of some of the available SlZC~ are shown in Table X Lengths 7. Pipe lengths shall be m accordance wilh the following regular practice: 7.. The lengths required shall be specified in thc arder. and 7..2 No jointers are permiued unlcss otherwise specd'ied lf det'imte lenglhs are not rcquired, pipe may be ordcrcd in single random lengths of 6 to 22 ft (4.R lo 6.7 m) with 5% 2 lo 6ft (3.7 to 4.R m). or tn doublc random lcngths with a minimum avcrjgc :~ of 35 ft ( 0.7 m) and a mtnimum length of 22 ft with 5'/o 6.!O 22 ft.. ' 8. Workmanship, Finish and Appearance- 8. The pipe manufacturer shall explore a sufflcient numbcr of visual surface imperfcctions to provide re<jsonahle assurance that they have been properly evaluated wh respect to depth. Exploralion of all surface unpcrfections is not rcquired but may be neccssary to assurc compliance with Surface imperfeclions 'that penetrale more lhan Ii/::!% of the nommal wall thickness or cncroach on the mínimum wall lhickness shall be considered defects. Pipe with such defects shall be given one of lhe following dispositions: 8.2. The defect may be removed by grinding provided lhal lhe remaining wall lhickness is within specifted limits Repaired in accordance with the repair welding provisions of The seclion of pipe conlatntng the defect may be cut off wilhin the limits of requirements on length. 6

89 SA SECTION! Rejectcd. 8.3 To provide a workmanhkc flnish and basis for evaluating confonnance wlth 8.2 the pipe manufacturer shall remove by gnnding the followwg noninjurious imperfections: 8.3. Mechamcal marks. abrasions (Note 8) and pits, any of wh ch npcrfections are decpcr than / 6 in. (.58 mm) Visual imp~rfect!ons commonly referrcd to as scabs. seams. laps. tears. or slivers found by exploration in accordancc with \8 to be deeper than 5% of the nominal wnll thckncss. 8.- At thc purchascr's dscretion. pipe shal\ be sub JCCtcd to rejcction if surfacc imperfections acccptable undcr 8.2 are nut scattered. but appejr over a large arca in cxccss of what i~ cnnsidcred a v.:orkmanlike finish. Disposition of such pipe ~hall be a mattcr of agrccmcnt bctwccn thc manufacturcr ami thc purchascr 8.5 Whcn impcrfcction~ or dcfccts :rc remo\cj by grindmg. a smonth curvcd ~urtacc sha\ he mamtaincd. and thc wa\ thickncss ~hall nnt be dccrcased bclow that pcnmttcd by ths 'lpecltication Thc oursijc J arnctcr at thc point nf grimlm~ may he rcduccd by thc amount ~o removed. IX.S.l \Val\ tlllcknc~~ mcasuremcnts sha\ be madc wlh a mcchalllcd caiq cr 0 wnh : propcrly calibratcd nondcstructivc tc~un:; dcv cc uf appropriatc accuracy. In case of thsputc. thc mcasurcmcnt dctcrmincj hy use of thc mcchanical cahpcr ~hall govem. 8.6 Wcld rcp'm >hall he pcnmttcd only subjccl to thc approval of lhc purch.~~et ~~nd in accordancc \Vith Spccification A 530/A 530~. 8.7 Thc finishcd pipe shall be rcasonably straight. NOTE 8-\tark~ :.md.jbr.hin~.m:: J.:Íncd JS Clhle marks, Jingü. guidl!!llo.hk~. rol! lllarb. h:lll ;,cratchl!~. ~con:"'~. r.ilc mark\. etc 9. End Finish 9. The Pipe shall be fumished to the following practicc. unless otherwise spcctficd. 9.. NPS -'/, and Smaller-All wal\s shall be either plain-end squarc cut. or plam-end beveled at thc option of thc manufacturer NPS 2 allif Larger-Was through extra strong wetghts. shall be plain end-bevelcd NPS 2 uml Larger-\Valls ovcr extra strong weights. shall be plain-cnd squarc cut. NOTE 9-Plain-cnd hewkd ~ detlned as pl.lin-end pipe having J bcvcl angle of 30. _ _5 m -0. as mcasured from a!me drawn!)crpendicu]ar!!he <J\l~ f!he pl~ wjth a f\xll facc llf /u, in. :::: /,~ m ( t 5:<:75.= 0.79.~ mrn). Other hcvcl Jn~lc~ ma) be ~pecified by a~rcemcnt hctwccn the purcha~cr and!he m:mufacturer 20. Number of Tests 20. The tcnsj!c rcquirements ~pecifted in Section 7 shal\ be dctcnmncd on one length llf ppc from cach lot (Note 4) of 400 \cngths or fractwn thereof of cach sizc undcr NPS ó. and from cach lot of 200 lcngths or fraction thercof of each sizc NPS 6 and ovcr For pipe NPS 2 and undcr. thc bcnd test spcc,f,cd in. shall be made on one pipe from each lot of 400 lcngth~ or fraction thcrcof of cach size. The hcnd tc~t. whcrc uo.;cd as pcmittcd by.2 or rcquircd by.3. sha\ he madc on onc t;od of 5% of thc pipe from cach lot For '>mal\ lots. at \east onc pipe shall he tc~tcd 20.3 Thc llattcntng test spccificd m Scction 2 sha\ be madc un une kngth of :npc from cach \ot of 400 Jcn~ths or fraction thcrcof of cach stzc over NPS 2. up to but iwi including NPS 6. ~ mj from cach lot ol 200 lcngth" nr r,jctlllll thc!cof. of c.il h :-.izc NPS 6 aml U\'l:J 20.4 E.tch kngth of pp~ sha\ be subject~d to thc hydrostanc tc~t ~pccjftcu m Scction lf any test o.;pccirncn ~hows defcctive machinmg or dcvc!op:; na\\'~. ti llla) be di~c.:mh.:d and anothcr spccimcn substllutcd. 2. Rctests 2. If the pcrcentagc of clongation of any tenson test ~pccimcn JS lcss than that prescnbcd in Table 2 and any part of the fracture is more than '/,in. (9.0 mm) from thc cerner of thc gagc length of a 2-in., or 50-mm. spccimcn as indcated by scribe scratchcs marked on the specmen befare testing. a retest shall be allowed. If a specimen breaks in an inside or outsidc surface llaw. a re test shal\ be itllowed. 2.2 Should a crop cnd of a finishcd pipe fail in the llattening test. one rctest may be made from the failed cnd. Pipe may be normalized either befare or after the first test. but ppe shal\ be subjected to only two normahzmg treatmcnts. 62

90 PARTA- FERROUS MATERIAL SPECiriCATIONS SA 06! )., ) 22. Test Specimens and Test Methods 22. On NPS 8 and larger. specimens cut either Jongitudinally or transversely shall be acceptable for the tension test. On sizes smaller than NPS 8, the longitudinal test only shall be used Test specimens for the bend test spccified n Section and for the tlattening tests shall consist of sections cut from a pipe. Spe:cimens for tl<:~tlcning tests shall be smooth on the ends and free from burrs, exccpt when madc on crop ends Test specimens for the bend test specified in.2 and.3 shall be cut from one end of the pipe and, unless otherwise specificd, shall be taken in a transversc direction. One tesr specimen shall be taken as clase to the outer surface as possible and anothcr from as e lose to the nner surface as possible. Thc specimens shall be cither '/,by / 2 in. (2.7 by 2.7 mm) m section or by '/, in. (25.4 bv 2.7 mm) in ~cction with the corncrs rounded to a rjdiu~ not ovcr /" in. (.6 mm) and need not exceed 6 in. (52 mm) m length. Thc si de of the sjmplcs pbced in tension during thc bend shall be th~ side closest to the nncr and outcr.surface of thc pipe respccti\'dy. 22A A!l routine check tésrs shall be madc at room tcrnpcra!urc length sha!l be marked as prc.scribcd in Spccification A 530/A 530M. These sizes shall be bundled in accordancc with standard mili practjcc and the total bundle footagc markcd on thc bundle tag, indivdua! lengths of pipe need not be marked wuh footage. For sizcs lcss than NPS 3 /..,. a/ requircd markings may be on the bundle tag and shall includc the total footagc: individual lengths of ppc nccd not be markcd \VIth footage. lf not marked on the bundle tag. all requlfed marking sha/ be on cach lcngth \Vhcn ppc sections are cut 0 :-.hortcr lengths by a subscquent proccssor for resale ds material. the proccssor shall transfcr complete dcntifying information, includmg the name or brand of the manufacturer to cach unmarkcd cut lcngth. or to metal tags sccurely attachcd to bundlcs of unmarked small (llarnctcr pipe. The samc material de.signalion shall be mcluded wuh thc information tran.sferred, and the processor's namc, tradcmark. or brand shall he added Bar Cod!llg-ln addition to the requiremcms in 24. and bar coding i.s acccptahle as a supplcmcntary idcntifjcation mcthod. fiar coding shbuld be consisten! with the Automotivc lndustry Action Group (AIAG) standard prcpared by tlle Primary Metal> Subcommittec of thc AIAG Bar Codc Projcct Team 2.3. Certification 25. Go\'crnment Procurcmcnl l -."' 23. \Vhcn test report.s are rcquestcd. m addit0n to the requirements of SpecJflcallon A 530/A 530M. thc producer or supplicr shall fumsh to the purchaser a chcmicj! :malysis rcport for rhe. elcmerhs spccified ]~ Tablcs and 2. 2-, Product Marking 24. In addition to the markmg prescribed in Specification A 530/A 530M, the marking shall mclude hcat number, the nfonnation as per Table 6, an addiuonal symbol "S" if the pipe confonns in anv case to the supplementary requirements specified in SI to SS, the length and schedule number, and on pipe sizes larger than NPS 4 the weight shall be given. Length shall be marked in feet and tenths of a foot. or metres to two decimal places. depending on the units to which the material was ordercd. or other marking subject to agreement. For sizes NPS /,, /,,, and 3 /,, each 25. \Vhcn ~pccificd in thc contrae!. material shall be prcscn cd, pacj..agcd. ami packcd m accordancc wnh thc rcquirements of MIL-ST0-63. The applicablc lcve!s shnll be ;Ls speclllcj in tht.: contrae! Marktng tor thc shipmcnt of such material shall be in accordancc with Fed. Std. No. 23 for civil agencies and MIL STD-29 for military agencies Jnspecrion-Unlcss otherwi~e spccified In thc contract. thc produccr is respon.sible for thc performance of all inspcction and test rcquiremcnts spccificd hercin. Exccpt as otherwise spccifled in the contrjcl. the producer may use his own, or any other suitoble facilities for the performance of the inspection ami test requircments specified herein, unless dsapproved by the purchaser. The purchaser shall have the right to perfonn any of the inspections and tests set fonh in this specificat!on where such inspcctions are dccmed necessary to ensure that the material confonns to the prescribed reqlllrements. 63

91 SA SECfiON ll TABLE l CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS - - """-""' ' "'-A B Aroon. mu o "'""" e '9-06 :u'f'lz. mu: '" FCI C«:n nd.ic:tion of 0. 0,_ below h speafted ca:0'\ nwun..m. an x:t"'iim oto oe" ~ aoo... tne ~ ~ w bt ~.4 ;a~oi3s'l. C!'rnmo c.._ -..._.., v..-.m TABLE 2 LIMITS ON UNSPECIFIED ELEMENTS.._ O S TABLE 3 TENS!LE REQUIREMENTS en. e T... atrenqtl"'. l'nl"', PSI (MPI) Ylllld ~- l'nl"', pa (MPa) ( ) y,...,_ eo OOOt4t C2'0) ~ y..,.._.. \..ono;>u (435) ) T..,._.. E~ n 2 n or 50 rrrn. nw \ 8uíc I'I"W'WTll...' Ob"'IQ&Don nm~ stnp '"~- ano ter ej M'\8 zes, In u MCbOn ~ ~ rtll.nd 2..n. crr ~ g.aoe lenqth test s.peomen tt.- For ~ IITIP tost! For tr'llnswr'm stnp test!. a dedl.ctlon tor ead'l 'i3:ml (0 8-mm) docr'o«m n we ~s below " ll'l (7 9 mm) l'rom me ~ tti'wt'l..m eb'o:}3xrl ot te tollowy"lg poi"cefllaqe st\& be maoe A< oo e.00'" ~ ""'.,.,,, (0 32) 79 ~(0.28).,. (0 250) 'ha (0 29) " 56,,, (0 88) ~(056 ", O 25) 32 ~(0094) 24 '" ( C. _j..-s B..-w:l C. Trans..,.,. 6 so Non:-Tl'le aboye tabmt C}I'VM tne corr'oui!kl ffiii"'ii't. elong.atoo vatue5 tor eacn ~ (0 8-mm) C)eo'ease n wa.l ~ W!'wre the wal tt'ldmctsllles betwtjen two value-s snown abolle.!he ft'iioirt'ul l!llor'lq4tjon value rs detefl't'wled by tte toowrg tiquiitjon' Gteoe DnctJor. of Tes! Equaoon A e""" e f "'"""".. f!iiclng.ltlon n 2 In 0 50 rrm. 'l anc 'ransverse Transvene E.. ot + 2.so E ~ ltwc::k"""' of spoo"t''ffl'l n - The rtw'cj'um lllkng.atjon n 2 n (50.8 rrml st\al be óetemw'led by!he to'own;l equabon e &25 ()(XlA02No'! - f''w'wy'un 60ngetl0rl n 2., (50 e mm). ' roc.nded to tne rearest o 5. ~ - aoos.-mctlcln.l etm al tne tenso'\ t~t specmen. n. baseo Cl soec::med outsiáe dlameter or n()l'rlll6 SPeOnen Wldth ana ~...,... thlc::knesl totn:t.c~ to tte,...,... O 0 "l tt the wea n.n CtiQJ.Ited IS greater rfw'i 0.75 n l. t!'lln tf'le va sn. be used, lf'ld J ~ tat-. ltndn9tf'l. PSI e See Teta.f for rnrwnut eio"'qabon vajues ter Ylf'0uS SIZe ~ sp8ci't'iens rod IJI'60es. 64

92 PART A- FERROUS MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS l! "'- In... T.-::r. T t ~ w.. Thldowaa. n. ~" """"""' TABLE 4 ELONGAT!ON VALUES ~ " "'""'*'...., 5pec::rrwl..._..,_. "'""'e SA-06 ~ ' 2 h. "*", ~ T... Strw"gttl. p <:0.75 ~ 4 >0994 i!:07~ i!: S.5 l l l O.D o 4QO...O S.5 0.7) 4!- 469 o 9e7...C & () Q966 o 75-{) 725 o.cn-t~ S ~-o~ o o o.g2-0 ~ o.. o 895-0? & e o ( OM o () o S OM.30-3JO < l\ o o 'J7-o e O&<HSS o {436 0.&47-o a (JO.25-2' C & O.S Q J { o.e, 2-22'9 o 807--o o ~'<> ~800 o 59S-Q Sa7-Q<WJ {).' o l9t-o o o 767-CJ 780 o 575-< ses 0.~ o 24.5 l loc9 0.7S o Jn-o 383 o < o o o O.S ~ o Q :' o O 5J.S-<l 5-4 S, o 357-{ Q o o 52 OJ o o 55--( {) 586 o 3U.<l o 506--<l o o O ti73 o < sos 2. 0 o 33<>-<> ! 049 o 97-Q S-89 o o o 324--{) o.. o o ) {) o 75---< o o 93-o ~9 o 62-Q 53.3 o 486-.()474 o " o 90-(930 o 607-o <l.o " !!9-D 909 o o 4-46-<J.. ~ o... o 87()-.( {303 0~ O -43$--0 "'S Q869 o 5oe o 426--{).oJ '2 0~289 o aso o 55"-{) ~ < o 8-Q!29 o o.o06-<:l.ol o ,, O <O o 79().-{) a, o o {) OJ9 on & o 54-{ o o Q O Ui'O 0~ o o J i-49 o 487-Q o OJG O 70-( i:io o -474-{l C o J ' i'qcl ~.u o 3-íó-V 354 O J.< o 870-C 590 o o o.jjs-o o ~ o o :m.<l o o o JJ ~.0. ~.- O 35-<L ll...:l629 o 407-{) < ow 05~ Q S89 o 97-{).203 o o 2S&-O 29~ 2<5 O U o 26 o 550--V 570 o 367-o o:r..s 300 2< o""-" J6ó 29.5 OZ66-02i 2<5 o tn-o <l o 50-C 5JO o ""'"" 35J o o 25 o.9-j 509 o 327-{).339 ~ 2<0 o t 20 o &4--Q o <)325 o 2J.S-.{}245 o < C 469 o 30-Q & o 5~ J 5 2< ~45-0 o 287--{) JOO o < Q429 o <0 02Q 03'9Q...:J 40 o ~ o J J89 o 247-{).259 o o 24-~ o 8 o.j.50...{l 370 o o ~ o 3: o 22--{l m 0.6& ~ íiio o 8 o JO o 207-Q ()4...().0 2<l o g.._{) 206 o 46-{) S ~ 03 2<l.O 25!.5 o u :-so o 80--Q 93 o J5-.{) -45 o 09-{l >lo :69 a s~ C o OOol-<l >lo Q..-<l:so o S o oon~osj 250 2< :zg o 4..() 5.3 o 0& <0 75 o \l o 4{) < !9 o 4.2'6 008& o 0S7-{l otro-o 70 o 00-<3 o G-<) o {l,\49 o !.5! o ~ o O OSI t..() 09 o 08-Q & o 03-<! o 04 o CJ70-0 C'90 o o Q <l 030 2<.0 Hl.5. 5 o 03 O OSt o""'"" &-Q 034 o o 02 0~050 o 020..() ! so 0 o ""' :S 0.09 S 004 S n' 6458~ In !T'm ) 65

93 SA SECTION NPS e ;ab. 0 Ya. hd...,... to... na... toa.~ J8toHI,nd..., U!l to 2e. na - 2e to 3-4. nd na - P uat:jli Venatx:n:a n Outsioa TABLE 5 VARIATIONS IN OUTSIDE DIAMETER o ,,... (O 05) (0.03) 0..,... (0.082) "'- (O.OQ3) 2.38 ' '".,. (0.25) o.l$0).,. 3l7... o.87) (O 05) '/wo (0.03)... (0.03) V.t().03) ''-(O IX).,... (O 03) '('003) """" mm l TABLE 6 MARI<ING, """ T..,.,_,.,.,. l 66

94 P. \RT -\ - FERROUS :-ATERIAL SPECJFJC \TIO"iS SA-06 SUPPLEMENTAHY REQC!RDIENTS FOR PIPE REQUIRING SPECIAL CONSIDERATION Onc or more of the (~//(J'.I.in~ ~upplemenrary rcquir~mcms shjji app!~ only when.-;pi?cjficu in thc purchasc order. Tht> purc.:hd,cr m;jy "Pt.::L ify a dil"fcrcrh frcyucncy of tc:-.t or an,j!ysts than JS pnn llkd n rhc,<-,uppknwntar; n.:yum~m~nt Suhjcct to agn::cmcnt bct\\ccn thc purcha:-l'r ami rnanufacwrcr. rctest and n.::trcatnk nt prtj\ ~0:-. of thcsc ~uppkmcntary requircmcnr~ m::~ al so he modificd í ' SI. l'roduct Anal~si.., Sl.l ProJuct :.malysj<.,,<-,hj/ bt: maje tlll t:ach lcngth of ppc Individual lcngths f:ding to con!orm to thc chcmical composltjon rcqutrcmcnt'- :-hall l'c rcjcctcd. S2. Transvcrsc Ten,<-,ion T e.st S2.l A transvcjsc tcn..,ion \r.:.\ ':>h~!]l ht,; madc on :t spccincn fnm onc cnd or hllh L:n<h t! c.tch ptpc NPS S and ovcr. lf ttw. :-upplcrncnury rcqtnrcrncnl... spccilicd. thc numbcr of!l.\\ pa ppc: \h,dl ;t/~o he.\pcciflcd. lf ~~ spccimt::n- frorn an: lcn~th ':!\ ro ntcct tht: Jcquircd tcnslic propcrtic~ (k'il~lk. y c]j. anj clong,t!0). that kr.gth sh~ll he n:jccrcd \'uhjccr to Ietrcatrncnt n accmdancc with Sp...:l.lfGl'illIl :\ 5.;(}':\ 5J(l~, :l!ld :-.alt.\ltclt:ry rete.\!. cach pipe and shall shm\ sound anj rcasonably uniform m:ucnal free from rnjurwus JamJnarions. cracks, and simii<lr ohjcctwnable dcfects. If ths supplementary rcquircmcnt is,<.,pccifrcd. thc numbcr of tests per ppe rcqujred :\hall also be spccified. lf a specimcn from any kngth shows uhjectmnablc Jcfccts, the lcngth shajj he n..:jcctcd. wbjcct to rcmov;.li of thc dcfcctjvc cnd and suh:-.cqucnt rctcsrs ndicaring rhc rcmal!ldcr of thc lcngth to h~ sound :uj reasonahl: uniforrn matcn:d SS. Cadwn Equh alcnt S5. Thc sl~el,..,h:!ij cnnfnrm lo a CJrbon cqlllvalcnt (CE' ot 0.50!IW\llllU!ll as detenlllncd hy thc follown~ for!llui:!. r:;,cr - rx:\tlo ;_ ~i V., 5 SJ. Flattl'nin~ Trsr S3. Thc Jlattcmng t..:r.,t u! Spcuficl!Jon '\ 530!:\ S:;Oi\: :..hall be rlwtk!ln a Spl.'...'lllltn i;-l (lllc cnd or "''" ehh uf c;>c ll pipe. Cro ' cnd m,l\ he tbed f tili.-; supplcmcnt~u y rcquircment,.., ~pl'l'tfjcd. thc ml!nha ol test:-. pcr ppc sha!j ;JisL) bc \fh:cjficd. ll d,..,pccimen from.wy kngth fad\ hel.lll,..,<: ot' l.ll ~ ol ductility pnor to \aij.\fac!nry compknon llt' thc flr.\.\tcp llf thc tlattcnmg tc.\t rcqutrcmcnr. th.:i pipe :-.h:.j.!j he rcjctrcd... uhjcct to rctrcatmcnr in <JccorJ,Jnce "''Jth Spccificaltilll A 530/i\.)]()i\. ami sati~facror: r<:te.\ l! < ~pecimen from :Jny lcngrh oi pipe faib bccausc of :t lack nf snundnc.\... that kngth ~hall be rcjected. unic.'t.\.\uhsequcnt rctcsting mdic:jtc..; that tht:: remjhhng kngth JS sound. S4. Metal Structurc ""d Etching Tes! S4. Thc stecl shjii be hom*ogcneous :.' shown by ctchmg rest.' conducted in accordancc \\ ith thc appropri:uc sectinns of Mdhod E JS Etchng tc.\t~... hall be made on a noss scction frorn une cnj or hoth ends nf S5.2,<\ Jmvcr CE nw:omurn m~y be ~grccd upon tllc purch:j..,t'r :mj thc pmduccr h~twcen S5.3 Thc CE :-:h:!ll he reponed nn thc icst rcporl S6, lleat Trcated Test Specimcns S6. \ thc rcquc:-t of the purchascr. onc!ensile tc,..,t ~hall he pcrformcj hy the manufacturcr on a test spccuncn!mm each hcat of steel furmshcd which has bccn eithcr stress rclicvcd JI 250 F or normalized at 650 F. a:-. spccifjed by thc purchnscr. The results uf ths Jcst 'hall meet the requiremems of Tablc J. S7. Interna! Cleanliness--Government Orders S7, The mjcrnal surface of hot tinjshcj fernjic stcel ppc anj Iubc shall be nwnufactured Jo a free of scale condition equivaknt to the visual standard Jistcd lfl SSPC-SP6 Clcamng shall be perfomjcd in accortlance with a wriuen proccdure that has been shown to be effccjivc. This procedure shall be available for audit. 67

95 SA SECT0N ll APPENDIX (Nonmundatory lnformation) XI. CALCULA TED H V ALUES FOR SEAl\ ILESS PIPE XI.! Table XI.! lists valucs for H lo be uscd for thc test of Sect on. TABLE Xl.l CALCULATED "H" VALUES FOR SEAMLESS PIPE lrd>-po..nd LWta Dtstanc:e. n ~- Distance, n lne::hes. S.tween P\atn Out Wd Sct>eo- w by Equati()"J, Wd Sd"ooO- w by ECMttk:ln' NPS NPS """ Thoci< Desoo- o..m. ( lit "" De..,. o..m. ( + )... eter, H --- e+ tjd '"""... eter, H-- + r D n """" """" """" n. e;,..., n ""' G<ado Gnodoo ""' " _,,... Out """.,..,..... A """"' B & e A e&c 2'h , ,., o , o , o ou o < < 6494 o 'h o 2:l; 40 l o o o o o % n.l o o o l o C o : S o J 823 o "6 007 o o'"" '7 li o o % B o ()43 o o o o o o o o ' & o S 747 sen :, ~ , i uee o B o o i e 9 68 l

96 PART A- FERROUS MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS SA-06 (M. NPS,.., Oooio- Ool>n- ( N... """" TABLE Xl.l <CONT'D) -- SI LhU Obmnce. n rt'iti, Obtlnoe. n rtyrl. Berween P\ltes (M...,.,_ w OyE...- NPS T>b e)l o...o-... Ool>n- ( + e)l' + /0 - - w.. S<nod- w by e~t~cn w cm- H ,. H-- ;-;T 0 """"... """ G<aoo a..- Cl<aoo 0<-. ""' ""' """ """ ""' A B&C A B&C 2,; 73 o " m n , ' JO j "' <H o nr < ; <9 o > 0 S 574 o <5.. U3 02 o '9 o , e ss < o JO ! i "' S,.., 3 ó ,., "' aso 309< o 22! !\3 <0 23.2' ; o :e o j S tl}o, "' ' ' JO < '"' o < ':!-'! :;.. S ' < , < ;~i:, :-J 62 < < 82.< :J "" "' < o e o !,;:: o "' ;so JO <7 20.!2 so 34 7 lii5 "' "' < o 230< < ~ < ! < o ::t.., 20 uso ::s 40 < ::esa , ) ' JO "' , !33 9 J09< "' < Zt i zs < < ze ss Wl i ,.. 60 "' ) 69

97 SA SECTION X2. MINii\IUM WALL THICKNESSES X2.I Table X2. lists minimum wall thickncsses for nomnal pipe wall thicknc,..,s. TABLE X2. TABLE OF MINIMUM WALL THICKNESSES ON INSPECTION FOR NOMINAL (AVERAGE) PIPE WALL THICI<NESS Non, - Tht tolk:7wno OQ.Ja bo'\. I..(X)n M-.ctl tt"':s taclie!s büecl. m&y be ~ to cala..tlte n-nrn..m wal ~ trorn i'utw\ t...-.j w.. ~-. : t, X 0875 t..,...,, t., /"()rl'"''l (OvfnQe) w!tl ttdnns. n """ /.., rnr.n.rn wall trw:::k~. n The wet ~., ttjipre530d to trne Cleot'Nll PLtw::e!!he fouti decrnal P'ace belo9 camed lorward 0 O"'!Jt)ed. n ~ ~ Practa E 29 Non: 2-Thls ~ OOVt'lf"t aome...,. ~ ~lllld wrtto etar'ldan:l P'P8 ~" but rs not meant to mpty tnt Tie5e I!Hh orty ~ Cltlt!*l8ble Ll"'d8r - l... _ ~ {AI'flf~) ~0!55 (Av.tr&ge) -... ~ """"'" "",_. """"'" - on """"'"" ""-...., """""" """""""" (A~) - (f~l tjon (..,) {f.,) llorl (/..,) (I.J tlonu,j n ~ n ~ n ~ n ~ n. ""' " ""' o 28 '" o o'"' o < o o '" o'"' 9<8! < con % JOO 762 o gJ 20.4 o 09,, J o J o 269,., < o t.S9 o.., '"L < o o 273 '93, o o o o , o o , o e "'' 2n "'' 289, o o \ o 2'35 7< <! 096< o 33 3)8 O lhi «'" o JO\ "'' '"' 56 2' o J096, o,.., : 32 o o , 09< o <5 368 o o o ' H 0 A7 373 o Z'9 J 28 o <..., '3, 6 O\ S< 39 o 35 3<3 oo 0 6 o "92, ~e;,;,_ a, ~ 3% e.:~ 3<5 o.:oo 03i u 3.55 ; 02 i 4V6 35 il 230 :n.2,.t;" 72 5{) 38 o ,., o 79 "' '55 o <36 07 o , 500, O C3.&_78 o e.< Ai" o., , J.I.Q.I o o o '" '" o o.(0 0 4, o.,. 3, , o 552, < <4< , "" ""' O ii"s <52 o 53 3.&9 0<65 8, <.36 o o 3< 26 5< o 562 u 27 0-'92,, , o 28 SS< <802,.5< o ' o 226 o o o 237 "' 6 02 Z' o OSH o H 7 2 o 590 < l 025<! 6 55 o 2:5 '" o , o o o o 62' , 925 <8.00 o m 7t>l o os « o « o & o OS«,.. o""' IB.n i 70

98 SPECIFICATION FOR FORGINGS, CARBON STEEL, FOR GENERAL-PURPOSE PIPING E95 SA-8/SA-8M (ldentical with ASThl Specification A 8/A 8M-93a) ) ' l. Scope. This specificntion covers nonstandard as-forgcd fittings, val ve components, and parts for general servicc..2 Two grades of material are covered, designatcd as Classes 60 and 70. rcspectively, :.md are classified in accordance with thcir chem cji composition and mechamcal propcrties a~. ~peciticd in 5. l and Cbss 60 was formcrly designated Grade and Class 70 was formerly designated Grade ll. pound units and SI unjts. However, unless the arder spccifics the appeco.blc "M" spc~.:ification design~hion (SI units). the material shall be fumished to inch-pound unlts. LS The valucs statcd!!! e!!her!!"!ch-pound units cr SI units are to be rcgarded as standard. Within thc ~ text, the SI units are shown in brackets. Thc vaiues stjtcd in ejch systcm are not exact equivalents; therefore, each systcm must be used indcpendenty of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconfonnance with the specification. 2. Referenced Documents 2. ASTM Standards: A 275/ A 275M Test Method for Magnetic Particle Examination of Stee Forgings A 370 Test Methods and Dcfinitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products A 700 Practices for Paekaging. Marking, and Lqading Methods for Steel Products for Domestic Shipment A 788 Specification for Steel Forgings. General Requirements A 75 Test Mcthods, Practiccs, and Tcrminology for Chemical Analysis of Steel Products E 65 Test Methods for Liquid Penetran! Inspection Mcthod E 709 Guide for Magnetic Partcle Examination 2.2 ASA/E B0ler and Rressure Vessel COde: Scction IX, Wclding Qualifications Sect:on Ylll. Pressure Yessels, Div. 2.3 Mi!irary Swndard: MIL-STD-63 Stcel Mili Products, Preparation for Shipmeni: <:ind Siú age 2.4 AIAC Stanrlnrd: AlAG B Primary Mctals ldcntification Tag Application Standard 3. Orderinli Information 3. Ordcrs for matenal under this specification shall include the following information, as nccessary, to descnbe adequatcly the desired material: 3.. Dcscnption of item requirements, 3..2 Material class (see.2), 3..3 Specification designation, 3..4 RequJrements penaining 0 sketch (see 4.4) 3..5 Wed repair of specially designed pans (see.2) Use of the shon circuit gas metal are welding (GMAW) process for repair welds (see.4), 3..7 Making repair welds exceeding the limits spccified herein (see.7), and 95

99 SA-8SA-8M 995 SECTION 3..8 Requirements pertammg ro chemical and mechanical test results (see Sections 5 and 6). 4. Materials and Manufacture 4. The steel shall be made by lhe open-hearth, basic~oxygen. or electric-fumace process and shall be fully killed. 4.2 A sufficient discard shall be made from source material to sccure freedom from injurious piping and undue segregation. 4.3 The material shall be forged as clase as practicable lo the specified shapc and stze. 4.4 Except for flanges of all types, hollow, cylindrically shaped parts may be machmed from hot-rolled or forged bar, provided lhat the axial lenglh of the pan ts approximately parallel ro the metal ftow lines of the stock. Other parts, excluding ftanges of all types. up to and including NPS 4 may be machined from hot-rolled or forged bar. Elbows, return bends, tees, and header tees shall not be machined directly from bar stock. ~-5 Exccpt as permittcd in 4.4, lhe finished product shall be a forging as dcfined in the Tcrminology section (exclusivcly) of Soccification A \Vhcn specificd In the urder, the manufacturcr shall submu for approval of lhe purchaser a sketch showing the shape of the rough forgmg befare ma.. chining Forgings shall be protccted against sudden or too rapid cooling from thc rolling or forging while passmg through the cntical range. 4.8 Heat treatment is neither required nor prohibited, but when applied, heat treatment shall consist of tempering, annealing, normalizing, or nonnalizing and tem pering. S. Chemical Composition 5. Casi or Heal Ana/ysis- An analysis of each cast or heat shall be made by the manufacturer ro determine the percentagcs of thc elements specified in Table l. The analysis shall be made from a test sample taken preferably during the pouring of lhe cast or heat. The chcmical composition lhus delermined shall conform ro the requirements in Table l Producl Ana/ysis: 5.2. The purchaser may make a product analysis on forgings supplied ro this specification by any of the commonly accepted melhods lhat will positively identify lhe material. Samples for analysis may be taken from midway berween center and surface of salid forgings, midway between inner and outer surfaces of hollow forgings, midway between center and surface of full-size prolongations, or from broken mechanical test specimens. The chemical composition thus deter mined shall conform ro Table wilhin lhe permissible variations of Table Test Melhods, Praclices, and Terminology A 75 shall apply. 6. Mechanlcal Properties 6. The material shall conform ro lhe requirements as ro tensile properties prescribed in Table Testing shall be performed in accordance with Test Methods and Definitions A Test Specimens 7. The tension test specimens shall be machined to the form and dimensions of lhe standard_2-io. [50 mm] gage length tension test specimen shown in Fig. 4 of Test Methods and Defirütions A 370, except as spccified in In the case of small sections which will not permit the raking of standard test specimen specified in 7., lhe tension test specimen shall be as large as fcasible and its dimensions shall be proportional ro!hose shown in Fig. 4 of Test Melhods and Definitions A 370. The gage lenglh for measuring elongation shall be four times the diameter of the specimen. 7.3 For the purpose of determining conformance ro Table 3, specimens shall be obtained from the production forgings, or from separately forged test blanks prepared from the stock used ro make the finished producr. Such test blanks shall receive approximately lhe same working as the finished product. 8. Number of Tests 8. One tension test shall be made from each heat. 8.2 If any test specimen is defectively machined, it may be discarded and another specimen substituted. /

100 PARTA - FERROUS MATERIAL SPECIFJCATIONS SA-8/SA l8m i! l! ' l í ~ 9. Retests 9. \Vhen one or more representative test specimens do not conform to spec ñcauon requirements for the tested characteristjc. only J smgle re test for each nonconforming charactenstjc may be performed to establish product acceptabihty. Retests shall be performed on twice the number of representative specimens that were originally noncon(orming. \Vhen any retest specimen does not confonn to speciric~hjon requirements for the characteristlc in question. the lot represented by that specimen shall be rejccted. heat-trcated or rcheat-treated m accordance Wlth 4.6, :md tested in accordance with Sections 6, 7, and Workmanship. Finish, and Appcarance 0. The forgin~s shall be free of injurious imperfcctions as ddlned bclow Jnd shall have a workmanlike fmish. At the discrction uf the mspector reprcsenting the purdw.ser, timshed forgings shali be subject to rcjcction if surfacc imperfcctions.jcccptablc under 0.3 are not scattcred but appc.lr over J ijrge area in excess of what is considcred n \\ orkmanhke finish. 0.2 Depth uf /njunn;is lmpafccrions - Selcctcd typ!cal linear and other t}'plcal ~urfacc imperfections shall be cxplorcd ior depth \Vhcn the depth encroachcs on thc minimum \\; ]] th.:k.ness of thc tlnishcd forging, ~uch impcrfecuon.-. shall l,c con<; Jaed injurious. 0.3 Alachining or Gri;:.~;,;g lm h ift:crions Not C!assified as lrljurious- Surf2~ e llllpt: ft'ctions not classified as injurious shall be trc:\tcd.s flllows: 0.3. Forgin~s sh~m lo f. 5,_ :ms,!~ps, tears, or slivers not decpcr than S';- llr' thc nominji wall thickness or / 6 in. [.6 mm], \\ hichevcr is less, need not have thcse impcrfcctjons :-;.>moved. If thc imperfections rcquire rcmoval. thcy sh.l!j bt' removed by machining or grinding Mech:mJcal ::urks or abrasions and pits shall be acceptable withmh grinding or machining provided the depth Joes n.,t e:xceed the limitations set forth in 0.2 and t not c!c eper thon / 6 in. [.6 mm]. If such imperfect0ns are Jeeper thon / 6 in. [.6 mm] but do not encro:j.... ~h on t~w minhnum wall thickness of the forging thev shali be renwved by grinding to sound metal When unpen ectlons llj\ e been removed by grindmg or machining. t:c outsk dimcnsion at the pomt of grinding or mjc~:.:hng m~l~ be reduced by the amount removed. Should :: be J!ll~rJcticJb!e to secure a direct measurement, the wall thickness at the point of grinding. or at imperfections not required to be removed. shall be determined by deducting the amount removed by grinding, from the nominal finished wall thickness of the forging. and the remainder shall not be less than the minimum specified or required wall thickness.. Repair by Welding. Repoir welding, by the manufacturer, is peimissible for parts made to dimeosional standards such as those of ANSI or equivalent standards..2 Prior approval of the purchaser shall be required to weld repair special parts made to the purchaser' s requiremcnts..3 The welding procedure and welders shall be qualified in accordance with Sectlon IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code..4 The composition of the weld deposits shall be similar to the base metal and in accordance with the procedure qualification for the applicable material. Welding shall be accomplished with a weld procedure designed to produce low hydrogen in the weldment. Short-circuit gas metji are welding is pemissiblc only with the approval of the purchaser..5 Unacceptable imperfcctions shall be removed by mechanical mejns or thcrmal cutting or gouging methods. Cavities prepared for welding shall be examincd by one of the following methods to vcrify removal of the imperfection:.5. Magnetic particle cxamin:tion in accordjncc with Test Method A 275 or Guide E Liquid penetran.! examination in accordance with Test Method E Weld repaired area(s) shall be blended uniformly to the base metal and shall be examined by the same method used for.5..7 Repair by welding shall neither exceed!o % of the surface area of the part, nor 33 / 3 % of the wall thickness of the finished product at the location of repair, without pnor approval of the purchaser. 2. Marklng of Forgings 2. Identification marks consisting of the manufacturer's symbol or name (Note), designation of sen ice rating, Specification number, grade. and size shall be 97

101 SA-8SA-8M 995 SECTION legibly forged or stamped on each forgmg, and in such a position as not to in jure the usefulness of the forgings. The specification number marked on the forgings need not include specification year of issue and revision letter. NOTE - For purposes of Jdentlfica:ion marking, the manufacturcr is consdered the orgamzation that ceniries the piping componen\ was manufactured, sampled, and i;!sted m accordance wth this specificatmn and the results have been deterrmned to meet the requirements of thts ~pcclflc:~tjon. 2.2 Bar Coding - In addition to the requirements in 2., bar coding is acceptable as a supplementary idcntification method. Bar coding should be consistent with AIAG standard B Primary Metals Jdentification Tag Application. lf used on small parts, the bor code may be app!icd to the box or a substantially applied tag. 3. Packaging, Marking, and Loading for Shipment 3. Packaging, marking, and loading for shipment shall be in accordancc wilh Practiccs A \Vhcn specificd in the contraer or arder, and for dircct procurcment by or direct shipment to the govcrnmcnt. when leve! A JS spccitkd, prescrvation, packagmg, and packing sh3ll be in accordance with lhp. tcvt~l A rcquircmcnts of :\IL-STD Inspcction 4. Thc manufacturer shall afford the purchascr's inspector al! rc;_ :-,onablc faciliues ncccssary to satisfy him that thc material rs bcinf produccd and fumrshcd in accordance \Vith th spccjiic<j.tion. :\ill inspection by the purchaser sha\ not l!hcrferc unnecessanly wjth the manufacturer's opero.tions. Al! tests and inspections shall be madc at thc place of manufacture, unless otherwise agreed to. 5. Certificate of Compliancc 5. When spccificd in the purchase order or contrae!, a producer's or supplier's certification shall be furnished to the purchaser that the material was manufactured. samplcd, testcd, and inspected in accordance with this specification and has been found to meet the requirements. The spccification designation included on certificates of compliance shall include year of issue and revision lettcr, if any. 5.2 \Vhen spccified in the purchase arder or contrae!, a repon of the test results shall be furnished. 6. Reports of Testing 6. Upon rcqucst of the purchascr in the contract or arder. J rcport of the test rcsults and chemicjl analyses shall be furnished. The spccification designation included on rcports of testing shall include year of issue and revision lctter. if any. 7. Rejection 7. Each forging that devclops injurious defects during shop workmg or application shall be rejectcd :!.nd the manufacturcr notified.!8. Rehearing 8. Samples represcnting material rejected by the purchaser shall be preserved until disposition of thc clarm has bccn agrccd upon betwcen the manufacturer and the purchaser. 98

102 J PART A - FERRO US MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS SA-8/SA-8!M l TABLE Eioment C&rtlot\, max M~!e.~ Phospllorus, max """"' SiJtuc. rnax """. Chemlc:al Requlrementa A may be S'\ee6$S.at'y to add slllcon to the compositjon tor Clas.s 70 ano for the heav~ ltllc:kr.enea ol CLasa 60 ftanqea in order to moot the reqwroo temule propertkls Tha slllcon con!ent sha.l not exceed 0.35 ~- Mangane~ may be lnaaased to.35 l. max pro'llded the caroon IS roouced O 0 '- lor 8actl 0.06 l. locnese in manganesa OV'Ir the ~mlt $hown in!he table j j TABLE 2 PermiiDlble Varlationa In Produc Analyala Nore-Product cross-secuonal area ls defined as either: (a) rnaxlmum cross-secuonal atea of fouqi'l machlned lcroioq (exduclng boring), (b) m8..:(imum cross-sactlon8 area ol the lltv"lachhned forglllg, or ) (e) maxlmum cross-60ctlooal area ol the Nlet, bk:lom or slab. Manganeso ~!O org lnctuding Si ano O 'lar Phosoh<:>ru> Suiftn" Silcon 200 " ' (290 cm'] r.mi:ooer Atea taken at right anglas to the axis of the ~inal ngot or b<uet PemllsSible Variations over the Maxlmum Umlt or Uider the Mlnimum l.jmit, % Over 200 to 400 In. :' Over 400 to aoo In. :l (290 to 2580 cm'] (2580 to 560 cm 2 ] ind lnct o IJ.C~C Ovar eoo to 600 In 2 (580 to cm'] Over 600 m. 2 (0 320 cm'] TABLE 3 TenSiie streogth, mm, ksj {MPaj Yield alrooqth:., mll"', ksj [MPe) Elongatlon In 2 '\, {50 mm}, mln, lo Reduction Olre, m!n, ~ Tenalle Requlrementa Class [45} 30 (205J Class [465] 36[250/ 24 " A Determned by etther the 0.2 lo offset method Ot the O 5 X extensiofl \.li'jdef-loed meth<xl. 99

103 SA-8!/SA-8!M 995 SECTION l SUPPLEMENTARY REQillREMENTS SI. Carbon Equivalen! SI.! The maximum carbon equivalen! based on heat analysis shall be as follows: Maximum Carbon Equivalent Value Maximum Section Thickness Maximum Section Thickness Class Less Than or Equal to 2 in. Greater Than 2 in Sl.2 Determine the carbon equivalen! (CE) as follows: CE p C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 +(Ni+ Cu)/5 Sl.3 A lower maximum carbon equivalen! may be agreed upon between the sup : lier and the purchaser. Sl.4 When this Supplementary Requirement is invoked, all elements n the carbon equivalent formula shall be analyzed and the amounts reponed. \ 200

104 j ' l j i \ SPECIFICATION FOR PRESSURE VESSEL PLATES, CARBON STEEL, FOR INTERMEDIATE- AND HIGHER-TEMPERATURE SER VICE (ld~mical SA-55/55M wnh ASTM Spccifica(lon A 55/A 5!5M-93) ~ j! ' \ -' ) J. Scnpc. This spccjfication L'L\'Crs carbnn-sdicon..;tccl rlatcs primarily for intcrmcjtatc-,lfld hlghcr-tcmpcraturc scrvicc in wcldcli botlcrs and lllhcr pres:-;urc vesseis..2 ~vbterial umkr thi.s -"f'l'cjfica!hl!l is ;wat!ahlc m four gr:ulcs having diffcrcm :'trcngth k\ cb J'l folltlws: Gr:, de U S ]SI] (lt) ]4 5) 65 ]-50] 70 I-IX5 Tl'n'li~ Srengh. k~ j.\ip:l] (JO-~ll [4!5-550] 65-S5 [-l:'i0-.5r5] 7{- lt) [-l.s5-6~fl!.3 Thc rna.\imum thcknl'ss of pbtcs ~ lirnltej only be thc capacuy of thc COITipt'SJtion tn meet thc ~pecitied mcchanical propeny rcqutrcments: howcver. currcnt practice norm _ JJy limas the rna:xunum thickness of platcs furnished undcr thi.s :'pecificmon as follows: Gcadc U S. [Sil [4H5 Ma\Jillum Thtdnc.<..<., ~ > :ro 8 [2L\l[ 8 I2L\ll.4 Thc valucs st.:j.tcd in cjther inch-pound units or SI units are to be rcgardcd.separarcly as standard. \Vithin thc text. the SI unn:- are :-IH)wn brackets. Thc \'alucs sratcd n e:.tch systcm are not c.:xact c.:quiv <.~lcnts: therefore, cach systcm must be uscd indepcn Jcntly of thc other. Combining values from thc two :-.y~tcrns rnay rcsult in nonconformance with rhe spcc- flc:hion. 2. Referenccd Documcnt 2. ~ AS7~H Sicmdard: A 20!:\ 20M Spcc fication for General Reqlllrements íor Stcei Platcs for Prcssure Vcsscl.;; 3. General Requircments and Ordcring Information 3. Matcriol supplied to this material spccification shall confom to Specification A 20/A 20M. Thcsc rcquiremcnts outlinc thc tcsting and retcst~ng mcthods <.~nd proccdurcs. permissible variations in dimensions. and mass, guality and repair of dcfccts. marking. loading. etc. 3.2 Speciticauon A 20/A 20M also establishes the rules for the ordering infonnation that should be complied with when purchasing material to this spccification. 3.3 In addition to the basic requirements of this specification, cena in supplementary requirements are available when additional control, testing, or examination is requircd to meet end use requircments. These inelude: 3.3. Vacuum treatment, 793

105 SA-55/SA-55\ Additional or spcciol tcnsion te5tmg lmpact te5ting. and 995 SECTION I 5.2 Plote5 ovcr 2 in. [50 mm[ m thickness sholl be normalized Nondestructivc cxamination. 3.4 The purchaser i5 referred to the listcd supplementaf)' requirements 0 this spccification and to the detmlcd requirement5 in Specification A 20/A 20M 3.5 lf the requirements of thi5 specification are m contlict with the requircment5 of Spec fication A 20/ A 20M. the requirement5 of th5 specifjcotion 5holl pre voil. -. Manufacture 6. Chemical Requircments 6. The 5tecl shall confom to thc chemical requjrements shown in Tablc unless mherwise mojified in accordance with Supplementary Requirement S 7. Vacuum Carbon-Deoxidized Steel. in Specification A 20/A 20M. 4. Seelmaking Pracllce - The steel shall be killed and made to a coarse austcmtic grain sizc practicc. 5. Heat Treatment 5. P!atcs 2 in. [50 mm] Jnd under in thickness are normal! y supplied in thc as-m!led condition. The plates may be ordcrcd normalilcd or stc~s relicvcd, or hoth 7. \:lcchanical Hc< uiremcnts 7. Tensum Test Requiremenrs- The matcnal as reprcscntcd by the tcnsion-tcst specunens shall conforn to thc rcqum~mcnts shown in Tablc 2. TABLE l CHEMICAL REQ!JlREMENTS Composton. ~ Elemen:::; Cdrbon. max". n [25 mm] ancl under Over to 2 n [25 lo 50 mm]. r.cl Ove- 2 lo.t in. [50!o (() mm], ncl Over 4 to 8 n. [00 to 200 mm]. ncl Ovar 8 n [200 mm] Manganesa. max Hall! analysis PrOduct anayss PhQsphorus, max" Sullur. max" Sloeon Heat analyss Pr00uc analyss Grade 60 [Grade 45] o o o Grade 65 [Grade 450] o o 98 o 035 o Gradll 70 [Grade 485] o 35 o o 035 o " Apphes to both heat and pto<luc! anar., ses TABLE 2 TENSILE REQUIREMENTS Grade Tensle str9f9h, ksi [MPa] Yleld strength. mn, ksl [MPa] ElongatiOI'IJn 8 m [200 mm], mn, 'l Elongat00n 2 m.[so mm[, mn, '.f, 60 [45) [45-550] 32 [220 2' 25' 65 [450! [ ] 35 [240 9' [ [ ] 38 [260 7' 2' " See Spoohca\lon A 20/A 20M. l 794

106 l l ' SI. S2. PARTA- FERROUS MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS SA-55/SA-55M Supplementary requir~ments sha!! not app!y unlcss sptxjficd in the order. A llst of standarji*zed ;..upp!ern~ntary requrements for use al the option of thc purchascr s included in :\STM Sp~ciflcllion :\ 20/A ~0\. Tho~e wlhch are considcrej ~Uitab!c for use WJth this spccification are listcd bclow by titk. Val'uum Treatmcnt, Product Analysis. S3. Simulatcd Post-Weld Heat Treatment of J\'Iechanical Te~t Coupon., SS. S..J.I Additiona Tcnson Test, Charpy V-'\otch lmpact Test, S6. Drop-\Vcight Tt~t. S7. lfigh-tcmper~ture Tension Test. SH. Ullrasonic E.xamination in accordance S pecification A -BS/ A 435 M, S9. Magnetic Particle Examination. with S. Ultrasonic Examination in accord:.mcc with Specification A 577/A 577M, Sl2. Ultrasonic Examination in accordancc with Specification A 578/ A 578M. SI~. Bcnd Test, and S 7. Vacuum Carhon-Deoxidized Stecl.. ' ADDITJON.-\L SUPPLEi\IENTARY ImQUIREMENTS :\;-.o li.'.tcj he/m\ "í's.m addjtwn:ji opoona! ~upplcm~ntary rcquircment sujtabk for this.\pccificatiojr ' S6. :\ustcnitic Grain Sii'.C Sfil.l Thc matcri~l.sha!l havc a carburin~d aust~nljc ~r~un SJLC nf ro 5 795

107 ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE AN INTERNA TION ALL Y RECOGNIZED CODE SECTION II Materials Part B - Nonferrous Material Specifications 995 EDITION JUL Y l. 995 AS~IE BOILER ANO PRESSURE VESSEL COMMITIEE SUBCOMMITIEE ON MA TERIALS \ / THE.-\MERIC.-\N SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 345 East 47th Street New York, N.Y. 007

108 e " w " L " " : j i \ j l j : i SB-247 SB-248 SB-249 SB-25 SB-265 SB-27 SB-283 SB-308/SB-308~ SB-35 SB-333 SB-335 SB-337 SB-338 SB-348 SB-359 S!l-363 SB-366 SIJ-367 SB-369 SB-38 SIJ-395 SB-407 SB-408 SB- -H)9 SB-423 SIJ-424 Sll-425 SB-434 SB-435 SB-443 SB-444 SB-446 SB-462 SB-463 SB-464 SB-466 SB-467 SIJ-468 Aluminum-AIIoy Die and Hand Forgtngs. General Reqmrements for Wrought Copper :J.nd Coppcr-Alloy Pbtc, Sheet. Strip, and Rolled Bar.... General Requirements for Wrought Coppcr ;md Coppcr-Alloy Rod. Bar. and Sh::~pes.... General Reqmrements for Wrought Scamle~s Coppcr and Coppcr-Alloy Tuhl' Titamum and Titanium Alloy Stnp, Sheet, and P\ate. Copper-Base Centrifuga! Castings. Copper o.nd Copper-Ailoy Die Forgings (Hot Pressed). Aluminum-Alloy Standard Structur~ll Shapes. Seamless Copper Alloy Pipe and Tu be. ~tckel-~olybdenum Alloy Plate. Sheet, uml Strip. I'\ickel-~olybdenum Alloy Rod... Seamless and Welded Titan!um and Titanium Alloy Pipe. Seamless and Welded Titanium and Titamum Alloy Tubes for Condensers and Heat Exchangcrs. Ttamum and Titanium Alloy Bars ::md B!llcts Copper and Copper-AIIoy Seamless Condcnser and llcat Exchanger Tubcs With Integral Fins... Seamlc:-.s and Welded Unalloyed Titanmm and Tt:miun Alloy Wclding Finng:-.. Factory-\tade Wrought Nickel and i\'ickel Alloy Wclding Fittings. Tnamum and Titamum Alloy Ca.stmgs Copper-?'-iickel Alloy Castings Titamum :nd Titamum Alloy Forgings.. L:-llend Seamless Coppcr and Coppcr Alloy Heat E.xchanger and Condcmc Tubes. \"id:el-lron-chromium Alloy Seamk:-.s Pipe and Tu be.. \' c}..e\-lron-chrommm t\lloy Rod and Bar. \ ckel-lror;-chmmmm r\lloy Pl~H<.!. Shee:. ;- J S;rip. \Ckcl-ln::m-Chronuum-r.lolybdenum-Coppcr t\\oy (UNS N08825 and Ui'-JS \0822) Scamlcss Pipe ano Tube.. \'i-fc-cr-\.to-cu Alloy (UNS NOSS25 and UNS N0822) PI ate, Sheet, ::ind Strip. :\ ckel-lron-chrommm-~lolybdcnurn-coppcr Alloy (UNS N08825 and UNS NOS22) Rod and Bar... :\' ckcl-\lolybdcnum-chrommm-lron Alloy (UNS N\0003) Phlle, Sheet, and Stnp.... UNS ':06002, UNS N062JO ancl UNS R30556 Plate. Sheet, and Stnp.. ;\ickcl-chromium-molybdcnum-columbmrn Alloy (UNS N06625) Plate. Sheet, and Strip Ntckei-Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbtum Alloy (UNS N06625) Pipe and Tu be...,..., :"tckei-chromium-molybdenum-columbium Alloy (UNS N06625) Rod ~dbu.... Forged or Rolled Chromium-Nicke!-lron-~lolybdenum-Copper Columbium Stabilized Alloy (UNS NOS020) Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittmg~. and Val ves and Parts for Corrosive High-Temperature Scrvce... UNS N08020, UNS N08026, and UNS N08024 Alloy Plate. Sheet, and Stnp... \l'elded UNS N08020, UNS N0802.\, and UNS N08026 Alloy Pipe.... Seamle!:.s Copper-Nickel Pipe and Tu be Weldcd Copper-Nickel Pipe Welded UNS N08020, UNS N and UNS N08026 Alloy Tubes ] X.'U\'l!Í

109 SB-473 SB-493 Ui':S i'w8020. UNS NOS026, and UNS NOS02-l i'\ickc! Alloy Bar and \Vire.. ZHCllflllHll <JnJ ZrconHJm Alloy Forgmgs SA-.t9-l/S:\-J9J0. Ca~ting,_ i\' ckel and l\':kd Alloy SB-505 SB-5 SB-54 SB-5 5 Cnrp.:r-I3a\é :\lloy CorlltnUOU' c~sting~.!\ Jd.el-lron-Chromrum-Sihcon Alloy Bars ~nd Sh:'tpes Wl'ltkd 0,' ckel-lron-chrllhujn.-\lloy Pipe \\'elt!cd :\'td:d-!ron-chwtnjum.-\lloy (UNS ~08800 and U:'\'S N'OSSIO) Tubc.\ Sll-56 We!Jed '\id.d-chromium-lron Alloy (UNS ~06600) Tu be~. 593 Sll-5 7 SB-523 SB-535 SIJ-536 \Velded ~ickel-chrorum-iron Alloy (UNS N06600J Pipe. Seamlc':-- anj \\'e\ded Zircomurn and ZlrconnHn :\\loy Tubes. ~tdd-lron-chromtum-sillcon Al!oy (UNS ~08330) Seamless Pipe. Ntdd-lron-Chrorniurn-Sdtcon A!loy (UNS N08330 :md N08:32) P!atc. Sheet. and Stp SB-5-. \VeldrJ Copper and Coppcr-Alloy Hcat Exclwngcr Tu be. 62 SB-5-!S SB-550 U!tra~omc!nl:ipectton of.-\luminum-aiioy PLHc for Pressurc Vessels. Ztrconiurn <Jnd Ztrcomum A!loy I3ar ami Wre Sll-55 Ztn.:onum and Ztrcontum \!loy Stnp, Sheet. and PI.Hc 645 Sll-5<>4 SJJ-572 SB-57. SB-57-t Ntckd :\lloy f"tlrgtng.\. L'\S i':060cj2. l'~s i\06.::.'0 t~nd UNS RnJ i':tc~cl-:\lolyhdcnum-clmmlium-iron Alloy \UNS ~0003) Rt)d.. Lll\\-C:uhnn \il'kcl-:\lul: hdcnum-chrorn!ulll.md Luw-Carhon Nickei- Chromium-.\lulybdenum Al!oy Rod SIJ-50 SB-5S2 Low-l'.rhon.\..; tcld-:\tul: bdcnum-chrormum and Low-Carbon \'id:ci Chnlrnl\ \lnlyhdenum Alloy Pla\c, Shce. and Stnp :" c~cl-chrom u -/r on-:\ tul ybdcnum-coppl'r.-\lloy Rod :" ll ~cl-chrolllllilll-!ron- :--lt)lybdcnu n-cnppcr \!Joy Pl:nc. Shec:. :.rtd Stnp ó89 l'll ;::: \),)U".)U"' C\lpfLT.\j py S.lllll ca,ll:l :'> lor General ;\pplicatwn, 697 :\. IL ~l'l- r on-chromlllnl ~ llll yblíclluill-columbium St.~bJllt.td.-\lloy ( l~:\s \0:-:700) Platc. Sheet. md Strip 703 SB-6 ) \\'l!tkd ;-\ d,cj :md 0.'JL'kd-Cohalt :\lloy Pipe 73 SIJ-620!':Jcl-..el-lr\-Chrumlurn-~h,lyhdcnum Alloy (U!\S i\'0~.20) Pbtc. Sheet. SB-ó2 SB-622.md Stnp :\ll~l'l-!hm-chnlmjurn-\l<jlyhcknum Alloy (UNS i\ljsj20) Rod. Se:~mk~.., i"k~,! :ah! :'\Jl'~d-Coh:tlt :\lloy Ppc and Tuhe. 7i SB-f25 l':\s :\,90~. l'~s r--;0,025. UNS N0803. L'NS r--;0,932. ull(l UNS ~'.:0~926 Pl:ll'. Sheet, and Stnp 735 SB-62> \\'L idcd!\ ckcl.l!ld Nücl-Cob<.dt :\l!oy Tube. 747 Sll-637 Prectpit:l!lon-H::rdenmg :'\tdel Alloy Bars. Forgtngs. :md Foq;ng Stock Jor High-Tcrnperatur!.! Scn'ice. 755 SIJ-649 N-Fc-Cr-~lo-Cu Low-Carbon Alloy (UNS N08904) and Nt-Fc-Cr-Mo- \ _\ SB-658 Cu-N Low-Curbon Alloy (UNS N UNS r\0303 ond UNS NOS926) Bar and \\'ire Sc:unle~s and \\'eldcd Zin:omum o.nd Zirconium Alloy Pipe SB-668 Ui\'S NOS02S Seamless Tube! SB-672 Ni~ k e - l ron-chromt u m-\lo! ybdcnum-co!u mb u m S ab! t?.ed A!! o y (UNS i\0si00) Bar ami \Vire 779 SB-67:\ SB-ó7-! U:\ S NIISYIJ~. :\OS925 und N08926 Wclded Pipe Ui\S 0:0S90 ~ :mli Ui'. S i\'08925 and UNS N08926 \\'elded Tube SB-675 SB-67(> Sll-677 Ui\'S i\'os366 :tnd UNS ;-\QSJ67 \Velded Pipe U:-... S :-...-OSJ6ñ :md UNS :\08367 Wc!dcd Tube L:\S :-...-o:-:90.!. L'\'S i\'os9~5. and UNS N08926 Seamlc~o;. Ppe ami Tubc \\ \l :\

110 .! SB-688 SB-690 SB-69 SB-704 SB-705 SB-709 SB-70 SB-729 SB-75 SB-775 SB-804 SB-824 SB-829 Chromtum-Nickei-Molybdenum-lron (UNS N08366 and UNS N08367) PI ate. Sheet, and Stnp.... lron-nickei-chromium-molybdenum Alloy> (UNS N08366 and UNS N08367) Seamless Pipe and Tube.... lron-ntckei-chromium-molybdenum Alloys (UNS N08366 and UNS N08367) Rod, Bar, and Wire Nickei-AIIoy (UNS N06625 and N08825) Welded Tu be.... Nickei-AIIoy (UNS N06625 and N08825) Welded Pipe lron-nickei-chromium-molybdenum Alloy (UNS N08028) Plme, Sheet, and Strip Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Sihcon Alloy Welded Pipe.... Seamlcss UNS N UNS N and UNS N08024 Nickei-AIIoy Pipe and Tube.. General Requiremems for Nickel and Nickei-Ailoy Seamless and Welded Tu be.. General Requirements for Nickcl anc: Nickei-AIIoy Seamless and Welded Ptpe.. UNS N08367 Welded Pipe General Requtments for Copper Alloy Castings General Reqturemcnts for NJckcl and Nickel Alloys Scamless Pipe and Tu be xl

111 ) SPECIFICATION FOR SEAMLESS COPPER PIPE, STANDARD SIZES Ess SB-42 (ldentical with ASTM Spect!ication B for the alloys covered except for the deletion of para and Supplementary Requirements for govemmcnt procurement. Certificat!On has been made mandatory.) l. Scopc. This specification covers seamless copper pipe in all nominal or stand:ud pi x sizes, both regular and extra stong. suitable for use in plumbing, boiler fecd lincs, and for similar purposes. E 243 Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-CurrcnE) Examination of Copper and Copper-AIIoy Tubcs E 478 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper Alloys E 527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS).2 Thc valucs stated in inch-pound units are to be regardcd as the standarj. Thc \'J.lues given in parcnthcscs are providcd for infom:hion purposcs only. 3. Terminology ) ) 2- Rcfcrcnccd Documcnts 2. Thc following do..:uments of the issuc in effcct on dg.tc of rr.<.:tcri::il ~urcha5~ fonn a part of this spccification to the. cxtcnt refer.:-nced herein: 2-. ASTA! Srandards: B 53 Test Method for ExpansJOn (Pin Test) of Copper and Coppcr-AIIoy Pipe and Tubing B 70 Spccificauon for Oxygen-Free Electrolylic Copper Refinery Shapes B 60 Practice for Tempcr Designalions for Copper and Copper Alloys-Wroughl and Casi E 8 Test Melhods for T ension Testing of Metallic Materials E 29 Praclice for Using Significan! Digits in Test Dala 0 Determine Confomance with Specificalions E 53 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper E 55 Practice for Samplng Wroughl Nonferrous Metals and Alloys for Detcnninalion of Chemical Campositian E 62 Test Methods for Chemical.-\nalysis of Copper and Copper Alloys (Phot,,melric \kthods) 3. Defirzitions: 3.. /engths - straighl pieces of <he product standard - unifom lengths recornrncnded in a Sirnplificd Practice Rccomme.ndation or cstablishcd as a Commerciul Standard rube, seamless - a tube produccd with a conunuous periphery in all stages of the operations pipe - a seamless tube confonning to the particular dimensions commercially known as Nominal or Standard Pipe Sizes. 3.2 Description of Term Specific 0 This Standard: 3.2- capable of - as used in this spectficalion,!he test need no! be perfonned by!he producer of!he material. However, should subsequenl tesling by!he purchaser establish thal the material does no! mee! lhese requiremenls!he material shall be subjecl 0 rejection. JI

112 SB SECTION ll 4. Ordering Information 4. Orders for material under this specification shall include the following information: 4.. Type of copper. if required, 4..2 Temper (see 6. ), 4..3 Pipe size, regular or extra-strong, (see 0.2), 4..4 Length (see 0.3), 6. Temper 6. All pipe shall normally be fumished in the 06 (annealed), H55 (light drawn), or HSO (hard drawr temper. as prescribed in Practice B 60, and shall ha ve the propemes shown in Tablc When pipe is required for bending, it shall be so specified in the purchase arder. and the pipe shall be fumished in the temper agreed upon between the manufacturer or supplier and the purchaser Total length of each size, 4..6 Mili test re port. if required (see 20. ) Hydrostatic test, if required, and 4..8 Pneumatic test, if required. S. Chemical Composition 5. The material shall conform to the following chemical requiremcnts: Copper (inc! stlvcr), m in, % Phosphorus, max,% 99.9 o The pipe may be produccd from the following coppcrs. and unless otherwise specificd. anyone of them may be fumished: Coppcr UNS No. Cl0200 Cl2000 Cl2200 Previously Used Designation OF DLP DHP Type of Coppcr Oxygen-free without resdenual dco:ml::mts Phosphonzcd, low res dual phosphorus Phosphorized, hgh resdual phosphorus 5.3 When the copper is specified, the material shall conform to the chemical requirements specified in Table l. 5.4 These specification limits do not preclude the possible presence of other elements. Limits for unnamed elements may be established by agreement between manufacturer or supplier and purchaser The majar element that is not analyzed shall be determined by difference between the sum of those elements analyzed and 00%. By agreement between manufacturer and purchaser, analysis may be required and limits established for elements not specified. 7. Expansion Test 7. Pipe ordered in the annealed (O) condition. selected for test. shall withstand an expansion of 25% of the outside diameter when expanded in accordance with Test Method B 53. The expanded pipe shall show no cracking or rupturc visihle to the unaidcd eye. Pipe ordercd in the drawn (H) condition is not subject to this test NOTE - The term "un::udcd eye," ::J.S u~cd herem, penmts the use of correctjvc spcctjclcs ncccs!>ary to ::HI::J.in normal vison. 7.2 As an altemative to expans0n test for pipe ovcr 4 in. (02 mm) in diameter in the annealed condition. a section 4 in. in length shall be cut from the end of one of the Jcngths for a flattening test. This 4-in. specimcn shaii be ilattened so thjt a gage set at thrce times thc wall thckness will pass ovcr thc pipe fre~,;ly thoughout the fiattened part. The pipe so tested shall develop no cracks or flaws visible to the unaided cye (Note l) as a rcsult of this test. In making the ftattcning test the elemcnts shall be slowly ftattened by one stroke of thc press. 8. Microscopical Examination 8. The pipe shall be made from copper that is free of cuprous oxide as determined by microscopical examination ata 75X magnification. When Copper UNS No. CJ2200 is supplied, microscopical examination for cuprous oxide is not required. 9. Nondestructive Testlng 9. The material shall be tested in the final size but may be tested prior to the final anneal or heat treatment. when these thennal treatmems are required, unless otherwise agreed upon by the manufacturer or supplier and purchaser. 2

113 !., ' 9.2 Eddy-Current Test - Each piece of material from /a in. up to and including i/ 2 in. nominal outsidc diameter, or within the capabilities of the eddy-currcnt tester, shall be subjected to an eddy-current test. Testing shall follow the procedures of Practicc E 243, exccpt for detennination of "end cffect." The matenal shall be passed through an eddy-current testi.ng unit adjustcd to provide infonnation on the suitability of the material for the intended application Notch-dcpth standards rounded to the nearest 0.00! in. (0.025 mm) shall be IO'i'o of the nominal wall thickness. The notch depth tolerance shall be ::!: in. (0.03 mm). Altematively, when a manufacturer uses spced insensitive equipment that can select a maximum imbalance signa!, a maximum imbalance signa! of 0.3% may be used Material that does not actuate the signaling dcvice of the eddy-current test shall be considered os conforming to the requiremt!nts of this test. MateriJI with t.liscontinuitics indicated by the testing unit m; y be recxamined or rctested, at the option of the manufacturcr, tü detenninc \Vhcthcr the discontinuity is cause for rejcction. Signals that are found to ha ve been causcd by minor mcchamcal damage, s0l or rnoisture shall not be cause for rcjcctwn 2f thc material provided thc dirnenswns of thc materl6 a;c still within prescribcd limits and thc mataial s suitablc for its intended app!ic:jtion. 9.3 Hydroswtic Tc.H- \Yhcn specificd, the matenal shall stand. without shml.'ing cvidence of leakage, an interna! hydrostatjc pressurc sufficient to subject the material to a fibcr stress of 6000 psi (4 MPa), determined by the following cqu~won for thm luilow cyhnders undcr tcnsion. Thc material need not be tested at a hydrostatic prcssurc of owr 000 psi (6.9 MPa) ~ unless so specificd. PART B - NONFERROUS MATERIAL SPEC!F!CAT!ONS SB-42 method. Any evidence of leakage shall be cause for rejection. 0. Dimensions and Permissible Variations 0. For the purpose of detennining confonnance with the dimensional requirements prescribed in this specification, any measured value outside the limiting valucs for any dimcnsions may be cause for rejection. 0.2 Standard Dimensions, Wal/ Thickness, and Diameter Tolerances - The standard dimensions, wall thickness, and diameter tolerances shall be in accordance with Table Length and Length Tolerances - The standard length of copper pipe is 2 ft (3.66 m) with a tolerancc of ::!: / 2 in. (3 mm). 0.4 Roundness: 0.4. For drawn unannealed pipe in straight lengths, the roundncss tolerances shall be as tollows: tld (r.uio of Wall Thickness to Outsdt: Diamctcr) O 0 to incl Ovcr 0.0) to 0.05, incl O :er a.os ~V 0. o. (\ Over 0.0 Roundness Tolerances as Percent of Outside Diameter (Expresscd to the Nearest 0.00 in. (0.025mm)) Compliance with the roundness tolerance sha!l be detennined by taking measurements on the outside diametcr only, irrespective of the manner in which thc pipe dimcnsions are specified Thc deviation from roundncss is measured as thc difference between majar and minar diameters as determined at any one cross section of the tube. ) ' ) P = 2Sri(D - 0.8) where: P = hydrostatic prcssure, psi (or MPa), t = wal! thickness of the material, in. (or mm), D = outside di ame ter of the material in. (or mm), and S= allowable stress of the material. psi (or MPa). 9.4 Pneumatic Test - Whcn specified, the material shall be subjected to an tntcmal air pressure of 60 psi (45 kpa) rninimum for a S s without showing evidence of!eakage. Thc test method used shall pennit easy visual detcction of any lcakage, such as by having the material under water or by the pressure-differential 0.5 Squareness ofcut- The depanure from squarencss of thc end of any pipe sha!l not excced the following: Outsde Diameter in. (mm) Up to% (5.9), mcl Over% (5.9) Tolerance O.DIO ;n. (0.25 mm) 0.06 inlin. (0.06 mm/mm) of diameter ll. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance. The material shall be free of defects of a nature that interferc with normal commercial applications. lt sha!l be well cleaned and free of din. 3

114 SB SECTION 2. Sampling 2. Sampllllg - The lot stze, portian size, and sclection of samplc peces shall be as follows: 2.. Lot Size - Thc lot sizc shall be as follows: Ptpe Si.c. m Up to /~. mcl Over /~ to -+. mcl Over 4 Lot Wetght, lb (kg) (2270) or fractton thercof (~550) or fractton thercof (!8 00) or fraction thcreof 2..2 Portian Size - Sample peccs shall be taken for test purposes from each lot according to the following schedule: Number of Ptcces in Lot to 50 5 to to J 500 On:r 500 Number of Sarr.ple Pteces 0 be Taken ~ 2 3 O y.. ()f total numbcr of piccc:. tn the Jot. but not to c\rccd O ~amp!e pic:ce~ Each ~a m pi..: pa:cc ~h.lll be takcn from a ~cp. ate tu be 3. Number of Tests ami Rcsults 3. Clzcmical Anaf.nis - Samp!cs for chermc<.l any~dysis ~hall lw t.lkcn tn ;\ccordanc~ with Pra...:t cc E 55. Drill!ng:-;. milhngs. etc.. sha!! be takcn m approxlmatc!y cqu:!l wcigln (rom c:ch of thl: sampk pcccs sclectcd!! :ccrjrd~mc _. wqh! 2.!.2 anj ('(JmbincJ into one compositc samp!c. Thc nunimum we ght of the composllc sampk that IS to be dl\'ided into thrcc cqual parts shall be 50 g 3.. In.'.tcad of <.;arnplmg in accordance \V!th Practice E 55. tllc manufacturcr shall have thc optlon of dctcnnining conforrnancc to chemical composition as follows: Confonnancc ~hall be detennined by the manufacturcr by ana\yzmg samplcs takcn from thc semifinished product. lf thc manufacturer determines the chemica\ composllion of thc material during the course of manufacture, he shall not be required to sample and analyze the fmishcd product. The number of samples taken for determinauon of chemical composition shall be as follows: 3... \Vhen samples are taken at the lime the cjstings are pourcd, at least one sample shall be taken for each group of castings poured simultaneously from thc ~ame source of molten metal When samples are taken from the semifinished product. a samplc shall be taken to reprcsent each lb (4550 kg) or fraction thereof. except that not more than one sample shall be required per piece Due to the discontinuous nature of the processing of castings into wrought products, it is not practical to dentify specific quanitity of finished material In the event that heat identification or traceability is required, the purchaser shall specify the details desired. 3.2 Rctests: 3.2. If any test specimen shows defective machining or develops flaws, it may be discarded and anothcr spccimen substituted If a bend test specimen fails, due to conditions of hendng more severe than required by the specific~llion. a rctest sha\ be permitted on a new samplc pccc or on the remaining portian of the first sample piece If the results of the test on one of the spccimens fail to meet the specified requirements, two additional specimens shall be taken from different sample picccs and tcsted. The results of the tests on both of thcse ~pecimcns sha\ mect th'e specified requircments. Failure nf DrP Than one spccimen to meet the specified rcquircmcnts for a parttcul<l.r propcrty shall be cause fcr rejcction of the entire \ot lf the chemical analysis fails to conform to thc speclfi.ed limits, analysis shall be madc on a new compos!te sample prepared from additonnl pieces selectcd in accordance with 2.. The results of this rctest sha\ comply with thc specified requiremcnts. 4. Test Methods 4. The propenies enumerated in this specification shall, in case of disagreement, be detennined in accordance with the following applicable test methods: Test Chemical analysis Tens0n Ex.pans0n (pin test) Eddy current ASTM Designatton" 8!70 8 E 53, E 62. E 478 EB 8 t53 E 243 "See2. 8 Referencc to Spccification B 70 LS to the suggcstcd chcmical mcthods m the anncx thercof. When CommLttcc E l has tcstcd and publl!>hed mcthods for assaying the low Jevel impuriues tn copper, the SpecJhcation B 70 anncx wdl be elimmated. 4

115 PART B - NONFERROUS MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS SB 42! i i ' 4.2 Tension test specllnens shall be of the full section of the ppe and sh::'..l! confonn to the requirements of the Specimens for Pipe and Tube section, of Test Methods E 8, unless the limitations of the testing machine preclude thc us..:- of such a spccimen. Test spccimens confoming to T~-pe No. offig. 3, Tension Test Specimens for Larg~-Diamcter Tubular Products, of Test Methods E 8 rna) be uscd when a full section specimen cannor be testee. 4.3 \Vhcnever tcnsion test rcsults are obtained from both full sizc and rnachined test speeirnens and they differ, the results obtained from full test specirnens shall be used to determine conformancc to the spccification requirements. 4.4 Tension test rcsulrs lln material covered by this spccification are not ~criou~ly affccted by variations in spced of testing. A considc~jblc range of testing speed is permissble: hmvcvcr, \:':e rate of stressing to thc yicid strength should not é\cccd 00 ksi (700 MPa)/ min. Above thc y eij strcn:;rt thc rnovemcnt per minute of thc tcsting m::chine ht'.lj under load should not cxcced 0.5 in./in. (0.5 m: :./mm) Lf gage length (or t.hstancc bctwcen gnps for :'uli-sl'l'tjon spccimens). - ) 5. Significttn<'c of ~umt:rical Limits 5. For purposes of ~c:::-mintng comphance with Ülc spccillcd limils for rct~.:.íemcnt:' of the propcrtcs listcd in thc followmp tat~~. ;Jfl thserved va!ue or J. caiculatcd vjluc shall he rot:: d~d a!- Jndicatcd in accordancc with thc rounjng mc.::od o( Pmcticc E 29. Chcrmc; J composnmn RoliJHk,J Unil for 0:--::-vell tr l'jlculated Value nean:< ::-: m lht i.lsl nghi-hand place 6. The rnanufacturcr ;hjji afford the inspector reprcsenting thc purchascr all reasonnble facilities, without charge, to sotisfy hirn that the material is being fumished in JCcordance with thc specified requirements. 7. Rejection and Rehearing 7. Motcrial that fails to conform to the requircrnents of this specificotion rnay be rejccted. Rcjection shouid be reponed to the manufacturer or supplier pi-omptly and in writing. In case of dissatisfaction with the results of the test, the manufacturer or supplier may make claim for a rehearing. 8. Packaging and Package Marking 8. Thc rnateriol sholl be separated by S!Ze, cornposition, and temper, and prepored for shipment in such a manner as to ensurc acceptance by common carrier for transportation and to afford protcction from the normal hazaards of transponat0n. 8.2 Each shipping unit shall be legibiy rnarked w!lh the purchase arder nurnber, metal or alloy designation, tcmpcr, sze. total lcngth or piecc count or both, and name of supplier. The specification nurnber shall be shown, whcn specificd. 9. Certitkat!cn J9.i Thc manufacturer shall fumsh to the p~rchaser a ccrtificjte stating that each lot has becn sampled, testcd, and inspected in accordance with this spccification and has mct thc requircmcnts. 20. i\lill Test Report ) _..- Ten.~llc Slrength Yicld strength 6. Inspection 20. When specificd on thc purchasc ordcr. the manufacturer shail fumish to thc purchascr a test rcport shov.ing results of tests requircd by thc specificjtion. 2. Keywords 2. copper pipe; extra strong; regular; standard sizes ).-.. _./ 5

116 SB SECT0N TABLE CHEMCAL REQUREMENTS Copper UNS No. Copper (incl Silver), min,% Phosphorus, 0 /o C! Cl Cl to to TABLE 2 TENSJLE REQUREMENTS Temper Desgnaton Pipe Sze Nomnal or Tensi!e Yield Standard, Strength, Strength,,~ Standard Former In. mm, ksi 8 rnin, ks 8 06 annealed all H 80 hard drawn /fl-2, H55 lght drawn 2-2,... At 0.5% extenson under load. "ksi = 000 PSI incl 45 a o mcl

117 PART B - NONFERROUS MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS SB-42 TABLE 3 STANDARD DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, ANO TOLERANCES NOTE-AII tolerances are plus and minus except as otherwise indcated. Nominal or AverJ.ge Outs de Standard Outs de Diameter, Diameter Tolerances/ Theoretical Weght, Pipe Size, n in. ín A!l Minus Wall Thcknes::., in. Tolerance/ in lb/h Regular '! o o ', o '!. o 675 o '/, '/, oso o j/. 660 o /.900 o 006 o o 008 o '/ ~ 008 o !0 o '/, J.OlO o : 02 o 250 o S )OH o O lo o : JO lq?:jo 0 J22 o ~0 ~~ 02 ; o Extra StrOtlfJ, o!05 ) o}(o.; O loo ', } OOJ o o 6 '/, o 67<:J l) 05 o o 829 'f. 0.8'0 J 005 o 4() l 23, C Oó o l _) ÜÜIJ o lr/..660 (l 000 o l<j4 o '/, l 900 : vos ;' 2 /l e ooc ') o o lo / o o o o S 562 o o 4 o 375 o o o 020 o o 040 6!. ~The average outside diameter of, tube rs ;.nc average cf :he rnaxrmum and mrnimum outside drarneters as determmed at any one cross section of tlle pipe I!Maxrmum devration at any one pomt 7

118 SB SECTION APPENDIX (Nonmandatory lnformation) XL METRIC EQUIVALENTS X. Thc SI unit for strcngth propcrties now shown!s in accordance with the Intcrnat\Onal System of Units (SI). The derived SI unit for force is the ncwton (N), which is Uefined as that force which when.pplicd to a body having a mass of onc kilogram givcs it an acccleration of onc meter per second squarcd (N = kg m/s 2 ). The dcrived SI unit for pressurc or stress in thc newton pcr squ;.~rc mctrc (N /m~). which has beco namcd the pascal (Pa) by the General Confcrcncc on \Vctghts ;md Jvtcasurcs Stncc ksi = 6 R Pa the mctnc equi\'~tlcnts are cxptcsscd ~s mcgapascal (i'v!pa). \\'hlch is thc s~jmc as l\ N/m 2 and N/mm:::. 8

119 ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE AN INTERNA TIONALL Y RECOGNIZED CODE SECTION II Materials Part C - Specifications for W elding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals 995 EDITION JULY!,!995 \ _. AS~IE BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL COMMITIEE SUBCOMMIITEE ON NONDESTRUCTJVE TESTING THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS.. United Engincering Center 345 East 47th Street New York, N.Y. 007

120 Date of Issue- July, 995 (Include::. all Addenda dt~ted December 994 and earlier) This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the entena for American National Standards. The Consensos Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that mdividuals from competen! and concemed interests have had an opportunity to pamcpate. The proposed code or standard was made avaj]able for pub!jc review and comment which provides an opportumty for additional public mput from indusrry, academia, regulatory agences, and the public at-large. ASME does not "approve,'' "rate," or "endorse" any nem. construction, propnetary devtce, or acuvity. ASME docs not take any pos Ilion with respect to the vahdity of any patent rights assened in connect0n wtth any items mentioned m this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizmg a standard agamst liabiltty for infringement of any applicable Letters Patent, nor assume any such \Jabilny. Users of acode or standard are expressly advised that detenninauon of the validity of any such patent nghts, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsjbility. Panicipation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry JS not to be interpreted as govemment or industry endorsem*nt of this code or standard. ASME accepts responsibility for only those mterpretat0ns issued in accordance with govemmg ASME procedures and policies which preclude the tssuance of interpretat0ns by individual volunteers. ASME collective membership mark The abo\'e AS~tE ~:rr.-:.bols are rcgistcrcd in the \5.S. Pat<:nt Office. "ASME" is the trademark of thc A menean SOCICIY of Mechanical Engineer:s. Copyright!995 ily THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGlNEERS All Righrs Reserved The SpectficatiOns published and copyrighted by The American Welding Society are reproduced wtth the Society's pennission. No part of ths document may be reproduced in any fonn, m an electronic retneval system or otherv. se, wnhout the prior wntten pennission of the pubhsher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: Printed in the United States of America Adopted by the Councl of the Amencan Society of Mechanical Engineer:s,!94. Revi"d 940, 94, 943, 946, 949, 952, 953, 956, 959,962, 965, 968, 97, 974, 977, 980, 983, 986, 989, 992, 995

121 CONTENTS Appendx Mand:nory- Preparation of Techmeal Inquiries ro the Boder and Pressure Vcssel Commmee.... xxix SI Umts xxxi SFA-5 SFA-5.2 SF.-\-5 3 SFA-5.4 SF,\-5 5 SFA-5.6 SF SFA-5.8 SFA-5.9 SF.--5 o SF.--5. SF SF.--5.!3 SF,\-5.4 SFA-5.5 SFc\-5.6 SFA-5.7 SF. \-5.8 SF..\-5.20 SF.-\-5.2 SF SF.-\-5.23 SFA-5.24 SF SFA-5.26 SFA-5.27 SFA-5.28 SFA-5.29 SF SFA-5.3 SFA-5 0 Carbon Steel Eleetrodes for Shelded Metal Are Weldmg.... Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Rods for Oxyfuel Gas Welding Aluminum and Alummum Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Are Welding Stainless Steel Elcctrodes for Shieldcd Metal Are Wclding.... Low Alloy Steel Covered Are Welding Elcctrodes Copper ::md Copper Alloy Covered Elecrrodes Copper and Copper Alloy Bare Weldmg Rods and Electrodes.... Filler Metal for Brazing and Braze Welding.... Bare Stainless Stcel Welding Electrodes and Rods.... Barc :\luminum and Aluminum Al!oy Welding Eleetrodes and Rods..! Nickel and Nickel Alloy Weldng Eketrodes for Shclded Metal Are Wc!ding. Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for Are Welding and Cutting... Sol id Surfacing Wddg Rods and Eleetrodes.... Nid:el and Nickcl Alloy Barc Welding Eleetrodes and Rods.... Welding Electrodes and Rods for Cast fron.... Titanio m and Titanmm Alloy Weldmg Rods and Electrodes.... Carbon Steel Electrodes and flux es for Submerged Are Welding.... Carbon Stee! Fi!!cr Metals for Gas Shieldcd Are Welding.... Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Are Welding.... Composite Surfacing Welding Rods and Electrodes flux Cored Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Steel Electrodes Low Alloy Steel Eiectrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Are Welding Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy We!ding Electrodes and Rods Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electroslag Weiding Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electrogas Welding Copper and Copper Alloy Gas Welding Rods Low Alloy Steel Filler Metals Low Al!oy Electrodes for flux Cored Are Welding... : Consumable Inserts Fluxes for Brazing and Braze Welding Filler ~letal Procuremem Guidelines xxvii

122

123 SPECIFIC:\. TION FOR CARBON STEEL ELECTRO DES FOR SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING ) SFA-5. (ldcn!jcal with A WS Spec fi.cation A5.-9) l. Scope Ths spccitlc~llinn jíl'scnbl'' JCqu~rements for thc classification L)f carh'n :-teel dcctrode~ for shtr.:lded metal are wcldlllg 4. Ccrlificalion By af!hg the A WS ~pccllicatjon and classlficatjon Jesigna(tons to thc n.tckag:ing~. or thc cla:-;~jficauon to thc produc. the manufacturcr ccrofic~ that the product rneeb thc requircmcnts of this spccdicatton. l SECTION A - GE\ER..\L REQUIREMENTS ) 2. Classification ) 2. Tht; \\.'t ldp!g,:l ~!r~~d:> ~ uv~rec! hy ~hi:~ :~p...:cification are cla...;~iricj.!,:~ orjin~ to the fnllowing: ( ) Typc of..:u Tcil:, :-.::e T.~~ lr.: ) (2} Type of L'O\'L:rin:: (See T.bh:: ) (3) \Vcldmg poshil'll!sce T.hk ) (4) Mcchamc:J] pn))'l'tllcs (, thc weld metal tn the as-wcided or agcd C0ihiittLm pl'c Tables 2 and 3) 2.2 ivatcriab,,:ja:-.sli,' l unjer nne cla::.sitic<jt!on shall not be classlficj unjc:.my L'thl'r classification of ths specification. c.\ccpl ih.ll E/0 l ~.\: may abo be classified as E708 pmvj~ d the L'lcc!rode meels all of the requremcnts of both ~ l. ~siric:htün~. 3. Acceptancc Acceptance' of the \\eldinf electrodes shall be in accordance with the t roviswn> of the ANSI!AWS AS.O, Filler M e tal P:. curem( nt Gwdelines.! See AJ (In thc \ppcndh :, r funh:r nformation concemmg accept:mce. tcs!lng t'l the n-:.:::r.l shw.'<.'j. and ANSI/AWS A5 0 Filler Mewf Procun me/ t:..: : hnl'.l ~ AWS st::mdards.:.n he P:''Jncd fn': the American Weldml! Socteiy, 550 N W Ldcune \.,'.!,i, P.O :;,,.., 350-lO, ~liam, Florida Units nf i\leasure and Rounding-OIT ProCL'dure 5.i ü.s Customary Utl.lb ~trc the standard UllJIS of mca:-.urc in this spccification The SI Units are given as cqlnvalcnt values to thc U.S. Cu~tom<.~ry Units. The ~tandarj ~zes and dimcn:-.ions tn thc two systems are not idcntical. and for this re a son. conversion from a ~tandard :-.ize or dimen:-.ion m one ~ystcm will not alway~ coincide with a standard size or dimcnsion in the othcr Suuablc convcrsions. encompassng standard sizcs of both. can be maje. howcvcr. if appropriate tolcranccs are applicd m cach case. 5.2 For the purpose of determining confonnancc wuh this specitlcation. an observed or calculated val u e shall be roundcd to the "nearest unit" of the last righthand place of figures used in expressing the limitmg valuc m accordance wirh the _round-off method of ASTM Practicc E29 for Using Significan/ Digits in Test Data to Determine Conform,mce with Specifications. 4 ' See A4 (In the Appcndx l fnr funhcr information concemmg cerllfica(lnn :.mj the te~tmg called for to mcct ths rcqurement ' AST~t \>tandard'> c:.m be obtaincd fmm thc American Socicty for Tc~tmg and Maten<~!~.!96 R<~cc Strcet, Phd;. t!clphia. Penmylvama lljioj.

124 SFA SECTION TABLE l ELECTRODE CLASSIFICATION AWS Welding Type of Classificat ion Type of Covering PositJOna Currentb E600 High ceilulose sodium F,V,OH,H dcep E60 High ceilulose potassium F,V,OH,H ac or dcep E602 High titania sodium F,V,OH,H ac or dcen E603 High titania potassium F,V,OH,H ac, dcep or dcen E60I9 Iron oxide titania potassium F,V,OH,H, ac, dcep or dcen E6020 High iron oxide { ~-tillels ac or dcen ac, dcep or dcen E6022' Hig.h iron oxide F,H ac or dcen E6027 Hi~h iron oxide, iron { ~-fillets ac or dcen powder ac, dcep or dcen E70J4 Iron powder, titania F.V.OH.H ac, dcep or dcen E70J5d Low hydrogen sodium F.V,OH.H dcep E706d Low hydrogen potassium F,V,OH.H ac or dcep E708d Low hydrogen potassium, F,V,OH,H ac or dcep iron powder E70J8M Low hydrogen iron powder F,V,OH,H dcep E7024d lron powder, titama H-fillets,F ac. dcep or dcen E7027 High ircn oxide, iron { ~-fillets ac or dcen powde:- ac, dcep or dcen E7028d Low hydrogen potassium, H-fillets,F ac or dcep iron powder E7048d Lo.w hydrogen potassium, F,OH,H,V-down ac or dcep!ron powder Notes: a. The abbreviations indica te the welding positions as follows: F- Flat H - Horizontal H-fillets = Horizontal fillets V..<Jown- Vcnical wlth downward progression V- Venical } { For electrodes 3/6 in. (4.8mm) and under, except 5/32 in. (4.0mm) OH - Overhead and under for classifications E704, E705, E706, E70 8, and E708M. b. The term "dcep" refers to direct curren! electrode positive (de, rever><: polarity). The term "dcen" rc:fers to direct curren! electrode negative (de, straght polarity). c. Electrodes of the E6022 classification are intended for single-pass welds only. d. Electrodes with supplemental elongation, notch toughness, absorbed moisture, and diffusible hydrogen requirements may be funher identified as shcwn in Tables 2, 3. O, and. 2

125 I'ART C - SI'ECIFICATIONS FOR \'ELDING RODS. ELECTRODES. AND FILLER ~IETALS SFA-5. AWS Classification E60IO E60 E602 E603 E609 E6020 E6022d E6027 E704 E705 E706 E708 E7024 E7027 E7028 E7048 E708M k si Tensile Stren~th note g TABLE 2 TENSION TEST REQUIREMENTS' b.< MPa Yield Strength at 0.2% Offset MPa Notes: a. See Table 4 for sizes to be tested. b. Requirements are m the as-welded condjtion w th aging as specifed in.3. c. Single values are minimuni d. A transverse tension test, as specified in.2 and Figure 9 anda longitudinal guided bend test, as specified in Sectio!'"l 2, Bend Test, and Fgure 0, are required. e. Weld metal from electrod~s identjfied as E7024-l shall ha ve elongation of 22% minimum. f. For 3/32 in. (2.4mm) electrodcs. the maxmum for the }'!e!d stre!'!g!h shall be 77 k:si {53 MPa). g. Tensile strength ofths ~e!d metal is a nominal/o ksi (482 MPa). k si not spccified nr f Elongation in 2 in. (50.8 mm) Percent not spccified ' SECTION - TESTS. Pll.OCEDUIH,S. AND REQUIREi\IENTS 6. Summary of Tt sts Thc tests rcquired for cach du..,_.., J]calion are specllicd in Tablc 4. The purpo~c ot thesc tesb is to determine the chcmical compo...,ition. mcchan cal prnpl'rtics. ;.md soundness of the wcld metal motsturc content of the low hydrogen elcctrodc covcring:.:md thc usability of the electrode. The base metal for the wcld test assemblies. the wclding and testing proccdurcs to be employed. and the results rcqurcd are givcn in Sections 8 through 7 The supplemental test~ for absorbed rnoisture. in Section 6, Absorbed Moisture Test. and diffusjble hydrogen, in Scction 7. Diffusiblc Hydrogen Test. are not requircd for classification of thc!m"' hydrogcn clectrodes c.xccpt for E70l8M. whcrc thcse are rcqured. See Notes j ancl n of Table -l. 7. Re test lf thc rcsults of ;in) tests fati to rneet the rcquircmcnt, that test ~hall be repcatcd twcc. Thc results of both tests shall mcct thc requirerncnt. Spccimens for rctest may be takcn from the orig n;.~l test assembly or from a new test asscmbly. For chcmic;.~l analysis, rctest nced be only for those spccific demcnls thar failcd to meet the test rcqutrcment. 8. Weld Test Assemblies 8. Onc or more of the following five weld test assembhcs are rcquired. ( ) Thc weld pad in Fig. for chemical analysis of thc unddutcd weld metal (2) The groovc wcld m Fig. 2 for mechanical propertics and soundness of the weld metal (3) The lillct weld in Fig. 3 for thc usability of thc electrodc (4) The groove wcld in Fig. -l for transverse tensile 3

126 SF A SECTION TABLE 3, CHARPY V-NOTCH!MPACT REQUIREMENTS AWS Classification E6ll!O,E60, } E6027, E705, E70J6b, E70J8b, E7027, E7048 E609 E7028 } E602, E603, } E6020, E6022, E704, E7024b E708M Average, M in. 20 f\-lb at -20' F (27 J al -29'C) 20 f\-lb al O'F (27Jal-8'C) Nol Specified Limits for 3 out of 5 Specimensa Single Value, M in. 5 f\-lb al -20'F (20 J al -29'C) 5 f\-lb al O'F (20 J al-8'c) Nol Specified Limits for 5 out of 5 Specimensc Average, Min. Single Value, M in. 50 f\-lb at -20'F (67 J at -29'C) 40ft-lb at -20'F (54 J at -29'C) Notes: a. Both the h ghest and Jowest test values obtained shalt be disregarded in computing the average. Two ofthese remaming three values shall equal or exceed 20ft-lb (27 J). b. Electrodes with the following optional supplemental designations shall meet the lower temperature mpact requirements specitied belaw: AWS ClassJtkation E706 E708 E7024 Electrode OesJS,natJon E706-l} E708-l E7024-l Charpy V-Notch Impact Requirements, Limlls for 3 out of 5 specimens (Refer to Note a above) Avr.rage, M in. 20 f\-lb at -50'F (27 J at -46'C) 20 f\-lb at O'F (27Jat-8'C) Single Value, Mm. 5ft-lb at -50'F (20 J at -46'C) 5 f\-lb at O'F (20Jat-8'C) c. All five values cbtajned shall be used m computing the average. Four of the ti ve v~lues shall equal, or exceed. 50ft-lb (67 J)., and longitudinal bend tests for welds made with the E6022 single pass elcctrodc (5) The groovc weld in Fig. S for mechanical propenies and soundness of wcld metal made with the E708M electrode The sample for che mica! analysjs may be taken from a low dilution arca cither in the groove weld in Fig. 2 or 5 or in the fractured aji-weld-metal tension test spccimen. thereby avoiding the need to make a weld pad. In case of dispute, thc weld pad shall be the referee method. 8.2 Preparation of each weld test assembly shall be as prescnbcd m 8.3 through 8.5. The base metal for each assembly shall be as requtrcd in Table 5 and shall meet the requirements of the ASTM specification shown there or an equivalent speclficatjon. Testing of the assemblies shall be as prescribed in Sections 9 through 4. Electrodes olher than low hydrogen electrodes shall be tested without "conditioning... Low hydrogen electrodes, if they have not been adequately protected against moisture pickup in storage. shall be held at a temperaturc of 500 to 800'F (260 to 427'C) for a minlmum of onc hour prior to testing. 4

127 u. TABLE 4 REQUIRED TESTS' b Electrode Sizec Radiographic Test AWS Curren! and ChemicaJd A/-We/d-Metal lmpacl Fil/et Moisture Classilication Polaritya in. mm Analysis Tension Testf Test We/d Teslh Tcs { ]]2, /8 2.4, J 2 NR NRh NRh NRh NR 5/l2, 6 4.0, 4 H NR F F V & 0 NR E60/0 dcep NR NRb NRb NRb NR!4 64 NR F F NR 5/6 RO NR F NRb NRb NR 'C { 3/32, /8 2.4, 3 2 NR NRb NRb NRb NR > ;o 532, , 4.8 NR F F V&OH E60/l ac and dcep NR -; 7/ NR NRb NRb NRh NR,n NR F F H NR ~~ ' 8.0 NR F NRb NRb NR { 56 /6 lo //8 inc..6 lo 3.2 inc. NR NRb NR NRb NR -;., ""' E602 ac and dcen 532, , 4.8 NR fi NR V&OH NR "'"' 0() NR NRb NR NRb NR ~S!4, , 8.0 NR F' NR H NR V>() > { /6 lo /8 inc..6 lo 3. 2 in c. NR NRb NR NRb NR >-i ac,dcep, and 532, NR fl NR V&OH NR z- o~ E603 dcen 7/ NR NRb NR NRb NR -n"' /4, , 8.0 NR fl NR H NR ~(j { 564 lo /8 inc. 2.0 lo 3.: inc. NR NRb NRb NRb NR r:;;;c 532, NR Fl Fl V&OH NR ;o; E609 ac, dcep, and NR NRb NRh NRb NR ;:::< r. r... dcen /4, , 8.0 NR p Fl H NR rnr -;o m..._ r 3.2 NR NRb NR NRb >- } NR rz ac and dcen; 5/ NR fl NR H NR cr.cl E6020 For nat NR NRb NR NRh ;o NR position /4 o ac,dcep, and NR fl NR H NR dcen 8.0 NR fl NR NRb NR "' E6022 ac and dcen { J/8 3.2 NR NR NR NR NR 532 lo 732 inc. 4.0 to 5.6 inc. NR N~i.k NR NR NR For H-lillets. r 3.2 NR NRb NRb NRb NR ac and dcen; , 4.8 NR p.m Fl H NR E6027 For nat NR NRh NRb NRb NR position /4 ac, dcep, and NR fl.m Fl H NR dcen 8.0 NR Fl.m NRh NRb NR (C.ontlnued) "'., > ~

128 ~ CJJ., TABLE 4 (CQNT'Ol ::-- llequired TESTS ' ' ~ Electrode Sizc' Radiographic Test AWS Curren! and Chemicafd AII-Weld-Melal lmpact Filie! Moisture Classilication Polarity { In. mm Analysis Tension Tcstr Tcst8 Wcld Tcslh Tcslf 2.4, 3.2 NR '"' '" 0 NRb NR NRb NR 5/ F' F' NR V&OH NR E704 ac, dcep, and J/6 4.8 NRb fl NR H NR dcen 7/J2 5.6 NR 0 NRb NR NRb NR F' F' NR H NR { NRb fl NR H NR 2 4, 3,2 NRh NRb NRb NRb NRb 5/ F "" '" F F V&OH Re~ d. E705 dcep 3/6 4.8 NR 0 F F H NR 7/32 56 NR h NRb NRb NRb NRb F F F H Re~ d NR 0 F NRb NRb NR 2.4, 3.2 NRb NRb NRb NRb NRb {""' 5/ F F F V&OH Re~ d. ::0 "" E706 ac and dcep 7/32 3/ NRb NRh NRb F F NRb NRb H NR NRb "" u. V> 4 o- 6.4 F F F H Re~ d. m NRb F NRb NRb NR g { 2.4,3.2 NRb NRb NRb NRb NRb o 5/ F F F V&OH z Re~ d. E708 ac and dcep ""' 3/6 "" 4.8 NRb F F H NR 7/ NRb NRb NRb NRb NRb "' F F F H Re~ d NRb F NRb NRb NR E708M" dcep { 3/32 lo 5/32 inc. 2.4 to 4 O inc. F V V NR Req'd. 3/6 to 56 inc. 4.8 lo 8.0 inc. F F F NR Req'd. { ""' '" 2.4, 3.2 NRb NRb NRb,o NRb NR 5/ fl Fl.m fo H NR E7024 ac, dcep, and 3/6 4.8 NRb fl.m fo H NR dcen 7/ NRb NRb NRb,o NRb NR /4 6.4 F' fl.m fo H NR {"" NRb FCI.m NRb,o NRb NR " """' } r 3.2 NRb NRb NRb NRb NR E7027 ac and dcen 5/ fl fl.m fl H NR For nal NRh fl.m fl H NR posilion 7/ NRb NRb NRb NRb NR ac, dcep, and F' fl,m F' H NR de en NRb fl.m NRb NRb NR (Continued)

129 AWS Classification E7028 E7048 Curren! and Polarity ac and dcep ac and dcep { { In, IIR 5!32 J/ ) 6 Elcctrode Sizcc TAE:LE 4 (CONT'Dl REQUIRED TESTS' ' mm Chemicald Analysis 3.2 NRb 4.0 F 4.8 NRb 56 NRb 6 4 F RO. NRb 3.2 NRb 4.0 F 4.8 NR Radiographic Test AII-Weld-Metal lmpact Filler Moisture Tension Testf Test8 Weld Testh Testf NRb NRb NRb NRb Fm F Re~ d. Fm F H NR NRb NRb NRb NRb Fm F H Re~d. Fm NRb NRb NR NRb NRb NRb NRb F F V-down & Req'd. OH F F V-down & NRb H a. NR means "not required". The abbreviations, F,H. H-fillets. V.down, V, and OH, are defined in Note a oftable, The terms "dcep" and "dcen", are defined in Note b of Table, b. Standard electrode sizes nol requiring this specific test can be clac;sificd providcd al leac;t two other sizes of that classincation ha ve passed the tests rcquired for thern, or the size lo be classficd mccls spccfication r,:quiremcnts by having hecn tested in accordance with Figures, 2, and) and Table 6. c. Electrodes manufactured in sizes not shown shall be tcsted to thc requirements ofthe nearest standard size. 6.0 mm electrode shall be tested to the re quirements of /4 in. (6.4 mm) elcctrode. d. Scc Scction 9, Chemtcal Analysis. e. Sec Section 0, Radiographic Test. f. See Section, Tension Test. g. See Section 3, lmpact Test. h. See Section 4, Filie! Weld Test. i. A radioeraphic test is not required for this classification. j. The mmsture test given in Sections 5 through 5.9 is the required tc~a for measurement of moisture content of the covering. In Section 6, Absorbed Moisture Test, and Section 7, Diffusible Hydrogcn Test. are supplemental tests required only when their corresponding optional supp/emental designators are to be used with rhe classification designators. k. A transverse tension test (see.2 and Figure 9) anda longitudinal guided bend test (see Section 2, Bend Test, and Figure 0) are required for classilication of 5/32, 3/6, and 7/32 in. (4.0, 4.8, and 5.6 mm) E6022 elcctrodes. Welding shall be in the nat posttion. See Note d oftable 2. l. When dcep and dcen are shown, only dcen need be tested. m. Electrodes longer than 8 in. (450 mm) will rcquire a double length test assembly iri accordance with Note 2 of Figure 2, to ensure uniformity of the entire electrode. n. Tests in Section 6 Absorbed Moisture Test. and in Section 7, Diffusible Hydrogen Test, are required tests for all sizes of E708M. o. Electrodes identified as E7024- shall be impact tested See Note b of Table 3., r

130 SFA SECT!ON! WELD METAL L. LENGTH (SEE NOTE 9) W. WIDTH (SEE NOTE 9) ~ '---BASE METAL Note5:. Base metal of eny conven~ent size, of any type specifed n Table 5. shat! be used as the base tor the weld pad. 2. The surtace of the base metal on \vtuch tne filler metal is to be deposted shall be clean. 3 The pad st\8 be welded n the flat posrbon wtth successve layers to obtan undlluted weld metal. 4. One pad shall be welded for eaeh type of current shown m Table 4 except tor those dasshcauons ldentlfled by note L in Table 4 5. The number and size of the beads wll vary accordrng to the s ze of the electrode and the Wldth of the weave, as wen es the amperage employed 6 The preheat temperature shall not be less than 60 F (6"C) and the tnterpass temperature shall not exceed 300"F ( SO'C). 7 The slag shall be removed atter eadl pass. 8. The test essembly may be quenched rn water between passes to cootrol interpass temperatura 9 Tl'le mnmum completed pad s ze shall be at least tour l.ayers ' helgt-t (H) Wlttl length {l..) and Wldth (W) SUtfCien to perform analyss. The sample for analys s shall be taken at least 4 rn (6 4 mm) above the ongna base meta! surtace FIG. l- PAD FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF UNDI LUTED WELD METAL S.3 Wcld Pad. A wcld pad, whcn requrrcd. 'hall he preparcd as ~pccllicd n Fg l. Base metal of any conventent size of the typc ~pccificd in Tablc 5 ~ha!l he us~d as thc hase ror thc wcld pad. Thc surface of hc hase metal on which thc filler metal is dcposltcd shall be clean. The pad shall be welúed in the ftat postion with multiple layers to obtain undiluted we\d metal. The preheat temperaiure shall not be less lhan 60 F ( l6 C) and the interpass temperature shall not excced 300'F (lso'c). The slag shall be removed after each pass. The pad may be quenched in water belween passes. The Jimensions of lhe completed pad shall be as shown rn Fig. Testlng of this assembly shall be as specified in Section 9. Chemical Analysis. 8.4 Groove Weld 8.4. \lechanical Properties and Soundness. A test asscmhly shall be prepared and welded as specified in Figs. 2 or 5 usmg base metal of the ;.~ppropriate typc specified in Table 5. Testing of this assembly shall be as ~pccified in Section l. Tension Test. and Section 3. lmpact Tesl. The assembly shall be lestcd in lhc as-welded or aged condition Transverse Tension and Bend Tests. A test assembly shall be prepared and welded as specrfied m Fig. 4 using base metal of the appropriate type specrfied in Table 5. Testing of this assembly shall be "' spccificd in.2 through.4 and Seclion I 2. Bend Tes. The assembly shall be tested in the agej conditicn. 8.5 Fillet Weld. A test asscmbly shall be prepared and welded as specified in Table 4 and Fig. 3 using base metal of the appropriate type specified in Table 5. The welding posilions shall be as specified in Table 6 and Figs. 3 and 6 according to the size and classdkation of electrodc. Testing of the assembly shall be as spccified in Seclion 4. Fillet Weld Tcsl. 9. Chemical Analysis 9. The sample for analysis shall be laken from wcld metal obtaincd with the electrode. The sample shall come from a weld pad or from a low J Jution arca in thc fractured a!l-weld-metal tension specmcn or the groovc weld in Figs. 2 or 5 Arcas whcre are starts nr cratcrs cxst shall be av0ded. Thc op surface uf the pad described in 8.3 anj shown m Fig. sh;.dl be removed and discardcd, ;md a ~amplc for analy~is shall be obtaincd from the undcrlying metal by any appropnate mcchamc:.tl means. Thc 'ample shall be free of slag and shall be taken at lea~t /.J. m (6.4 mm) from thc nearest surfacc of thc ba~c metal. The low dilution area in the fracturcd tension test specjmen or in the groove weld m Figs. 2 or 5 shall be preparcd for analysis by any suuable mechanical means 9.2 The sample shall be analyzed by acceptcd analytrcal methods. The referee method shall be ASTM Standard Method E350, Chemical Analysis of Carbon Sreel. Low Alloy Sreel. Silicon Elecrrical Sreel. /ngor /ron and IVroughr /ron. 9.3 The results of the analysis shall meet the requirements of Table 7 for the classification of electrode under test. 0. Radiographic Test 0. When required in Table 4, lhe groove weld described in 8.4. and shown in Fig. 2 or 5 shall be radiographed to evaluate the soundness of lhe weld 8

131 P,\RT C- SPECIFIC-\TIONS FOR WELDING RODS, ELECTRODES. ~ND FILLER METALS SF A-5. ~ MIN j MIN --2 LENGTH i-t i A POINT OF TEMPERATUAE MEASUAEMENT B R B ALL-WELO-MET AL TENSION TEST SPECIMEN l- MIN (A) TEST ASSEMBL Y SHOWING LOCA TION OF TEST SPECIMEN ~T/2 T o/f~ WELD C(_ SECTION AA WELD C(_ SECTION BB SI Eouivalents an mm / 'J '! Electrode Sze in mm (B) ORIENTA.TION ANO LOCATION OF IMPACT TEST SPECIMEN (C) LOCATION OF ALL-WELO-METAL TENSION TEST SPECIMEN (T) (A) Plalt- íhk::kness Root üpenng Passes :-'l. mm In mm Per L.Dyer Total layers,. J/32 24 / / / : : 3 / ' 20 3/ o , ,., / not spec fed 5 to 7 7 lo 9 6 o 8 6 to 8 9 to 0 to 2 ~ ) Notes. AJI d mens ons except angles are rn tnches. 2. For EMectrodes longer tnan 6 n. (450 mm), a 20 n (500 mm) mtnmum Jength test assembly shall be welded. 3 Base metal shall be as speoed n Table The surtaces to be we'lded sha.ji be dean. S. Pnor to wetdng. the assem~y may be preset to y eld a wetded omt sufftaentty fat to taciiitate removal of the test speomens. As an ajtemative. restrant or a combination of restrant and presettng may be used to keep tne welded JOint within 5 deg of.....:- plane. A welded test assembly that rs more than 5 deg out ot plane shall be ascarded. StrBJghtemng ot the test assembly s prohltxted.. 6. Wefding shall be in tne na t ~. USJng each type of current speofted n T abfe 4 except for dassfcatl0ns identfied by Note- L in Table 4. 7 The preheat temperature ShaJI be 225'F (05'C) m mmum The onte<pass temperature shall no be less than 225"F (05"C) nor more!han 350"F (75'C). 8. The jocnt noot may be seaj we<oed wrtr 332 Of /8 in. (2.4 or 3.2 mm) electrodes using strtnger beads. 9. In eddrbon to ttle stops ano starts at tne enc:js. esch pass shatl contam a stop and stan t between the ends. O. The compm)ted wek:t shalj be.! least flusll W!ttl ttle surtace of the test plate ) FIG. 2- GROOVE WELD EST ASSEMBLY FOR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND SOUNDNESS EXCEPT FOR E6022 AND E70BM ELECTRODES

132 SFA SECTION CUT HERE FOR MACRO EXAMINATION SECTION -..;;:-t--i END OF WELD MADE WITH FIRST ELECTRODE SEE NOTE B IN TABLE 6. SI Equvalents trt mm 25 3 i6 FLANGE TO BE STRAIGHT AND IN INTIMA TE CONT ACT WITH SOUARE MACHINED EDGE OF WEB MEMBER ALONG ENTIRE LENGTH TO ENSURE MAXIMUM RESTRAINT Notes. See la.b}e 6 tor values of T and L 2. Base metal shall be as speahed an Tab'e The suraces te be welded sh.ab be clean -4. An as.sembly sha/ be weided in e.ac:h pos00n specihed in T~ 6 and s.hown tn F.gure 6 us~ng ea.dl type of current speccfed m Table 4 5. The preheat shall be 60'F (6'C) m<mmum. 6. A Single pass ~llet weld Sl\all be rmde en ene Slde of the jomt. The first electr- Sl\all be oonsumed to a stub length no greater than 2 in. (50 mm) 7. Welding in the verncal po5lbon shall be witll upward progres5lon, except '"' the E704B dassificiibon where progressioo shall be downward. 8. w~ cleanrng shall be imlted lo slag ctupp:ng, brushing, nnd needle scahng. Gnndtng or fihng of the weld face in prot'ubrted. FIG. 3- FILLET WELD TEST ASSEMBLY 0

133 PART C- SPECIFICATIONS FOR IVELDING RODS. ELECTRODES. AND FILLER :\let.-\ls SFA-5. 4 MIN 4 MIN TRANSVERSE TENSION TEST SPECIMEN (SEE FIGURE 9) T """'"'" ---r MIN 6 l_.j MIN DISCARO /:;-r- 6 MAX RCOT OPENING LONGITUDINAL BEND TEST SPECIMEN (SEE FIGURE O) SI Equvatents In mm /6 6 / ) Notes: -. All djmensjons are tn inches 2. Base metal shau be as specrhed n Table The surfaces to be welded shall be clean. <4. Pnor to weldng. the assembly may be preset to y eld a welded JOtnl sufflciently ftat to faclhtate removat of the test speamens. As an attematve, restraint ora combtnaton of restrajnt and presett.ng may be used to keep tt.e welded JOinl wthn 5 deg of plane. A welóed test assembly ttlat s more than 5 deg out of plane shaji be dscarded. StraJghtenmg of the test assembly is pr0hblted. 5. The assembly shall be we\oed in the flat positlon, using the type of curren! speafied in Table The prehaattemperature shall be 6Q F (t6 c m'n. The ínterpass temperatura shall not exceed 3so F (tbo c. 7. In Bddton to the stops and starts at the ends, each pass shalr contan a stop and stan in between the ends. 8 Back gougng may be done to ensure sound weld metal through the entire ttlic::kness of test essembly 9. The completed weld shall be at Jeast flush Wllh the sur!ace ot lhe test pjate. FJG. 4- TEST ASSEMBLY FOR TRANSVERSE TENSJON AND LONGITUDINAL GU!DED BEND TESTS FOR WELDS MADE WITH E6022 ELECTRODES ) Ji

134 995 SECTION -- ' 0 : MIN LENGT'HH'----~ - ~~------~ ; A- IMPACT TEST SPECIMENS ' POINT OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT B ALL-WELO-METAL TENSION TEST SPECIMEN -- ~4 t- I /4 MIN_ y - 60" - 5 MIN?"" L - ~ 5MIN ~ MIN f MI N e r= -- MIN (A) TEST ASSEMBL Y LOCATIONS OF TEST SPECIMENS WELD <[_ SECTION AA WELD!(_ SECTION BB (B) OAIENTATION ANO LOCATION OF IMPACT TEST SPECIMEN (C) LOCATIDN OF ALL WELD METAL TENSION TEST SPECIMEN SI Eguivalents n. mm /3 " ' / /8 9.5 / / Notes. All 0Jmensons except angles are n tnehes. 2. Base metal shall be as speofled in Table The surtaces to be welded shall be dean. 4. Pnor to weldng. the assembly may be preset to yteld a welded JOint suff etently flat to f&cihtate removal of the test speomens. As an ajtematye. restra nt or a combjnatlon of restrbjnt and presettjng may be used to keep the welded jotnt wthin 5 deg of plane A welded test assembly U\at s more tnan 5 deg out of plarye sl"lall be dlscarded. Str&Jghtening of the test assembly is protublted. 5. The assembly shall be welded rn the vertical positlon Wlth progression upward lor electrodes 532 in. (4.0 mm) and less In SIZe. lll'ld rn the lta posrtion tor electrodes 36 "' (4.8 mm) lll'ld greate< in size, using the type or curren! specilied In Tabla 4 lor!he electrodo and weldong tecnnoque re<:emmended by!he electrode manufacturer. 6 The preheat tempe<ature and!he nll!fj)bss te<nperature Shall be "F (93-2"C). 7. The weldrng heat input shall be 30 to 40 kj/in. (2 to 6 kj/cm) lor!he ~32 in. (2.4 mm) sízt olectrodes lll'ld SO lo 60 kjfln. (20 to 24 kj/cm)io< lile /8 in. (3 2 mm) size and larger elecbodes. 8. In 80drtlon to the stops and starts at the ends, each pass &hall oontain a stop and start in between the ends. 9. The oompleted weld shall be at least fiush with the surlaoe ol the test plate. Maxmurn weld rainforcement Shall be 3/6 in. (4.8 mm). Peemng of wehd beads as not permmed. F!G. 5- GROOVE WELD TEST ASSEMBLY FOR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ANO SOUNDNESS OF WELD METAL MADE W!TH E708M ELECTRODES 2

135 '..\RT C - SPECIFICATIONS f-or IVELDING RODS. ELECTRODES. ANO FILLER ~IETALS SF A-5. ) TABLE 5 BASE METAL FOR TEST ASSEMBLES Base Metal ASTM UNS A\\'S Classdicatlon. Type Specification<~ Numberb ) AJI All except E70!8\l Carbon steel Carbon steel {AI3 GradeS A285 Grade A A285 Grade B { "" G"'' e Notes: a. Equ valent steel may be used. b. SAE/ASTM UniGed Numbering System for Metals and Alloys. K0202 KOI700 K02200 K0280 A283 Grade D A36 K02600 A29Grade 05 Gl050 A29 Grade 020 G ) metal. In prcparation for r.h.lwgr:phy. the backmg shall be removed, and both ~urfacc:- uf thc wc!d o.;hall be machined or ground ~nh)lhh. Thc linishcd :-.urface of thc weld may be llu!-:.h \\'ith thc platc or havc a rcasonably uniform rcinfor~ l menr rwt cxcceding ';.~~ in. (2.4 mm). Both surfacl ~ t)f thl' test a... sembly in thc area of the wcld shall l~c ~mooth cnough to avmd diffi.culty in intcrpréting tllc r:ldln~:.lph. Q.2 The wcld shall b,: radtt :_.:raphcd m accurdancc wnh ASTi\ í'vcthod El :~. Con:rol!ing Quality of Radiographic Te.Hing Thc qualn:. kvcl nf tnspectjon shall be 2-2T. 0.4 A roundcj tndicatton is an indtcjtton (on thc radiograph) whnsc lcngth is no more than threc times Jts wijth. Roundcd injication~ may be circular. clliplical, come;_!, nr irrcgualr in ~ha pe. and they m:.y ha ve "tails." The :.izc of a roundcd tndtc~ttion ts the largest dimcnsion of thc tndicatwn. cluding any tail that may be prc:.cnt. Thc tndtcatinn may be porosity m slag. lndtcations whosc largc:.t dimcm.ton doc:. not cxcccd /M Úl. (0.4 mm) :.hall be lhsrcgardcd. Test assembhcs wh porosity mdic;. tions largcr than thc largcst roumkd indtcation:. pcnmttcd in thc radtographic standjrds do not meet thc rcqutrcmcnts of tht<.; spcctlication. ) 0.3 The soundncss t'f tht.' \\ ~ ld mctji rnt:cts thc requiremems of this ~peciti.::nion f thc raliiograph shows thc following. ( ) No cracks. no in~l mplct:.' iusion or tncomplete joint penetration (2) No slag inciusion~ lnngc than / 4 in. (6.4 mm) or / 3 of the thickness o! thc weij.. whichcvcr is grc:.ltcr. or no groups of slag irh. lusion~!me that have an aggregate length greatcr!han thc Ihickncss of thc we!d in a length 2 times thc thickne>; of thc weld. cxcept when the distance bet\\ e en thc succcssive inclusions exceeds 6 times thc Jenf_th of the longest inc!usions in the group. (3) No rounded indir.l!lons cxcess of those permitted by the radiograpin,: stanj.:rds in Fig. 7 according to the grade specificd in T.ble 8. One in. (25 mm) of thr: wcl~l mcasured from each end of the assembly :-lull be ;:xcluded from radiographic eva!uation.. Tcnsion Test. One all-wcij-mctal tcnsion test specimcn shall be machincj from the gronvc weij dcscnbed in 8.4. as shown in ftg. '2 or 5. Thc dimcn:.ions of the specimen shall be as shown in Fig. 8.2 For E6022 clcctrodcs. one traver:.e tcnsion test spectmcn shall be machincj from thc groove weld described in and Fig. 4. The dtmensions of the specimcn shal! be as shown in Fig The tension specimens foral! electrodcs excepl!he low hydrogcn classifications shall be aged at 200 to 220'F (95 to 05'C) for 48 :=2 hours. and cooled in atr to room tcmpcraturc. All spccimens shall be tested tn the manner dcscribed in thc tension testing section of AWS 84.0, Standard Methods for Mechan ical Tesring of Welds. 3

136 TABLE 6 REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION OF FlLLET WELD TEST ASSEMBLIES Asscmbly Sizca AWS Electrode Size Thickne>S (T) Lenglh"(L). Min. Weldng Fillet Wed Size - Classification In. mm in. rnm n. mm Position In. mm 3/ / V&OH 5/32 max. 4.0 l/ / V &OH 3/6 max. 4.8 E600 and } 5/ ]/ V&OH l/4 max 6.4 E60 3/6 4.8 J/ V & 0 56 max / or 6' 300 or 40QC H /4 min. 6.4 /4 6.4 / H /4 min o / H /4 min. 6.4 l/6-5/ / V&OH /8 max / / V&OH /8 max. 3.2 E602, / V & OH 3/6 rnax. 4.8 >O >O E603 and } V&OH /4 max. 6.4 u. V> E /2 2.7 t V&OH 38 max. 9.5 m +- 7/ / or 6' 300 or 40QC H /4 min. 6.4 e /4 6.4 / H 56 m in. 8.0 i / H 56 min. 8.0 z = 3/ / V&OH 5/32 max. 4.0 l/ V & 0 3/6 max / V &0 56 max. 8.0 E704. } 3/ / /4 min ] or 6' 300 or 40QC H /4 min. 6.4 /4 6.4 / /6min / H 56 m in / / V&OH 5/32 max. 4.0 /8 3.2 / V&OH 36 m"'. 4 8 E705 and / V&OH 56 max. 8.0 } E706 3/ / H 36 min / or 6' 300 or 400C /4 m in. 6.4 /4 6.4 / m in / H 56 min. 8.0 (C:ontinued).., "' ;;.. 0

137 .. ""'... " '" TI\BLE 6 (CONT'DJ REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION OF FILLET WELD TEST ASSEMBLIES /w,tmhl S Ílea AWS Elcctrodc Si.c Thick nc" (Tl Lcngthh(L), Mn. Wclding Filie! Weld Sizc Classification '" mm In. mm in. mm Position in. mm //8 3.2 O or 2" 250 or 300d V&OH 36 max. 4.8 E V & Off J/4 max. 6.4 } V&OH 56 max H J/4 m in or 6' 300 or 400' l/4 m in. 6.4 J/ m in O min. 8.0 J/ /8 min. 3.2 E JIR <) SIJ2 min. 40 } 3/6 4.8 )/ or (ic JOO or 400C )/6min l/ min. 6.4 J/ min (, min /32' 2.4' 4 (> !32 min. 4.0 E6027. } J/8 J H 532 min. 4.0 E H 36 min. 4.8 E7027 and /R or 6' 300 or 400C H 4 min. 6.4 E /6or26' 400 or 650r H J/4 m in. 6.4 J/ or 26' 400 or 650' H 56 m in or 26' 400 or 650' H 5/6m~n. 8.0 } { J/ V-down & OH J/4 max. 6.4 E V-down & OH 56 max or 6' 300 or 400' H & V-down 4 min. 6.4 Notes: a. See Figure 3. b. When the end ofthe bead with!he firsl e/ectrode will be less!han 4 in. ( /00 mm) from!he end of the test assembly, a starting tab ora longer test assembly sltall be used. c. For 4 in. (350 mm) electrodes, the mínimum /englh of thc test assemhly shall be 2 in. (.00 mm); for 8 in. (460 mm) eleclrodes,!he mínimum length oflhe test assembly shall he 6 in. (400 mm). d. For 2 in. (300 mm) electrodcs,!he mínimum length of thc tc't asscmbly sha/ be O in. (250 mm); for 4 in. (350 mm) clectrodes, the mínimum lcnglh oflhe test assembly shall be 2 in. (.00 mm). e. E7024 only. f. For 8 in. (460 mm) eleclrodes.!he mínimum length of lhe test a,;semhly shall be 6 in. (400 mm); for 28 in. (700 mm) e/ectrodes, the mínimum length of lhe test assembly sha/ be 26 in. (650 mm).., > -l "' mn ;:; ()_,..,., "''" on o- m:!l "'" > 5!::! o~ :::., "'"' r-0 '""' ;o ::::~ mr- ;..- -lo z ;;el ;o o ~., "' :> 0

138 SFA SECTION JI AXIS OF WELD HORIZONTAL L ~~~~TE-H"'O"'RI Z"'O"'NT"'A"'L r 90' ~ AXIS OF WELD VERTICAL PLATE HORIZONTAL (A) OVERHEAO FILLET WELDS (B) VERnCAL FILLET WELDS (C) HORIZONTAL FILLET WELOS FIG. 6- WELDING POSITIONS FOR FILLET WELD TEST ASSEMBLIES J A Thc rcsults of the tcns0n t :~t shall mcct thc n:quircm~nts spcnllcu in T::~hle llend Test (For E6022 Electrodcs Only) 2. Onc longhudtnal LKc hcnd... pccunen. a~ rcquirej m Tablc 4. ~hall he machcd f0m thc grol)\'c wcij tc:-,t ;J':lSCmbly dc:-.cnhcd tn ~...2 and shown tn Ftg 4 Dirncm.iun;-. llr" thc :-pccllllcn ;-.hall be a;., :-.lwwn tn Fig Thc hcnd..,rccllllcn -.,hall be :tgcd at ~00 tn 220 F (9:'!O!05 C) f(~r...~ =2 hour<; hcn air COL'kd to room tcmpcr;ttun: ;_ mi tcstcd as rcqutrcj in 2 -; 2.3 Thc ~penrncn -.,hall be te:-.tcj thc rnanncr ~.k :-:cnbcd!! tht.> bend r,:...rmg SL'CtJon of A WS f4 O. Stu/l,/urd Jldhods j()r Mec!wmcal Tesring r~/ Weld.. Thc spl'(jlllcll :-hall he bcnt ulorm!y through!xo dcgr~c" O\'Cf, ' n ( tj mm) radnjs any :-.UIWhlc jg Thn.:c qandard jig~ are shm\ n m Ftg.. Po:-.inonmg ot thc LKc bcnd spccimcn :-.hall he ~Lll'h th:ll the wcd Lll'l' ot thc la~t :-.dc wcjcd '> in tcnsnn. 2.- Each spccimcn. aftcr bcnding. ~hall confonn tu thc l/.., in. ( 9 mm) radlll~. wllh an appropnatc :l!lowancc for spnngback and thc weld metal :-.hall not c*ntaln openings in exccss of /8 in. (3 2 mm) on thc convex surta ce. 3. lmpact Test 3. Fve Ch:rpy V-notch impact test spccimcns. Fi~. 2. shall be machined from the test as~embly :>hown in Fig. 2 or 5. for those classiiicatjons for which mpact testmg is requm:d in Tablc..J. 3.2 Thc tive specimens ~hall be testcd in accor Jancc with the frílcturc tmighness testing section of r\ \VS B4 O, Standard Merhods for Mechanical Tesring of \Ve/ds. The test temperature shail be that specified m Tabk 3 for thc clm.sitlcíliion under test. 3.3 In cvaluating th~ test rcsults for ílll thc clas ~Ificatwns thílt rcquire irnpact testing. except E708M. the lowcst and highest vjlucs obtjincd shall be disregarded Two of the threc remaimng values shall ~qual. nr cxceed. the speclfied ~O ft-lb (27) encrgy kvel. One of thc three may be lower. but not IOV.'cr thíln 5 ft~lb ~20J) Tht: :ver~ge of the three shall not be kss lhan hc requircd 20 ft-lb (27) energy leve!. 3.4 In cvaluaung tht.:: rcsults for E708M. all fivc -. aluc~ :~ha!! be uscd. Four of tht.:: fivc va!us:s shall c:qual. or cxcccd. the spccilicd 50 ft~lb (67) cnergy Jey~]. Onc of thc fivc may be lowcr. but not lowcr han 40 fl-lh (54J) The average of the flve shall not be lcss than thc rcqurrcd 50 ft-lb (67) energy leve!. 4. Fi!let Weld Test 4. The flllet we!d test. when required m Table 4. shall be made in accordance with 8.5 and Fig. 3. The enirc face of the compleed fillet weld shall be examined visually. It shall be free of cracks. overlap. slag. and porosity. and shall be substantially free of undercut. An tnfrequent short undercut up to / 32 in. (0.8 mm) depth shall be allowed. After the visual examination. a spccimen. approximately in. (25 mm) in lcngth. shall be removed as shown in Fig. 3 One cross-sectional surface of lhc specimen shail be polrshed. etched. and then examined as required in

139 .. ~-- TABLE 7 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION REQUIREMENTS FOR WELD METAL _, AWS UNS' Wt.:gh, Pcrccnt Classification Numbcr e Mn s, l' S N Cr M o [600 W0600 E60 W060 [602 W0602 E603 W0603 E609 W0609 E6020 W06020 E6022 W06022 E6027 W Not Specincd [706 W0706} E708 W0708 Not Specincd.60 O. 75 Not SpCCincd O.JO o E7027 W07027 [704 W0704 } [705 W0705 Not Specined Not Spcrified O.JO [7024 W07024 E7028 E7048 W07028 W07048 } Not Spccincd l.éo o 90 Not Spe.::ilicd E708M W o lo.60 Combined Limit for V Mn +Ni+ Cr + Mo +V 0.08 l l Not Spccined -o > -i " mn :; ()(/> _,., on "'"' o- rn:'j,n > >-i zo Oz -n"' =., ro "'".,... "'~ ~ -m rnr -io >- rz Cf>Cl " o.(/> Noles: a. SAE!ASTM Unined Numbering System for Metals and Alloy< b. Single values are maximum..., "' > u.

140 SFA SECTION o (Al ASSORTEC ROUNCEC INCICATIONS SIZE 64 m (0.4 mm) TO 6 on. (.6 mm) IN OIAMETER OR IN LENGTH. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF INOICATIONS IN ANY 6 on (50 mm) OF WELD - B. WITH THE FOLLOWING RESTRICTIONS MAXIMUM NUMBER OF LARGE 364 m. (.2 mm) TO 6 in. (.6 mm) IN OIAMETER OR IN LENGTH INDICATIONS - 3. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MEDIUM 32 m. (0.8 mm) TO 364 on. (.2 mm) IN DIAMETER OR IN LENGTH INDICATIONS - 5. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SMALL 64. (0.4 mm) TO /32. (0.8 mm) IN OIAMETER OR IN LENGTH INDICATIONS - 0. o o o (8) LARGE ROUNDED INDICATIONS SIZE 364 on (.2 mm) TO 6 on. ( 6 mm) IN DIAMETER OR IN LENGTH MAXIMUM NUMBER OF INDICATIONS IN ANY 6 on (50 mm) OF WELD - 8 (C) MECIUM ROUNCEC INCICATIONS SIZE 32 on. (O 8 mm) TO 364 on ( 2 mm) IN OIAMETER OR IN LENGTH MAXIMUM NUMBER OF INDICATIONS IN ANY 6 on (50 mm) OF WELD - 5. o (O) SMALL ROUNCEC INCICATIONS SIZE 64 on (0 4 mm) TO 32 on (0.8 mm) IN OIAMETER OR IN LENGTH. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF INDICATIONS IN ANY 6 on. (50 mm) OF WELD = 30. Notes:. In usmg tnese standards, the c:nart whlc:h is most representativa of the size of the rounded indlcations present in the test spaomen radoograph shall bo used fo< det"""ming conformance to tt>ese radoograp/uc standards. 2 Since tt>ese ore test welds soeatocally made in!he laboraio<y fo< dassiflcsbon purposas.!he J'lldJOQraphJC requorements fo< these test welds nre more ngld t/'\an tnose 'Whict may be requlfed for general fabncatjon 3 lndjcatoons whose largest dlmensoon does not exceed 64. (0.4 mm) shall t>e dosregartled. FIG. 7- RADIOGRAPHIC ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS FOR ROUNDED INDICATIONS (Grade 8

141 PART C- SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDING RODS. ELECTRODES. AND FILLER METALS SFA-5. l o o e ct (E) ASSORTEO ROUNDED INDICATIONS SIZE 64 In (0.4 mm) TO 564 rn. (2.O mm) IN OlA METER OR IN LENGTH. MAXIMUM NUMBEA OF INDICATIONS IN ANY 6 rn. (50 mm) OF WELO = 27, WITH THE FOLLOWING AESTAICTIONS: MAXIMUM NUMBEA OF LARGE 6 in. (.6 mm) TO 564 in. (2.0 mm) IN DIAMETEA OA IN LENGTH INDICATIONS = 3. MAXIMUM NUMBEA OF MEOIUM 364 rn (.2 mm) TO 6 rn. (.6 mm) IN OIAMETEA OR IN LENGTH INDICATIONS - B. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SMALL 64 in. (0.4 mm) TO 364 In. (.2 mm) IN DIAMETER DA IN LENGTH INOICATIONS = 6. o o o o \! \ \ r ' ) (F) LARGE ROUNDED INOICATIONS SIZE 5 ro ( 6 mm TO 564 n. (2 O mm) IN DIAMETER OR IN LENGTH. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF!NDICATIONS IN ANY 6 in. (50 mm) OF WELD = 4., 3 e o o o o rll e Q (G) MECIUM ROUNCED INDICATIONS SIZE 364 rn. (.2 mm) TO 6 in ( 6 mm) IN DIAMETER OR IN LENGTH. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF INDICATIONS IN ANY 6 rn (50 mm) OF WELO = 22 o o (H) SMALL ROUNDEO INCICATIONS SIZE 64 rn (0.4 mm) TO 364 in. (.2 mm) IN DIAMETEA OR IN LENGTH. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF INDICATIONS IN ANY 6 in. (50 mm) OF WELD = 44. Notes: o o ~ o G o. In usng tnese st.aj"loards. tne c::nan wt\ch is most representativa of the slze of the rounded tr'io\c8tlms present in the test adecif'nefl raou:xr.b.ph Shall be used for determinng conformance to these radiographic: stanoards. 2. 5lnce ltles<! are lest ~s soecmcajiy made In lile labon!tory fa< dass~icallon purposes, the rad>ographic raquinements tor ltlese test weids are more ngki tn.an tnose whk rt'i.i!iy be requred for general fabneation. 3. trccal>ons wnose Jargest d>men5'0' coes not exc:eod 64 In. (0.4 mm) shall be ~aróed. o \! FlG. 7- RADIOGRAPHIC ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS FOR RDUNDED INDICATIONS!Grade 2 (CONT'DI 9

142 SFA SECTION TABLE 8 RADIOGRAPHIC SOUNDNESS REQUIREMENTS AWS ClassificatJon E609 E6020 E705 E706 E708 E708M E7048 E600 E60 E603 E704 E7024 E6027 E7027 E7028 E602 E6022 \ } Radiographc Standarda.b Grade Grade 2 Not specifed Notes: a. See Figure 7. b. The rad0graphic soundness obtamable under actual industrial condjtjons employed for the vanous electrode c!ass f catjons is discussed m A6.0 l in the Append,; 4.2 Scnhc!me:-..:.hall he placcd on ;,e prep~n::j ~urf:tcc. :s :-.hown in Fig.!.J. :tnd thc lilkt we!j siz~. hlkt wcld lcg. ami convcxtty -.,hall be Lh;termmed to!he nc..:an_'~l.: in ro -. mm\ by :Jctual rneasurcmcnt (<>ce l\~; J). Thc:-.c mc:.jsurcmcnts shall mcet thc requjrt::ml!ll!'. of Tahlc 6 with n.:!'.pcct!l) mmimum or ma\jmum!ilk:t wc!d '>IZC ;_, nj thc rcquin:mcnts of Tabk l) wjth rc:-.pcct to m:l\imum con\ extty.md maxnnum lilf!ct~!kl hctwccn fi!lct weld le~:-, according to thc hl \ct wcld SIZC mca~urcd. 4.3 Thc rcmaining two scctton:. of thc test a~scmbly shall be broken through the lillct weij bv a force exencd as shown in Fig. 4. \Vhcn nccessary to facilitate fracture through the fillct. one or more of the followng proccdurc~ may be uscd. ( ) A reinforcing bead. as shown m Fg. 4. may be addej!o each leg of the weld. ( 2) The po~itlon of the wcb on the tlange m ay be changed. as shown in Fig. \~ 3 J The facc of thc lillct m ay be notchej. as shown Fg ~. Tests m whtch thc \veld metal pulls out of thc base metal during bcnding are invalid tests. Spccimcns in which this occurs ~hall be replaccd. spccimen for spec Jmen. and thc test complcted. In this case, the doubling of spccjmetb a~ rcqured for retcst in Section 7. Retest. doc:-. not apply. 4.4 Th~.: fracturej surfaccs ~hall be visually examined wtthout magndlcation The fracture surface ~hall be free of cracks lncomplete fu:-.0n at the wcld root shall not be grcater than 20CJc of the total length of thc \vcld. Therc shall be no continuous length of incomplctc fuswn greater than m. (25 mm) as measured along the weld axis except for electrodes of the E602. E603. and E704 classtfications. Fillet welds maje wtth dcctrodes of these classlfi.catjons may exhlbil mcomplctc fu~ion through the enttre length of the fillet weld, provded that at no pomt this incomplete fuston excecd-. 25 perccnt of the smallcr leg of the fillet weld. 5. Moisturc Tc~t 5. Thc mm:-.ture contem of the covcring on the low hydrngcn e!ectrodes. \Vhcn requred in Table 4. sh~ll be dctcnmned by any suitablc method In case uf d-.putc. thc lllt:thnd descríbcd in 5.3 through 5.9 :-.hall bt.: thc rcfcrcc mcthod.!5.2 Thc.:!cc:mJc:, sh3.! be t:2stcj \Vllhout condj!jotllng. unlc~~ the manufacturcr rccommcnds othcr Wl:-.t: if thc clectrudc:-. ~uc conditjoncj. that fact. ~lcr:.g with the methud u:-.ed for conduiomng. and the time ami temperaturc Jnvolvcd thc condt0ning. shall be nntcd on thc test record. Thc motsturc content shall nut e'l'.:cccd thc!imll spccdied m Table This mcthoj (thc rcfcrce method) consists of hcatmg a!'>amplc nf thc covcnng lt a nickel or clay boat placed m:-.jdc ~~ combustjon tube in ordt:r to retno\'c thc moi"turc from thc covering. A stream of oxygen s u:-.ed to carry the mosture to an absorpuon tube whcre thc tlmisturc s collectcd. The moisture content of the covcnng is determmed by thc mercase in weight of the absorption tube and is cxpfessed as a percentage of thc origmal weght of the samplc of the covering. 5.4 Thc apparatus shall be as shown tn Fig. 5 5 and shall consst of the following: ( ) A tu be fumace with a he:.lting element long ennugh to heat at least 6 in. ( 50 mm) of the middlc pnrtton of thc combustton tu be to 2000'F ( 093'C). ' :.odirirjiinm ot thc t:pc dcscribcd in Appendix AS. whch gtvc CLJUiv.dcm rt:\ulh.hu tncct the rcqutrerncnb ol tht~ ~pccitkauon. 20

143 PART C- SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDING RODS, ELECTRODES, AND FILLER METALS SFA-5. 8 f------e----- F F G GAUGE L.ENGTH--"" OtmensJOns of Spectmen. in Test Plate ThOcness o G e 8 F", Min. ) 2 34 Blld larger ±o ±o 005 -/ ± ± /4 3/B B DtmenSJOns of Speamen, mm Test?tate Thickness o G e ± o ± B 9 ond larger 2.70 ± BO ± _ 9.5 Notes: OtmenSKH'ls G and C shalf be as shown. but ends may be of any shape to fit the testlng machi'le holders as long as the load s axal. 2. The dameter of the soeomen wrthrn the gauge lengttl shall be shghtly smaller at the center than at the encls The d:herence shall not excaed one percent of tt.e dlameter 3 When me extensometer 5 r!'qujre-j!e- de!~~x ;-:cid ~t;g,;.gt:'"., U ít'lefi~ion C may oe modllled. However. the percent of the etongatmn shall be based on dmensron G -4 The suriace flrush wrthn tl'le C OlmenSJOn Sf\all be 00 rougtlet!han 63! \r,. {.S t:. ;-;-.) FIG. 8- ALL-WELD-METAL TENSION TEST SPECIMEN DIMENSIONS ) / ~--4-:j;:~ r,,. rr-- ' ' LL-- n~±6.. ~, ~'--"" J u_j_ f - 2 MIN 'n 4-2 ± 6 2 a SI Ecurvalents mm 64 3B ± < _ OF WEL.D Noles:. AJI d:mons.ons ere ln lnches. 2. Wetd llwiforcement ~~ be graut.'ld or ~ smootn ancl flush with ttle surlaces o the specimen. Gnndlng or macrunrng marl<s \aji be p.vailel ot tne ion<jest d,mens;oo ot lile specomen. FIG. 9- TRANSVERSE TENSION TEST SPECIMEN (E6022l 2

144 ( SFA SECTION t <~ t /2 i CORNEA RADIUS /6 MAX SI Egutvalents in. mm <t_ OF WELD /6.6 / ~ --( 6 52 Notes:. Al/ dunensk>ns are n lnches. 2. Wek:l rernfon::ement shall be groond CJ( madlined smooth end Hush wrth the surtaces of the speomen. Grindlng or machlning mar<s shall be parallel to the lengtt of the weld. FIG. lo- LONGITUDINAL GUIDED-BEND TEST SPECIMEN <E6022) In.,, 6 3/4 2 /8 mm (A) BOTTOM EJECTING GUIDED BEND TEST JIG Notes t. Erther hardened nnd greesed shoulders or hardened rolle<5 free to ro tate shall be used. 2. The shoulóers or roller> shall hava a rrun~mum beanng engtt of 2 in. (5 mm) for placement of!he spedmen. 3. The shoulders or """"" shall be high eoough above the bottom ot!he testing í'9 so ttlat!he specimen will dear!he shoulders or roller> when the plunger '' m the low posmon. 4. The plunger shall be fltted WT!h an appropnate base and provísion tor attachment 0!he testmg macnine and shall be designed to rrunimize daflection or mtsal!gnment. 5. The shoulder or roller supports may be made ad ustable in the honzontal dfrection so that speamens of vanous thk:kness may be t2sted rn the same rg 6. Tha snoolóer or roher suppons shall be fimed to a base designed to maintaln!he shoulders or roller> centered and ahgrlled wtth respect to the plunger, and to mrnmze dehecnon or msalignment. FIG. ll- BEND TEST JIGS 22

145 PART C- SPECIFIC..\TIONS. FOR WELDJNG RODS. ELECTRODES. ANO FILLER METALS SFA-5. ) SEE NOTE 5 3/4 SEE NOTE 5 34 AS REOUIRED,.,,V z ~ ~ M z ~34 IN. R ~ N j -/8 IN. ;; SEE NOTE 5 SI Eguvalents in. mm / /4 6.4 / / :> /4 7 7-/ ~f--- 7 /2 IN. f----9n. -/6N. R (B) BOTIOM GUIDED-BENO TEST JIG Notes. A tapped ~ of appropnate size. or othe!' sutat:>!e m6ans for attad'ung plunger to test ng mac:nine shall be made. 2. Ertner hardened and greased shoujders or t:ardeneo rollers tree to rotate shall be used n the de. 3. The plunger and base shau t>e oesgned to mmmze def'lectlon and rtllsa/lgnment 4. The speornen shatj be torced nto me de by applyjng tne load on the pjunger until tne curvature of the speomen is such that a /8 in. (3.0 mm) dameter wre csnnot be placed between tne speamen and 8 pomts in tne curvature of ttle d e member ot tne '9 5. Weld s:ze rndcateo s a rocofflrr..enda!jof'\ The nctual sze S me respcnsblhty or the user to ensure rigdty and des gn adequacy 3/4 IN MIN ) ROLLE A SI Equivatents in. mm / / (C) WRAP AROUND GUIDED BEND TEST JJG Notes:. Drnensions not snown are!he opiion ot!he destgner, except that the minimum wid!l ot!he ccmponents shatl be 2n. (5 mm) 2. ~ is...,ttal to have Ddeouate ng>drty so t!lat tr>e ig wtll not deflect dumg te5tmg. The speomen shal be firmly damped on one onó zo ltlat IS does not sllde dunng the candtng operation. 3. Tll5 o >eamens s.nau ba removed rom tr>e '9 when!he outer mil has tra- 80" rom!he starting point. ) FJG. ll- BEND TEST JIGS (CONTINUEDJ 23

146 SFA SECTION O -<l ~ L------Jr- ~/2LENGT~ OF SPECIMEN DETAlL OF NOTCH H ± 0.00 r o.35 ± ~4±000 or f -:9' ± 0 MINUTES 0.00 ± 0.00 RADIUS SI Egu valents n mm 0.00 O.D25 O.QlO Notes. AU dlmens00s except angles are n nches. 2. The notched surtace and the surtace to be struck shall. be parallef Wlth n in. (0.05 mm) and have at least 63 JJ in. {.6 JJffi) hnish. The other two surlaces sha/ be square Wlth the notched or stlljck surtace wrth n :!: O m nutes of the óegree and he ve at least 25JJin (3.2 JJm) fnish. 3. The notch shall be smoothly cut by mechanical meens and shell be square 'Mth the k>ng tud nal edge of the spec men Wlth n one oegree. 4. The geometry of the notch sha/ be measured on et k!ast one speamen n a set of hve speamens Measurement shall be done at mrumum 50 times magn f catkln on erther a shadowgraph Or a metallograpr~. 5 The corree! locaton of the ootch shall be venfied by etchng befare or atter mach n ng 6 a specimen does not break upon beng struck, the value for energy abso(t)ed shall be reported as the capacty ot the impact tes!lng maeh r.e followed by a plus sign (+) FIG. 2- CHARPY V-NOTCH!MPACT TESI SPECIMEN ',2) :\( U.\)'gt:ll pu!ifyu\g j ;tj!l LOII~I~illl~ ur d!lt;t:jk \'ah e: a flow nlt.::tcr, a 96% sulfunc acid wa~;h bottlc. ~ ~pra~ trap. and an anhylirou:-. magnesmm perchlor<jtc drytng towcr 7 (3} :\ fuscd silica combu~tion tubc of at Jc;_ _~t /H in. (22 mm) in~tde diamctcr wl(h plain ends and a de"ttnlicatinn potnt ahove 2000 F (093 C). (A high-tempcrature ccrarmc tube can be used. but a higher valuc will he nbtamcd for thc blanks.) A plug of glass wool tlnc enough to tilter the gasc:-. ~hall be Inscrtcd far enough tnto rhc cxit cnd of thc combustion tube to be hcated lo a emperaurc of 400 to 500 F (204 to 260 C). (.J) A water absorptinn tram conststing of a U-tube (Schwartz-type) tllled with ;:mhydrous magnesium perchlorate and a conccntrated sulfunc acd gas-scaling bonle. 5.5 In conducting this test. a sample of approximo.tely 4 grams of covcring shall be prepared as a composttc of the covering from thc middle of three electrodcs takcn from the same package. Thc covenng shall be removed by bending the clectrode or by pmching the covering with c!can. dry pliers or forceps. ImmedtJte!y upon rcmoval. the sarnple of covcring shall ijl: iran:-.f..:rjt.:d 0 a dried. sroppcred V!~d or :-.ampie but Je 5.6 Thc fu mace shall be opcrated at ~00 F ::::: 2YF (982 C ::: I4 C) wtth an oxygen tlow of 200 to 250 mi pcr minute. Thc cmpty boa! hec 5.3)..;ha!l be pbce:u m thc hoi. zone üf the combm.tion tute. f.:, drying. and thc absorption U-tube :ts~embly shall be attachcd to the system for.. conditioning.- :\fter 30 rrunutcs, thc ab~orplion U-tuhc :-.hall be removed and placcd in the babnce case. The bo:jt shall be removed ang placcd in a desiccator in \\ hich anhydrous magnesium pcrchlorate is used as a desiccant. After a cooling period of 20 minutes, the absorpuon U-tube shall be weighed. 5.7 In he blank detcrminat0n. the proccdurc for an actual rnoisture determination shall be followed stepby-step with a single exception of omitting the sample. The boat shall be removed from the desiccator and exposed to the atmosphere for a period approximating the time required to transfcr a sample from the balance pan to lhc boat. The combusuon tube shall be opencd. the wetghed absorption U-tube attachcd, the boat placcd tn the hot zone of the combustion tube. and the tubc closed. After a heatmg period of 30 rnmutes, the ab- 24

147 PART C- SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDING RODS, ELECTRODES. AND FILLER ~ETALS SFA-5. FILLET WELD LEG FILLET WELD SIZE FILLET WELD LEG (A) CONCA VE FILLET WELD SCRIBE UNES SCRIBE UNES FILLET WELO LEG sorplion U-tubc sh"ii be removed and placcd in he balance case. The boat shall be transferrod to the desiccaror. Aftcr thc 20 minute cooling pcriod. the absorption U-tubc shall be weighed ;md thc gam m weight shall be takcn as the blank value. 5.8 Immediately after weghing the absorpt!on U tube above. the samplc of the covcnng shall be wetghcd and quickly transferred to the boat. The combustjon tube sh?ll be opcned, the weighed absorption U-tube anachcj. he boat with sample ransferred lo thc hot zonc of the combustion tubc. and the tube closed. After heatmg for 30 minutes. the absorption U tube shall be removed and placcd in the balance case. lf anothc:r sample is to be run, the boat shall be taken from thc combustion tube, the sample removed, and the boat transfcrred to the desccator. The absorption U-tube shall be wcighed aflcr the :w minute cooling pcnod. Anothcr Jetermmation may be started immediatcly, smcc is not necessary to repeat the blank detcrmlnation, providcd thc same combu~tion hoat can be usej. 5.9 The ca!culation.shall be made accordng to the follow ng formula: A-B Pcrccm ~oi~turc = x 00 Wdght of Sampk FILLET WELD SIZE _, ~ (B) CONVEX FlLLET WELD FILLET WELD LEG Note. Ftllet weld stze rs the leg lengms of the targest tsosceles ñght tna~ whtd'l can be JI"'ISCnbed wntun tne hllet welo c:ross sectton 2. Convextty rs the ma.xtmum otstance from the tace of a convex hllet welo perpencltcular to a hne jotnmg ttle weld toes. 3. Fti!et wek:l eg ts tt'.e dcstance trom the t<)int root to the toe of The f!llet weld. FIG. l3- DIMENSIQ,~S OF FILLET WELDS whcrc A = gain in wcight of absorptiün tu be in mosture Jetermination B = gain in weght of absorpt0n tu be in blank detcrm nat!()n 6. Absorbed Moisture Test 6. In ordcr for a Iow hydrogcn electrode to be Jcsigno.ted JS low-moisture-absorbmg with the R" suffix desgnator or classifled as E70 8M. sufficicnt electrodcs shall be cxposed to an cnv romnent of 80 F (26.7 C)/80% rclativc humidity for a period of not Iess ihan 9 hours by any suitable method. In case of dispute. the exposure method dcscribcd in 6.2 through 6 6 shall be the referee melhod. The moisture content of the elcctrode covering on the low-moisture-absorbing. Iow hydrogen electrodes (E705R. E706R. E706-IR. E70IRR, E708-IR, E708M. E7028R. E/048R) shall be determmed by any suitable method. In case of dispute, the method described in 5.3 through 5.9 shall be the referee method for deter mination of moisture content. The moisture contcnt of thc exposcd covcnng shall not excced the mo.ximum 25

148 SF:\ SECTION TABLE 9 DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FILLET WELD USABILITY TEST SPECIMENS Maximum Measured Fillet Maximum Difference Between Weld Size Convexity Fillet Weld Less in. mm in. mm m. mm / /64 5/ /64 3/6 4.8 /6 7/ /6 /4 6.4 /6 9/32 7. /6 5/ /64 / /64 3/ /64.2 / / / / / / l J l :-.pcctllcd rnoj~turc contcnt for thc designated clcctrouc ami classification in Tabic 0 i6.2 An ckctrodc sample of cach :-.JZC of E70Xil.l or thc smalle:-.t and thc largest <-, zcs of "R.. dcsignatcd elcctrodc :-.hall be ex.poscd. If thc electrodcs are condnioncd pnor to ex.po..,urc. that fact. along with thc mcthod uscd fnr comlitwning. and the time and tcmpcrawrc ;no!vcd m contlitjoning. sha!l be notcd on thc test rccoru ConditJOJl!ng Llf clectrodcs aftcr expo:-.urc :-. Jllll pt:l"lllliit:d.!6.j Th(',_ kr:tr0dt.' ;o:;l!nrh:- >h:dl be cxposed in a suitably calihratcd and controlled cnvjronmcntal chamhcr for fll!lc hour:-. mmimum at S0 F. mtnus o. plus 5 F (26.rC. mnu:-. O. plu" ~ S C),md SO% RH. mmus O. )j U:. )(,(. ) 6.4 Thc cnvtronmcntal ch:.unbcr shall rne~:t thc follov. m~ desi~n rcquir~:rnents ( ) Thc apparatus shall be an insulated humdficr which produces thc tempcrature uf adjabatic saturation through rcgcnerjtjve cvaporation or vaporization of \Vater. (2) The appjratus ~hall have an average air speed \vithm the envclope of air surrounding the covered clectrode of 00 to 325 fpm (0 5 to.7 m/sec.). ( 3) The apparatus shall ha ve a drip-free arca whcre the covered elcctrodc up to S tn. (450 mm) in lcngth can be posuioned with length as perpendicular as practica! to the general air flow ( J) The apparatus shall havc a calibrated means of continuously measuring and recording the dry bulb temperaturc and cither the wet bulb temperature or the differcntal bctween the dry bulb and wet bulb tcmperature nver the pcnod of tune required. 5) Thc apparatus shall ha ve an a ir spccd of at lcast 900 fpm (4 5 mis) over the wct bulb sensor unless thc \\'Ct huib ~cn~or can be shown to be inscnsitjve to ::ur "rccd or has :~ known correction factor that will provide!or an adjusted wct bulb reading equal to thc tempcraturc of adiabatic saturation. iól Thc apparatus shall have the wet bulb sensor loc:l.tcd on thc suction sde of the fan so that there is an ah..,~tkc of heat radiation on the sensor. 6.5 Thc exposure procedurc. shall be as follows. Thc electrode samplc in unopened packoges. or from reconditioned lots. shall be heated to a tempcr :llurc. mmus O. plus I0 F (6 C) above the dcw point of thc chamber at the time of loading. :' Thc clectrode sample shall be loadcd into the chambcr ''-'llhout dclay after the packages are opened. 3) Thc clectrodcs shall be placcd in the chamber in a vertical or horizontal position on in. (25 mm) ccntc". wth the lcngth of the electrode perpendicular as pr:u.:-tical to thc general a ir llow. ( J) Time. temperature, and humidity shall be continuously recorded for the period that the electrodes are n the chamber. (5) Counting of the exposure time shall start whcn the requ~red temperature and humidity in the chamber are established. (6) At the end of the exposure time, the clectrodes shall be removed from the chamber and a sample of the electrode covering taken for moisture determinatlon, as spcctficd in Section 5, Moisture Test. 6.6 The manufacturer shall control other test variables which are not defined, but which must be controlled to cnsure a greater conststency of results. 26 i!

149 PART C- SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDING RODS. ELECTRODES, ANO FILLER METALS SFA-5. FRACTURING FORCE REINFORCING WELOS FRACTURING FORCE FORCE ----FRACTURING MAXIMUM DEPTH NOTCH = 2 ACTUAL THROAT (A) REINFORCING WELOS (B) OFFSET OF WEB (C) NOTCHING \ FIG. 4- ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR FACILITATING FRACTURE OF THE FILLET WELD j l l j \ '.' \ ) ANHYDROUS MAGNESIUM PERCHLORATE DRYING TOWER FURNACE "SCHWARTZ" TYPE,O.BSORPTION U TUBE CONT AINING ANHYDROUS MAGNESIUM PERCHLO~ATE CONC. H 2 so, SEAL SPRAY TRAP FLOW METER l \ ' FIG. 5- SCHEMATIC OF TRAIN FOR MOISTURE DETERMINATIONS 27 \

150 SF A SECTION l.!.j j : : l - AWS Classification E705 E706 E70J8 E7028 E7048 E705 E706 E708 E7028 E7048 E708~ TABLE 0 MOISTURE CONTENT LIMITS IN ELECTRODE COVERINGS Limit of Moisture Content, %by Wt.. Max. Electrode DesgnatJOn E705 p706 E706-J {E708 E708- E7028 E7048 E705R {E706R E706-IR { E708R E708-l R E7028R E7048R E708M As-Received or CondJtJoneda Notes: a. As-receved or condjtjoned electrode coverings shall be tested as specified in Section 5. M0sture Test. b As-exposed electrode coverings shall have been exposed toa moist environment as spcciíled m 6.2 through 6 6 befare bemg tested as specfied m As-Exposedb Not specified TABLE DIFFUSIBLE HYDROGEN LIMITS FOR WELD METAL AWS Diffusible Hydrogen Diffusible Hydrogen Content. Average ClassJfication Designator ml(h2)/ioog Deposited Metal. Max. b E708M Non e 4.0 E7QJ5 6.0 E706 E708 H8 8.0 E7028 E7048 H4 4.0 } r Notes: a. DJffusible hydrogen testing in Section 7. Diffusible Hydrogen Test. is required for E708M. Diffusible hydrogen testing of other Jow hydrogen electrodes is only required when diffusible hydrogen designa ter is.added as specified in Figure 6. b. Sorne low hydrogen classifications m ay not meet the H4 and HS requirements. 28

151 PAH r C- SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDING RODS. ELECTRODES. AND FiLLER METALS SFA-5. TABLE 2 STANDARD SIZES ANO LENGTHS Standard U:n~ths b E600. E60ll, E60l2, E60l3.E6022. E70l4, Standard Sizes,~ E705,E70l6, E708 E6020, E6027, E7024 (Core,Wm~ Diamcter) E70l8M E7027. E7028. E7048 E60l9 m. mm m. mm in. mm m. mm l/ 6' (0.063)!.6' ' (0.072) 2.0' 9 or or or or 300 3/32' (0.094) 2.4' 2 or or or or or or 350 l/8 (0.25) /32 (0.56) or or 450 3/6 (0.88) t 4 or or or OT 450 7/32' (0.29) 5.6' 4 Of or or or ' (0.250) 6.4' IR or or S/6' (0.33) 8.0' or or Notes a. Ungths and sizes other than these shall be as agn:ed to by purchaser and supplíer. b. In a\ cases, end-gnpped electrodes are standard. c. These diameters are not standard sizes foral! classifícat0ns (see Table 4). \ ) 7. DitTusihlc Hydrogl'n Tt ~t Thl.! sma!!l.!~l ami larg(:'-. SII.t::-- t.l!he d~..:ctrodc of t..::!ch t.::l:lssjíictj!lot!o hl.:: d~:-l:;!l.j!t..:d hy ~ l)p\0:) ~LlpplcrCJJ!al (.útlusbk- hydrn:;.:.:n de..,ign:llnr.hhl ;di :-l!.t:'> n( E70 S\...,h;J!J he!l:..,lt.'d.lltordhlt;, tr.. l.l!ll t)f the mcthod.s g_j\'cn tn :\NS!It\ \\'~ A l 3 Síti!lrfllul,Hech~~ct.\ jor!jcc < Tll! u w ion 'f Jw [)u it-\ i h/ ' yd o.t; en Com t' n o( Mur!OI.\[{(' 8(/tl!ltiC u:;,:' r( rrwc Srccl i\icftl.\kt!ll Prf!dllct d hy :\re Wl'iding. Tc:'ting ">hall he don~ \\ nhout "com.llttoning' llf th~ ~.::k~. trudc. unk~" thc m. nufacturcr n.'co!ll!llcnlb D\ht:f\\ I'C.! f \ht: t.'!cctrndcs :In.. : ctmlhtioncd. h; fall. aiun:; \\ ith!he JllCtlhJd u~cd for condiloning. :nd thc \lmt: :nd tcrnpltature mvolvcj in cnndltloning. ~ha!! Pe JHJtcd \\\ hc h::~t rc~urd. The - úiffusib!e hyúrogen Jt::-.ign;I\,Jt m:y be,jdcj tu thc da~~líú.::llitjn accord~ 0 thc av~..::ragt.:: tc:-. v du(' ;!-. comp;rrcd to thc rcquircrncnh,,( Tahk l l For purposc:-. of ccrtdyng l'l)lllpl ;mce \I,'Jth diltu.s!h!e hydrogcn rcquircmcm~. thc n. fcn.:.-nce atmosphcnc con~ Uition.shaH be an ah.-,olutc hunhdity nf 0 grains )f \Vater vapor pcr pound (!. -U g/kg) of Jry a ir at rhc ttme nf wclding. The actual atmo~phcnc cnndttwns sha!l be rcportcd along wth!h~.: ave:r:gc valuc fnr thc test accordmg :o.-\ns!/aws.-\4 3 (Scc Appendi,, A9.2). \Vhcn thc ~b::.olute humidh~ ~quab or cxcccds thc rcfcrcncc condnron at thc tldll' of prcparation of thc test a<.:;sembly, thc test,.;hall h.' ~v.::ccpt:lblc a.s Jcmon ~tnmng comp!iancc wuh thc \'\!Uircmcnt.s ot this ~pec Jtkation. pro\'jocd thc ::ctual te, rc..,ult.-, sausfy th!: Litffushle hyd0gcn rcquircn'lcnts for thc appl!c;j.b!t;: desisnator. Likewise. if thc J.Cutal le,..,\ results t"or an elcctrodc mcct thc rcquircmems t"nr thc!tm er or kw.:cst hydmgc.n.k:o.ignator. as spcced rn Tahk!. thc clcctrod~ also rn~cts thc rcquircm~nts for :)\ hrglla hydro~l'il dc!-.!g_jlatnrs n Tahk \\'Jthnut rhc nced IG rctc~l SECTION C - ~IANUFACTUJ{E. IDENTJFIC,\TION,.-\ND l'acka(;j;'\g IM. l\lethod of Manufacture Thc clectrodc~ cbssiltcd accordmg ro this sp,::cifi L"arion may he manufacturcj hy any method that \vrll produce dcctrodes that mcct the rcquiremcnts of this :o.pccj!ication 9. Standard Sizes and Lengths 9. Standard szcs (diamctcr of the core wire) and!cngths of c\ectrodc!l are shown in Tablc Thc diamctcr of the core wíre shall nor vary more rhan :: m. (::!: 0.05 mm) from the dw,mcter spccitted The lcngth shall not vjry more than :.:: J/J, m. (:t 0 mm) from that spectfied. 20 Core \Vire and Covcring 20. The corc \Vire and covcring shall be free of dcfect~ that would imcrfcrc wirh umform Jeposiríon of thc clcurodc.

152 SFA SECT0N 'l Mandatory Classilication Designators: Designates an electrode. This designator may be deleted from the product imprint required for identification of the electrode designa tes the tensile strength (minimum), in k si, of the weld metal when produced in accordance with the test assembly preparation procedure of this specification. See Table 2.,----- Designa tes the welding position in which electrodes are usable, the type of covering, and the kind of welding curren! for which the electrodes are suitable. See Table l. EXXYY EXXYY M EXX YY - HZR,---- Designates an electrode (E708M) intended to mee! most military requirements (greater toughness, lower moisture content- both as-received and after exposure - and mandatory diffusible hydrogen limits for weld metal). Se e Table 3, O and l ll. Optiooal Supplemental Designators: Designa tes that the electrode meets the requirements of the absorbed moisture test (an optional supplemcntaltest for alllow hydrogcn clectrodes cxcept the E708M classification, for which the test is required). See Table 0. Designa tes that the clcctrode mccts thc rcquircments of thc diffusible hydrogen test (an optjonal supplemental test of the weld metal from low hydrogen electrodes, as-received or con ditioned - with an average value not exceeding z ml of H2 per loog of deposited metal, where "Z" is 4, 8, or 6). See Table!l. L.. DeSJgnates that the clectrode (E70!6, E708. or E7024) meets the requirements for im preved toughness- and ductility in the case of E (optional supplemental test requlfements shown in Tables 2 and 3). Scc notes to Tablcs 2 and 3. Note: The combmat0n of these designators constitutes the electrode classificat on. FIG. lb- ORDER OF ELECTRODE MANDATORY ANO OPTIONAL SUPPLEMENTAL DESIGNATORS.. ~: 20.2 Thc con; \vire ami thc covcring shall be conccntnc to thc C.\tcnt that thc maximum corc-plus-onccovcnng úimcn:-.ion ~hall not cxcccd thc rninimum corc-plus-one-covcnng Jimcns0n by more than ( ) 7% of thc mean Uimcnsion in szcs ~/, 2 In (2 4 mm) und smallcr: (2) 5% of thc mean dimension in Sizes /s m. (3.2 mm) anc.l 5 /. 2 in. (4.0 mml: (3) 4% of the mean dimension in sizes 3 / 0 n (4.8 mm) and larger. Concentricity may be measurcd by any sultable means. 2. Exposed Core 2. The grip end of each electrode shall be bare (free of covering) for a distance of not less than /~ m. (2 mm). nor more than..~ in. (30 mm) for \ 2 in. (4.0 mm) and smaller sizes. and not less than )/ 4 in. (9 mm) nor more than / 2 n. (40 mm) for / ó in. (4.8 mm) and \argcr ~ zcs. to provide for electrical contact with the electrode holder. 2.2 Thc are end of caeh eleetrode shall be suffieiently bare and the covering suffieiently tapered to permit easy striking of the are. The length of the bare portian (measured from the end of the core wire to the location where thc full cross-section of the covering is obtamcd) shall not excced / 8 in. (3 mm) or the diameter of the core wire. whchever is less. Electrodes with ehippcd covcnngs near the are end, baring the core wue no more than the lesser of / 4 in. (6 mm) or twice the diameter of the core wire, meet the requirements of ths specification. provded no chip uncovers more than 50% of the eireumference of the core. 22. Electrode ldentification All electrodes shall be identified as follows: 22. At least one imprint of the electrode designa! ion (classifieatjon plus any opuonal designators) shall 30

153 SFA SECTION Appendix Guide to A WS Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Are Welding (Thi:- :\ppcndi:\ :. nnt J pan ni ANSI/.-\ \\'S AS.\-9. Spt'nfication jiu Carbon Steel Electrodt s for Shidded Metu/ Are Weldtng. hut is inclujcd for tnformatjon purposc only.) A l. Introduction Thb gude was designed to correlatc the covcrcd e\ectrodc classific:nion with thc mtendcd applications so the ~pccification can be uscd effectlvr:ly. Such corre!atiom, are intcmkj as examplcs r<ithcr than complete llstmg;.; of the hase mctab for which c:ch íiller metal s ~ujtabk. A2. Classification Systcm A2. Thc systclll for ckctmdl.! da:,:.'itic:hion thc.-;pcc!!lcatton follll\\'s the C.'>tabl ishcd p.:trcrn u sed m othcr r\ \V S tlllcr metal spccdkatwns. Thc lettcr _E.. at thc bcginnmg tlf cach classifk:hion destgn~hion stands for an c!cctrodc Thc tlrst two Lhgus. 60. for e.\amplc. Jc:-.ign:ltc tcnsilc ~trcngth of ~ ka:-.t 60 kst of thc \\cld!'!'!ctal. pn"'~duced!ll ttl'conjanc(' \Vllh th(' test asscmhly prep:r:tton scctton of thc spcl irlcauon Thc tht;d Jigit Je:-.ign~ttc'l positi()l\ u.-,abilily that wtll allow satislactory wcld:-. to he pwduccd Wl!h ihe clcctrodc Thus. thc t... <:-. in EóOiO. mt::..tib th<.:i ;he ck..::trodc is _;s hk a\ pmitlon:-. \llat. honzomal. vertical. and ovcrhcad). Thl.! "2... a:-. E6020. Jc.-,tgnató that thc e lectroje.-, ~uttablc r..)r use!bt po~llion ~l!ld for makmg tlllct wc]d<; the honzontal pos\\0n Thc --L.. in E704~. dl!:-.jgnatc.-, that thc ck.:trode IS ::-uitable for use n vente:!! wejj ng wnh downward progn:ssion anli for nther pllsjtlons (~ce Tab\t: ). Tht: la~t two dtgtts takcn together Je~tgnatc thc t: pe of curren! wtth which thc electrmk can be uscd and the type of covenng on the electrodc. as listcd in Tahlc l. A2. Opuona! dcstgn;jtors J.re also used m thts spcc flcation in onjcr to idcnuíy electrodes that have met thc m.l!ljatory classiflc:hon r~qtmcmenb and certam supplcmt:ntar~ rcqutrements ~s a~reed 0 betwccn thc ~upplit:r ~md thc purcha~er. :\ --" designator followmg cbssitlcation ltkntiíks an electrojc which meets optional suppiemental tmpact requtrements at a lower tcmpcraturc than required for the classification (sce Note b to Tablc 3). An cxamplc of this is the [7024- clcctrodc whch mects the classification requjrcrncnts of E7024 ami also meets the optional supplemcntal rcquircments for fracture toughness aad improvcj elongation of thc wcld metal (see Note e to Table 2. Ccrtain low hydrogcn clectrodcs abo may have opttonal designators A lcttcr ''R... s a designator used with the low hydrogcn clcctrode clas~ifications. Thc lctter.. R.. s u~cd to tdcntlfy elcctrodcs that havc becn cxposed lll a llurntd cnvironmcnt for a given length of ttme anj tcsted for mnisture absorptlon in addition to the standard rnoisturc test n::quircd for classjfication of low hydrogcn clcctrodes. Sec Section 6. Absorbed Moisturc Test. ami Tablc 0. An optional supplemental dcsgnator "Hz íollowing thc four digit classtfication dcsignaiurs or following thc ~ - optional supplemcntal desgnator, if uscd. indtcatcs 3 average diffusiblc hydrogcn contcnt of not more th<!-! "Z" m!/!oog of dcposttcd metal \vhen tcstcd in tht.: ;.. s-rcccivcd- or condttioncd stat~ in accordancc with ANSI/A WS A4.3. Standard Methods j(>r Detcrmtnmion of Dijfusible Hydrogen Content nf Mwtensltlc, /Jmnitic. ami Ferritic Steel \Veld Metal Product'd hy Are Welding. Electrodcs that are de~ignated as meet Ing thc lower or lowcst hydrogcn limit~. as spcciflccd m Tablc, are also understood to be ablc to rnect any higher hydrogen limits cven though thesc are not neccssarily designated along wjth thc clectrodc cla~ Sitication. Thercfore. as an cxamplc. an electrodc destgnated as "H4" also mects "HS" and "HI6" re4uremcnts wlthout bemg designated as such. Sec Scction 7. Diffusiblc Hydrogen Test, and Table. A2.3 Tablc A shows the classification for similar clcctrodes from Canadtan Standards Associatton Specification W48.-~980. Mild Steel Covered Ac ll'eldmg Electrodes.

154 PART C - SP[CIFICATIONS FOR WELDING RODS, ELECTRODES. ANO FILLER ~IET.-\LS SFA-5. app!cd lo the dectrodc covenng in the ordcr specficd in Fig. 6 withn 2- /"2 n. (65 mm) uf!he grip cnd of thc clectrodc 22.2 Thc numbcr.s and!cttcrs of thc imprint :-.hall be of bold block type of a sizc Jargc cnough lo be!cg b/e 22.3 The ink used for irnpnntmg shall prov de suf. ficicnt contr~tst with the clectrodc covenng ~o tha!. m normji use. thc numbers and Jcttcr.s are legible both beforc Jnd aftt.:r wclding 22A Thc prcfix lctter "E.. thc clectmdc c/a.ssjflcation dc:sgnation may he ornnted frorn the imprint 23. Packaging 23. Electrodcs shall he suítably packagcd to protcct them from darnagc dunng.shpmcnt and "ltomgc under normal condjijons. In additjtm. E70JS;-..t elct.:trodcs sha!! be packagcd in hcrrm:ocally ~e~jled cont:llner.<. Hermenca/Jy se~dcd containers.sha/ be capllblt:: of pa~smg thc te~t speciiicd in For the test, ;_ rcprcsentatjve contamer shall be immcrscd in water th::h!.'. : a rcrnperaturc of at Jeast 50 F (27 C) ;bovc that of :he pacj...aged material (roorn tcmpcraturc). The container shall be lrll!jler~cd Sl) that the surface undcr ohsnv;hilll :- ; pp!lj\tmately m (25 mrn) hclow thc water len:/ and thc grcatcst diíicibííid is p:u.jiici lo thc \\,HCr.'.Uriace,-\ container with a strcarn of huhbles that l:t.'.t~ for 30.'.t::conds or more Joe~ nnt mcet thc rcqtnrcmcnt.'. of this spt.:c!fication 23.3 Standard packagt: wcighl\ '>hall he as ;Jgrccd upon bctwecn purchascr and :-.upp/cr. 24. Marking of Packages 2-4. Th :: following product information (as a mmimurn) sha/ he lcgibly marl-.cd on the outside of cact unit package. ( ) A \VS..,;pecitication and classitlcarion designations (year of.ssue may be excluded) (2) Supplier's na me and tradc designation t3) Sizc,mJ nct weight (-) Lot. control. m hem number 2-L2 Thc followmg precautwnary information (as a mintmum) shall he promnenr/y displayed in legible pnnr on all packages of clcctrodes. mcluding individual uni! packages cnclosed within a Jarger package. WARNING: oprotect yourself and others- Read and understand this information- FUMES AND GASES can be dangerous to your health- ARC RA YS can lo JUre eyes and burn skin_ ELECTRIC SHOCK can kili. o Beforc use. rcad and underst.:md the manufacturcr's Jnstructions. Matenal Safety Data Shcets (~SDS~). and your cmployer'.s safety practices. o Kccp your hcad out of the fumes. o Use cnough ventilation. cxhaust at the are, or both. to kccp fumes and gases Jway from your brc~hhng zonc. and the general ;:uea. o \Vcar corrcct cye, ear, and body protection. o Do no! touch clcctncal parts e Scc!\menean National Standard Z-+9., Safety in Weldmg and Cuuing, published by the Amcncan \VcidJng Socíctv. 550 North Ldcune Road, PO. flox lv!jami. Florida. 3335: OSHA Safety ilnd /ea/rh Standards, 29 CFR 90, available frorn thc U.S. liovemmcnt Prin{]ng Officc. Washington. D C. 20-!.02. DO NOT REMOVE THIS INFORMATION )

155 PART C - SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDING RODS. ELECTRODES. AND FILLER METALS SFA-5. \ _; TABLE Al CANADIAN ELECTROOE CLASSIFICATJONS SIMILAR TO AWS CLASSJFICATJONS (For Jnformation Onlyl Canadian Electrode Cl assifica t ion a E4!000 E400 E40 E402 E403 E4022 E4027 E480CO E480JO E480! E480J2 E480!3 E480!4 E4805 E480!6 E480J8b E48022 E48024 E48027 E48028 E48048 AWS Classification E600 E60 E602 E603 E6022 E6027 E704 E70!5 E706 E70J8 E7024 E7027 E7028 E7048 Notes: a. From CSA S.2ndard W48.J-M980, Mild Stee/ Covered Are We/dmg Electrodes, pubilshed by Canadian Stand2.rds :\sscci.atjon. 78 Rcxdaie Bouievard, Rexdale. Ontano, Canada \9W IR3. b. Also mcludes E4808-I desrgnated electrode. AJ. r\crcptancc Acccptancc nf :! \\'~ldlng ;natcrijb cla~~lied under thi:-..'.pcclficathhl ~~ :!l'~,_ ordanc ; wuh ANSI! A \VS AS.Ol. Filio :\:letal l'mctlrenzt'llf Gllldelim:J., as thc ~pccjticaton statc~ :\ny!l':dng a purchascr rcquire~ of thc supplicr. for m.hcjjal.-:hp~d in accorjancc with ths SpcciticHion. :-hall he clcariy stated in the purchasc orjer. :ILTOrdlllg to thc provi.'.lons of ANSIIAWS :-\5.0. In thc abscncc nf an~ such stjtement in the purchasc ordcr. thc ~uppiier may ship the materiji wnh whatt:ver tcs!ing mlrm~ll!y i~ performed on material of that da.sslficatton..!~ ~rccni-::d in Schedule F. Table t. of ANSIIA\VS AS 0 Tc~:tng in :JccordJncc with any oth:::.schedule tn th.ll T~t~l~ rnust be speclfically requir~'d by thc purcha~c onkr In such cases. acceptance of the maten~!] shtpped dull be in accorciance wnh those requircment-; A..t. Certificatitm Thc act of placrng the A WS 'pecification and classificatton designations on the packaging enclosing the projuct, or thc c!js.stfication on the product itself. con ~tttutes the supplier's (manufacturer's) certificaoon that thc product rncct~ all of the requirements of the speciflcation Thc nnly testing requirement implicit in this certiftcjtton is that thc manufacturer has actually conducted thc tests requircd by the specification on matenal that IS reprcscntalivc of that being shipped and that rnatenal rnet thc rcqutrcmcnts of the spectfication. Representattvc material. in this case. is any production run of that clas~ification using the sarne fonnulation... Certitlc<.~tion... is not to be construed to mean that tests of any kind were neccssarily conducted on samples of the spccific m<tterial shpped. Tests on such material may or rnay not havc been conducted. The basis for the certtftcauon rcquircd by the spectfication is the classtflcation tc~t of "rcpresentative matenal" ctted above. and thc.. r-...-janufacturer's Quality Assurance Program" in ANSI! A WS AS O l. AS. Vcntilation During Welding :\5. The following tlvc rnajor factors govern thc qu~mtity oi fumes tn the atrnosphere to which wclders ~md wclding opcratnr~ are exposed during welding: ( i) Dimcn~ions o! the.space m which welding is done (with spcci~ii rcgard ro thc hetght of the cciling) (2) Numbcr of wclders and weldtng operators workmg n that spacc (3) Ratc of evolutton of fumes. gases. or dusl. accordmg to thc matcriab and proccsscs used (.f) Thc proxunity of the welders or we!ding opcrators lt> thc fumes as they issue from the welding zone. and to the ga~es and dusts in the space m which they are working (5) Thc ventilation provided to the space in which thc wclding is done A5.2 American National Slandard Z49., Safety in \Velding a"'/ Cuuing (published by the American Weldmg Society), discus~es the ventilation that is required during wclding and should be referred Jo for details..-\ttentton is dra wn parucularly ro the Section of that Liocument cntitled.. Health Protection and Ventilation... A6. Welding Consideration.-\6. Wcld metal propcrties may vary. widely. according to the stzc nf the elcctrode and arnperage used. ~iz~ ot thc we!d beads. base metal thickncss. joint ge-

156 SFA SECflON ometry. preheat :md interpa~s remperatures. ~urtjcc condition. base metal cornpositjon. dllution. cte. Because of thc profound cffcct of thc~c van<ble~. a rc:st procedure was chosen for this spcctfic::itwn whjch would represen! good welding practice and minimize vanation nf thc mo~t potcnt of thc:-.c vario.bles..-\6.2 lt ~hould he rccognjzcd. however that production pracuces may be diffcrcnt. Thc differenccs encountcn::d may alter thc propcrties of the weld metal For Instancc. intcrpass tcrnpera urc~ may rangc frorn subfrcezing to severa! hundred degrces. No single temperaturc or rcasonablc rangc of tcmperaturcs can be choscn for classihcatjon tests which will be representative of all of thc condiuons cncountcred in productjon \vork. Propenies of production welds may vary accordmgly, depcnding on the panicular wcldmg conditions \Veld metal propcnics muy not duplichc, or evcn c!o~ely approach, thc valucs!tstcd ;,nd prcscribcd for test \vclds. For cxamplc. duculuy n ~ngk pass welds in thick base ml.':lal madc ou!doors m cold wcathcr without :dequatc prchc<..~ung may drop tn liltlc more than half that cquircd hcn.:jn ~nd normal\y obtamcd Th s docs not Hllhcatc that cllhcr thc clectrodes or thc \\ elds a:c bclow standard. lt indicares only that thc particular production conditions are more scvcre than thc te~t conduions prcscrihcj by thi~ spcciflcation \Vt.:ld mctab. othcr than thosc trom!i)w h)drogcn clcclrodc~ (E7Gi5. E70iú. E70~ L E708:-..t. E md E704X). contain :-.ignil\cant quantnics of hydrogcn for sorne pcriod of t mc aftcr thcy havc bccn madc. Th\ h)jrogcn gradually escape~. :-\ftcr l\'.'0 to four wccb ~lt room tcmpc! awrc or in 24 to 4:-i hours at 200 to 220 F (95 to 05 C). mo~t of it has cscapcd As n:sult of this changc hydrog.-:n contcnt. thc ductiltty of thc wcld mct;d incrca~cs llj\\ards IlS inherent valuc. whilc thc yicld. tcnsilc. Lind impact strcngths rcm;, in rc!:jttvc!y unchangcd This specilication requircs Jgtng of thc test spcci!llens at 200 to 220 F (95 to 05 C) for 48 hours bcforc subjcctmg them to the tension or bcnd test This ~ done to minimize discrcpancies in testing. A6.4 \Vhen wcldments are givtn a postweld heat treatmcnt. the tcmperaturc ~md trnc at tempcraturc are very importan! Thc tcnslic and yield strengths generally are dccrca~cd as po~twcld heat treatmcnt tenlper:.hurc and time al tcmpcraturc are incrcased. :\.6.5 \Vc\ds maje \vith clectrodc.'l of the sarnc class flcation :md thc ~ame wclding proccdurc wtll have Sigmtkantly diffccnt tcnsi!c :.d yic\d strengths in thc as-weldej and postweld heat-treated conditions. Companson of the values for as-welded and postweld heattreated [!50 F (620 C) for one hour] weld metal will sho\v thc followmg: A6.5. Thc tensile strcngth of the postweld heattreatcd wcld metal will be approximately 5 ksi (34.5 MPa) lower than that of the weld metal in the as-welded condltion. A6.5.2 Thc yield strength of the postwcld heattreated wcld metal will be approximately 0 ksi (69 MPa) lowcr than that of the weld metal in the as-weldcd condttlün. A6.6 Converse! y. postweld heat-treated welds madc with the same electrodes and using the same welding procedure except for variation in interpass ternperature and postwcld heat treatment time can have almost iden~!leal tcnsile and yield strengths. As an example, almost dcnticd tcnsile and y cjd strengths may be obtained in two wcld.'l. onc usmg an interpass temperature of 300 F (50 Cl and postweld hcat-treated for hour at 50 F (620 C). and the other usmg an interpass temperature oí 200'F (93 C) and postwcld heat-treated for 0 hours at 50 F (620"C). A6.7 Electrodcs which meet al! the requirements of any g \ cn class!fication may be r::xpected to havc sim J!ar ch:jractcristics. Certain minor differences cominue to c.'.l~t from one brand to another due to differcnces pn::fcrcnccs that exist regardmg specific operatmg charactcnstcs. Furthennore, the only differences bctwccn thc prescnt E60XX and E70XX classjfications are thc d ffcrcnccs in chemical composition and mcch;mic:!l propcrtics of thc weld metal, as shown m Tahlc~ and 7. In many applicatjons, clectrodes of eithcr E60XX or E70XX classifications m ay be u sed. r\6.8 Sincc the electrodes within a given classificatlon havc similar opcrating characterislics and rnechanic:il propcrtes, the uscr can limit the study of available elcctrodes to those within a Single classificatton after determimng which classification best suits the p:nicular rcquirements. A6.9 Thts specfication does not establish values for al! charactenstics of the electrodes falling within a given cla~siíkation. but it does establish values to me asure thosc of majar importance. In sorne mstances. a parocular characteristic is common to a number of classifications and testing for it is not necessary. In other mstanccs, the characterisucs are so intangible that no ade'iuate tests are availablc. This specification does not neccs~anly provide all the information needed to determine which classification will best fulfill a particular 3-l

157 PAI<T C- SPECIFIC..ITIONS FOR WELDING RODS. ELECrRODES. AND FILLER MET!ILS SFA S.l ) ) nccd Tht:reforc. ; Ül:--l'U'.:-, ~._ \ll' cach da."''llfication!s includcd in Appt'ndi:x :\7 ~._) :'Upplcmc-nt information giycn clst.:\\'herc in thc ~reclllc:hion :\6.0 Somc tmpon:..!nt l.:'~b for m~.suring major dectrmk ~.. har;tctltt::-tlc\ :m:.::' ftlllow~ :\6.0. Radio~raphk Tt st. :<carly all of thc carbon."'tcel l'lcctrmks L'o :crej 'ry thi:-. speclficat!on are capabk of producing m.:lds th.it rnel:l mo-;;t radiographic S<.lllndne:->s rcquirr:mcnt~ l-h\\c\'l:f. f mcorrcctly applicd. unslhmd \\ dds m ay ~ produced hy any of thc dccrrmk:s. For clcc!rolil.'.., t'f :'llllt cta::-sitications. thc radiographic rcquircmentr.; in Tahle S.iíC not ncccs~ sarily indil.'ativc of the ~~vera~( fi.ldogr.:phic soundncss to be exp~cted in prouuctlvn use Ekctrodcs of the E600. E60II. E609. anj E6020 classltications can be t::\pt:ctcd to produce :tcú'pt.lb!c radiographlt rcsu!ts. Undcr. ccrtain condntun~. rwtah!y n weldmg long, cont!tllhht::; _0nt~ in rci:jtj\'d: lhid~ ba:-.c metal. low h!drogen ~..!cctrmks of thc E-t)l). E706. E70S. and E70()Jv L"laS~llic:JtH)IJ:-.,\J[]..._~(!l n produc~ cvcn hcucr rc:-;ults. On the otht:r h:md.. jont:, ~)pcn to thc.!lmosphcre l)jl thc root -..Jde.. ~! the cnj:- of j0nt~. JOmts with man~ ::;to L- anj :-\.trt\. and \Vcllb ün small diameter pipe or m..,m:il. thm. trre~ularly shapcd joints. thc low hydrn,:_.:t.. n t..'k.._ rrodc\ tend lo produce \\'r::lds of poor r: dtnt:r.tf.lhll' "lll!llr!ncss E60] clcctrodcs usually pmduct'!he b\':-! radlf}graphtc ~oundn~ss in \\dd!n~ ~n.:~il thi~~ :~!"t~._ E6027. E7024 :wd E/02~,:il'ctrodc..; produce weld~ \\hi'-- t m;t:\ he cithcr l uilc _:=.''l'd (Jr r.tthn nfcrit)f!tl radtngraphrl. :-.ounjnc:-." Thc :cndcncy :'l't'lll\ to be the -.Jtter dirccon. Of.di t~ :-c:-. th~ E60~2 and E602 dcctrnde~ ~ener~lily ptlldljcc \\d(j<, wnh thc kast favnrabk radiographic ~l)undnc~' A6.0.2 Filie! \\"l'id Te,t. Thb te>< ' mcluucd as a rncans of dcmon:-traun~ che U">ahilrty of ;, n dcctrodc. Thrs te~t is corkcrncg. \\'rth thc.ppearance of the wcld (!.C.. \\t.:]d f.,:..; Cl)!lil'l!r <.~nd srnoothnc~s. un Uercut. U\'erbp. SIZC. :tnd rc~t:--.i<hlcc tü crackrng) lt also provijes an cxcclknt anj 'rncxpcn.:.rve rncthod of dctenmning tht: adequ; cy of (usion ;. thc wcld rnot (one of the unponant l'llfl<.,!jcr.\llom for an t.:lcctrodcl. A6.0.3 Toughness. Chc>rpy V-notch impact rcquirements are mclwk d m th-= 'pcciticat on. All classcs of electrodes in this :-pccitic.hinn can produce weld metal of sufficicnt tllll~hnc:-.~ : nr rnan! applications. The inclusron of llllp:\~ l rcqur-:ments lor ccrt<un ckctrode classdlcations :!ll~.n\ s the 'pt:cjtlc:hion to be uscd as a guide in ~ckctin:: clú ::-l'llcs \vhcrc Jow-tcmpcraturc toughness is n::qtmcd Th e c:n be considerable vananon in thc weld m..:ta! h'l:~hne~,s unles-"' panicular attcntion is grvcn to thc wc\ding proccdure ami thc prcparation and tcsting of thc ~pccimcns. The impact encrgy valucs are for Charpy V-nntch spccimcns u.nd should not be cunfuscd with valucs oht:uncd with other toughnt.::-.:-. tc~ts A6. Elcctrodc Covcring i\.joisturc Contcnt and Conditioning A6.. Hydrogcn can h:i\ C advcrse effccts on wckh in sonh' qccls undcr ccrtain conditions. One ~ourcc of this hydro~en!s morsturc in thc elcctrode covcrings. For thrs rea:-.on. thc propcr ~toragc. trc~ltilllnt, and handling uf clectrodcs are necessary. A6..2 Elcctrodes are manufactured to be within acceptabk moisturc hmits. consjstcnt wlth the type of covering and strength of thc weld metal Thcy are then norrna\ly packagcd m a cont:uner which has becn designej to providc thc Jc~rcc of rnoisture protcct0n considcrt.:d ncccs:-.ary for thc typc of covering. rnvolved. A6..3 lf thac i< a po%ibilty that thc nonccl lulo.\jc ckctrodc~ ma\' have absorbc<j exccs~:ivc moisturc. thcy may be rcston::d by rcbakmg. Somc electmdc~ rcquirc rcbal--..ing al a tempcraturc as high as XOO'F (425 C) for approximately to 2 hours. Thc manncr in whit..-h thc dectrodcs have been produccd ami thc rclatrve humidity.md tempcraturc comhtjon~ undcr which thc c!ectrmks are ~torcd det~rminr.:: the j)ft!pcr lcngth or tnne :nld tcmpr.::r:llurc u~cj for condition;ng Somc :yr..._ al storagc and drying conditions are inciudcd T.tblc A2. A6.ll..J Ccllulusc covermgs for E60 O and E60 C]eC[fOdC~ llced JllOl:-olllfC ]CVCJ:-. Of 3o/o (0?CJo for proper opcra:mn: :hcrcfnrc. :-.toragc \)f Lünditionrng abo ve ambicnt tempcratun.: may dry them too much ami advcrscly affcct thcir operatron (scc Table A2). A6.2 Cure \Vire. Thc corc wirc for a!l thc dcctrodc:-. cla:-.~iiicd thi:-. spccifkatwn b usually a mi!d stcel havrng a typcal G)mpnstlron which may differ significantly from that or thc weld metal produccd by thc covaed clcctrodes. A6.3 Covcrings A6.3. Elcctrodcs of some classifications havc suhstantial quanutics of iron powder added to their coverings. Thc iron powdcr fus~s with thc core wirc and thc other metal in the covenng. as thc clectrode melts. and rs deposited as part of the weld metal. just as is the corc wirc. Relallvt::ly high currents can be used sincc a considerable portron of thc clcctncal energy passing through the clcctrode Js uscd tn melt thc thickcr covcnng cont:uning iron powder. Thc rcsult is that )5

158 SFA SECTION Table A2 Typical Storage and Drying Conditions lor Covered Are Welding Electrodes AWS Storage Conditions 3 Classifica t tons AmbJent A ir Holding Ovens Drying Conditionsb EóOJO, EóOII AmbJent temperature Not recommended Not recommended E602. Eó03, } 80 ± 20'F (30 ± IO"C) 20' F ( J2"C) to 40'F (24 e E609, Eó020, 50 percent max relatjve above ambient temperature hour at temperature Eó022, E6027, humjdtty 275 ± 25'F (35 ± 5'C) E704,E7024 E7027 E705, E706, E708, E7028, E70 8M, E7048 } Not Recommendedc 50"F (30'C) to 250'F (40'C) above ambient temperature 500 to 800'F (260 to 4i7'C) to 2 hours at temperature Notes: a. After removal from manufacturer's packaging. b. Beca use of inherent diiterences m covering composioon, the manufacturers should be consulted for the exact dry ing conditions. c. Sorne of these electrode classifications m ay be designated as met:ting low moisture absorbing requirements. This designatlon does not imply that storage in ambient air JS recommended. more wcld metal may be obtained from a :-ingle elcc trode \Vllh iron powdcr Iil Its covcnng than from a sin glc elcctrodc of thc samc diamctcr With{ltlt iron pow Lit:r. A6. IJ.2 Duc to thc thkk coycnng and dccp cup rnx.luccd at the arcing cnd of thc clectrodc. iron powdcr clectrojes can he u:..cj vcry effcctt\'ely \Vith a "Jrag" tcchmyuc. Tht:.. tl:chmquc con,..;ists of keeping thc clcctrodc covcring In cont:ct \\'Jth thc \\'orkpiecc at a tcchnh uc u~tng a :..hort are lcngth is pn.:fcrablc f the ~/.: 2 in. (2...J. mmj or /~. (3 2 mm) clcctrodcs are to be uscj! other than tlat or honzonwl lillet wcljing posions or for making groovc: wdjs. A6.3.3 Thc E70XX c!tx:trodc:.. \\'Crt.: includcd n th s spccificatlon to acknowkjgc thc higher strength k vcls ohtamed with many of thc iron powdcr and luw hydrogcn c:lcctrmk:... as well ~s tu recognizc the in dustry dcmand for clcctrodcs with 70 ksi (482 MPa) minunum tcnsile strcngth. Unlike the E70XX-X classdlcation m A \VS A5.5. Specificallml for Low A!!oy Sree! Col't'rtd Are We!dmg Electrodes. these electrodes Jo nnt comam delibcrate :dloy add!tions. nor are they requircj to mcct rninimum tcnsilc propcmcs after postwcld hcat trcatment A6.3.4 E70XX lnw hydrogcn clcctrodes havc mmeral covcring~ whch are htgh in!imcstone and oth cr lflgrcdlcnts that are low In mojsturc and hencc Jow m hydrogcn con ten t... Low hydrogcn clectrodes were Jevclopcd for welding low alloy high~:..trcngth steels. sorne of whch wcre thgh in carbon contcnt. Elcctrodcs wnh l.lther thap!ow bydrogen ('.)'"2!"!fg~ prcducc ""hydrogcn~mduccj crack.ing.. m those stcels. Thesc un~ derbejd :.::-Jcks ticc:.:r :ri thc base meta!. usual\:; j'~!it bclow thc wc!d bcad. Wcld metal cracb also may occur These u:..ually are causcd by the hydrogcn absorbed from the are at~ rnusphc:rc Aithough thc:-.c cracks do nm gcneraiiy Ot.> cur n carbon stcels which havc a \ow carbon content. they may occur whcnever other elcctrojcs are uscd on highcr carbon or alloy stccls. Luw hydrogen electrodes are also used to wc!j high~sulphur and enameling ~teels. Electrodc:.. with other than low hydrogen cov~ crings gvc porous welds on tngh~sulphur stcels. With enameling stcels. the hydrogen thjt escapes after weld~ ing with other than low hydrogen clcctrodes produces hales in the cnarnel..-\6.-t Amperage Ranges. Table A3 gives amperage ranges which are satisfactory for most classifications. When welding vcrtically upward. currcnts near the lower limit of thc range are generally used. A 7. Description and lntended Use uf Electrodes.-\7.! E60 O Classification A 7.. E60 O electrodes are characterized by a decply penctrating. forceful. spray type are and readily 36

159 TABLE A3 TYP!CAL AMPERAGE RANGES '" _, Elcctrode E60!0 E6027 E"/05 E70!8M E7024 Diamcter and and and anj and mm E60 E602 E603 E609 E6020 E6022 E7027 E704 E706 E708 E7028 E7048 '" :;:..., l/6.6 20o 20o rnn lo J5 lo SI...,., n~ lo 45 lo 80 lo 65 lo 70to 00 to "'"' on J/J2* 2.4* J5 to SOto o- rn:::l ::r.(j > >-l l/8 J.2 75 lo 80to 80to 80to IOOto 0 to 25 lo 0 to IOOto 5 to 40 to 80 to z IJO o>;? -n"' to 0 lo 05 to JOto JOto 40to 60to 50 to 40to 50 to 80 to 50 to t= "Tl ro (.~ lo 40 lo 50 lo 90o 75 lo 70 lo 20o 200o 80 lo 200o 2JOio 20 lo lo 200o 20 lo 240o 225 lo 370o 250o 260to 240 lo 260o 275 lo rz V>Cl l/ "' 20 lo 250 lo 250 lo 30 lo 275 lo 300o 330to 300o 35 lo 335 lo o "' lo 300 lo 320o 360o 340o 375 lo 390o 375 lo 375 lo 400o "' ;u 7~ -rn Cr -lo >- This diameter is not manufactured in thc E7028 classification.

160 SFA SECT!ON rcmovable. thin. fnahlc :-bg \\'hich may nnt sccm to complett:ly cover thc wcld bc _ J. Filler wclds usually ha\ c a rclattvcly llat \\L'Id f.kc and havc ;_ rathcr co;_ rsc. unevenly ~paced npplc Th..: covcnngs are high in ccl\ulo~e. u~ually cxcú dmg 3(Y;; by wcig.ht. Thc other m,ltcnals gcnerally u~ej tn lile covcring includc lttamum djoxtdc. melalhc dco\idirlrs such as fcitomanganl~c. vanou~ typt:~ ot magnt.:-~ium or ;. \uminum ~!licatcs. and ltquid sodiurn...!licatc as a htncr.:r. Because nr thcir cmcnng cornpnsnion. thc:-.c e\cctrodc~ are gencrally dcsnlbcd as thc l~igh-ccllu\ose sodium type. A 7..2 Thcsc clcctrodcs are rccommcndcd for al\ wcldmg po~itions. particularly on rnujt pjc pass apphcations in thc vertical and L)\'Crhcad welding position:-. and wherc wc\ds of good ~oundnc~~ are rcquircd. Thcy frcqucntly are se!cl tcd for JOI!llng ppe and generally are capablc of we\dmg in the \'eitic;_tl position whh ether uphi\ or downhi\ pn)gre~~hlll. A7..3 Thc majoijty nt.lpp!jc;jtjon-. fo thcsc clcl tmde~ ~ m JO!ning carbon ~recl Howcver. thcy havl' been u~cd to ad\ antagc un talv;lllí!.ld :-.tt:d and ( snme lnw alloy :-.teeb. T::. p!cal ; ppl!cation~ me lude shiphujidmg. budjmg~. hndgcs. ~tnrage tanj...s. ptpmg. and pn::ssurc vcsscl litttng:-:. Since the application~ are :-.u \\'tdespread. ; tl!~cu~.-.illn ~~r t::ch :-. unprac!jcal S!i' es largcr than ' H, tn. (-J. S tlllll gl neral!y havc IInHtcd t!~::..!! ~'!h::: th:!n tbt.)!' h~'!!?.'.l!h:!!-!!!!l't Wl'!ding po- \li!oil~- A 7.lA Thc~c clecm~k" hay e hccn dt:~ignl'd t'o use with Jeep (ckctrodc Pl"'HI\'l't. Thc ma.\ímum ampl'r~lge that can gencral!y he med \\ th the largcr :.rc~ of thc:-.c clcclrodcs :-. IIJllltcd tn L'ump.tn:-.on lo that flll otha clas:-.lf\canons duc tll the hgh -.patler lo~:-. lhat occur:-. with tgh.unpcragc A 7.2 E60 Clas;ilicalion A7.2. E60 t:lectmde..; arl de:-.gned to be ust:d \\'ith ac currcnt and to dupik:llc thc u:-.ahility charactcn~llo ami mechanical pw rt:rtie~ o! the E600 cla~ :-.dicatlon Although al:-.o us:ihlc wnh Jeep (electrndc positivc). a dencasc in jnmt pcnl'tration wi\ be notl'd whcn comparcd to the E60 O elcctrodes. Are acton. :.lag. and fillet wcld appcarancc are 'limtlar to tho~c of the E600 clcctrodes. A7.2.2 The covenngs are :!lsn hgh in ccllulme and are J,;:-.cribed as thc htgh-cc\lulo~e pol;_t:-.sjum typc. In :tddliion to thc other ngredient~ normally found in E60\0 covcring:-.. sma\ quantltic-., \)f calclum and pota~stum compound:-. u~uall::. :m.: pre~cnt. A7.2.3 SJzcs largt:r than '/ r. m (-LX mm) generally lwvc lunitcd use m lllher than flat or horizontalfillct wclding posjtjon~. A7.3 E602 Classilicalion A 7.3. E60 2 elcctrl)jc:-. are charactcrized by low penctratjng are ami dense ~lag. wlch compldel) covcrs the bcad. Thi~ may re~ult in incomplcte root pcnctratlon Jll flllct welded j~'ínt~ The coverings are lgh m ttania. u~u<:~lly cxceeding 35% by wcight. and usually are refcrrej to a~ the "t tania" or ~rutile" typc The covenng~ gt:nerally al~o contain small amounts of ccllulose and fcrromanganese, ami various siliccous matcrials such as fcldspar and clay \vith sndium silicatc a~ a bmdcr. Also. small amounts of cenain calcium compounds may be used to produce satisfactory are char<jctcnstics on dcen (ckctrode negatlve). A FIIlct welds tt:nd to ha ve a convcx wcld facc wjth smooth cven ripplcs the horizontal wc!jing posnion. and WJdcly ~paced roughcr npplc~ the vertical wt:ldmg posion \\ hch hccomc snwothc and more unform as thc ~IZC of thc wcld!s incrca~cd. Ordinanly. a larger sizc!illct must be madc m the vertlc:.tl and overhe<.~d position:-. mmg E60 2 ckctrodcs comparcd to welds wuh E600 and E60 dcelrode> of the..;ame damctcr. A Thc E60 2 ckctrodc:-. are al\-position ckctrmh::-. and u~ually are ~uitablc for welding 'in thl vertjc:li poshion wuh cither the upw~ n\ or ÜL)\\'Jlward progie~~ion. Howcvcr. more ~ften the largcr ~.cs are used m lhc llat and hürll:ontal po~illons than ll thc Yertical ami ovchead positions. Thc larger SIZCS are oftcn used for :-.mglc pas!->, high-~peej. high currcnt tillet welds in!he horizontal wclding po~iton. Ther c:.t:-.e of handling. good IJIIet wc!j facc. ami ability to bridge widc root opcnings under condllion.s of poor lit. and 0 withstand lugh ampcragcs make thcm very wdl ~ultcd to this typc of work. The clcctrode size uscd fnr vertical ami ovcrhcad position weldng i~ frcquently une SIZC.smaller than would be u sed wllh ~ E60 O or E60 elcctrodc A Wcld metal from thesc clcctrodcs :-. general! y lower in ductility ::md may be highcr in yicld >lrcngth lo 2 ksi (690 to 380 kl'a)j!han weld mclal from the samc size of cilher the E60 O or E60 clcctrodcs. A 7.4 E60 3 Classilicalion A 7.4. E60 3 electrodcs, although very ~imliar to thc E602 clectrodes. have dislmcl differcnccs. Thcir flux covering makes slag removal easer and gives a ~moothcr are transfer than E60 2 clcctrodcs. This b particu\arly thc case for thc small J amctcrs / H ~ t...j 38

161 - PART C - SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDING RODS. ELECTRODES. AND FILLER METALS SF A-5. ) and 3 /, in. ( , and 2.4 mm)]. This permits satisfactory operation with lower open-circuit ac voltagc. E603 electrodes were designed specifically for light sheet metal work. However. the larger diameters are used on many of the same applications as E602 electrodes and provide low penetrating are. The smaller diameters provide a less penetraling are than is obtained with E60 2 electrodes. This may result in incomplete penetration in fillet welded joints. A7.5.3 Thc E704 electrodcs are suitablc for welding carbon and low alloy steels. Typical weld beads are smooth with fine ripp)es. Joint penetration is approximately thc same as that obtaincd with E60 2 electrodes (sce 7.3. ). which is advantageous when welding over a wide root opening due to poor lit. The face of fillet wclds tcnds to be ftat to slightly convex. The slag is easy to remove. In rnany cases, it rernoves itself. ) ) A Coverings of E60 3 elcctrodes contain rutile, cellulose, ferromanganese, potassium silicate as a binder. and other siliceous materials. The potassium compounds perrnit the electrodes to operate with ac at low amperage5 and low open-ci':uit voltages. A7.4.3 E603 electrodes are similar to the E602 electrodes in usability characteristics and bead appearance. The are action tends to be quieter and the bead surface smoother with a finer ripple. The characteristics of E603 electrodes vary slightly from brand to brand. Sorne are recommended for sheet metal applica_tions where their ability to weld satisfactorily in the vértical welding position with dow'nward progression is _an advantage. Others, with a more fluid slag, are used for horizontal fillet welds and other general purpose welding. These electrodes produce.a tlat fillet weld face rather than the convex weld face.characteristic of E602 electrodes. They_ are also suita_q[e _for_ making groove, welds because of their concave weld face and easily removed slag. In addition, the weld metal is definitely freer of slag and oxide inclusions than E60 2 weld metal and exhibits better' soundness. Welds with the smaller diameter E603 electrodes often meet the Grade radiographic requirements of-this specification. A E60 3 electrodes usually cannot withstand the high arnperages that can be used with E602 electrodes in the tlat and horizontal welding positions. Amperages in the vertical and overhead positions, however, are similar to those used with E602 electrodes. A7.5 E704 Classificatlon A 7.5. E70 4 electrode coverings are similar to those of E602 and E603 electrodes, but with the addition of iron powder for obtaining higher deposition efficiency. The covering thickness and the amount of iron powder in E70 4 are Iess than in E7024 electrodes (see A7.0). A The iron powder also perrnits the use of higher amperages than are used for E60 2 and E60 3 electrodes. The amount and character of the slag perrnit E704 electrodes to be used in all positions. A 7.6 Low Hydrogen Electrodes A 7.6. Electrodcs of the low hydrogen classifications (E705, E706. E708. E708M, E7ü28. and E7048) are made with inorganic coverings that contain rninimal moisture. The covering moisture test, as spec ificd in-section 5, Moisture Test, converts hydrogenbearing compounds in any forrn in' the covering into water vapor that is collectcd and weighed. The test thus assesses the potential hydrogen available from an electrode covering. All low hydrogen electrodes, in the asmanufactured condition or after. conditioning, are ex pected to meet a maximum éovering moisture limit of 0.6% or Iess. as required in Table ". A7.6.2 The potential for diffusible hydrogen,in the weld metal can be assessed more directly, but less- conveniently, by the diffusible hydrogen test, as specified in Section 7, Diffusible Hydrogen Test. The results of this test, using electrodes in the as manufactured condition or after conditioning, perrnit the addition of an optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designater to the classification designation according to.,table. See also A9.2 in this Appendix. A7.6.3 In arder to maintain low hydrogen electrodes with minimal moisture in their coverings. these electrodes should be stored and handled with considerable care. Electrodes which have been exposed to humidity may absorb considerable moisture and their low hydrogen character may be lost. Then conditioning can restare their low hydrogen character. See Table A2. A7.6.4 l..ow hydrogen electrode coverings can be designcd to resist moisture absorption for a considerable time in a humid environment. The absorbed moisture test (see Section 6, Absorbed Moisture Test), assesses this characteristic by determining the covering moisture after nine hours exposure to 80'F (27 q, 80% relative humidity air. lf, after this exposure, the covering moisture does not exceed 0.4%, then the optional supplemental designator, "R", may be addcd to the electrode classification designation, as specificd in Table 0. See also A9.3 in this Appendix. ~

162 SFA SECilON A7.6.5 E705 Classilication A E705 electrodes are low hydrogen electrodes to be used with dcep (electrode positive). The slag is chemically basic. A E705 electrodes are commonly used for making small welds on thick base metal, since they are less susceptible to cracking (see A6.3.4). They are also used for welding high sulphur and enameling steels. Welds made with E705 electrodes on high sulphur steels may produce a very tight slag and a very rough or irregular bead appearance in comparison to welds with the same electrodes in steels of normal sul phur content. A The are of E70 5 eleetrodes is moderately penetrating. The slag is heavy, friable, and easy to remove. The weld face is convex, although a fillet weld face may be ftat. A E70 5 electrodes up to and including the ', in. (4.0 mm) size are used in al! welding positions. Larger eleetrodes are used for groove welds in the ftat welding position and fillet welds in the horizontal and ftat welding positions. A Amperages for E70 5 electrodes are higher than those used with E60 O electrodes of the same diameter. The shonest possible are length should be maintained for best results with E705 electrodes.. -This. redoces-tlle--risk-of-porosityo-the--necessity- fur preheat.is reduced; therefore, better welding eonditions are provided. A E706 Classification A E706 electrodes have al! the characteristics of E705 electrodes, plus the ability to operate on ac. The core wire and coverings are very similar to!hose of E705, exeept for the use of a potassium silicate binder or other potassium salts in the coverings to facilitate their use with ac. Most of the preceding discussion on E705 eleetrodes applies equally well to the E706 eleetrodes. The discussion in A6.3.4 also applies. A Electrodes designated as E70 6- have the same usability and weld metal composition as E70 6 electrodes except that the manganese content is set at the high end of the range. They are intended for welds requiring a lower transition lemperalure than is normally available from E706 eleetrodes. A7.6.7 E708 Classification A E70 8 electrode coverings are similar to E705 coverings, exeept for the addition of a relatively high perccntage of iron powder. The coverings on these eleetrodes are slightly thicker than those of the E706 eleetrodes. A E708 low hydrogen electrodes can be used with either ae or dcep. They are designed for the same applications as the E706 eleetrodes. As is common with al! low hydrogen electrodes, a shon are length should be maintained al al! times. A In addition to their use on carbon steel, the E70 8 electrodes are al so used for joints involving high-strength, high carbon. or low alloy steels (see also A6.3). The fillet welds made in the horizontal and ftat welding positions have a slightly convex weld faee, with a smooth and finely rippled surface. The electrodes are characterized by a smooth, quiet are, very low spatter, and medium are penetration. E708 electrodes can be used at high travel speeds. A Electrodes designated as E70 8- have the same usability and weld metal composition as E708 electrodes, except that the manganese content is set at the high end of the range. They are intended for welds requiring a lower transition temperature than is normal! y available from E70 8 electrodes. A7.6.8 E708M Electrodes A E70 8M e lec troces are similar to E708-l H4R e_l_~tr:<><\es. except that the_testing._for mechanical pr~~rties and for classification is done on a groove weld that has a 60 degree included angle and, for electrodes up to 5 / 32 in. (4.0 mm), welded in the venical position with upward progression. The impact test results are evaluated using all five test values and -higher--values-are-required at -20"F (-29"C). The maximum allowable moisture-in-coating values in the "as-received"' or reconditioned state are more restrictive than that required for E708R. This classification closely corresponds to MIL-708-M in MIL-E-22200/ 0 specification, with the exception that the absorbed moisture limits on the electrode covering and the diffusible hydrogen limits on the weld metal are not as restriclive as those in MIL-E-22200/0. A E708M is intended to be used with dcep type current in arder to produce the optimum me chanical properties. However, if the manufacturer de si res, the electrode may also be classified as E70 8 provided all the requirements of E70 8 are met. A In addition to their use on carbon steel, the E708M electrodes are used for joining carbon sleels lo high strenglh low alloy steels and higher carbon steels. Fillet welds made in the horizontal and 40

163 - PART C - SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDING RODS. ELECTRODES. AND ALLER METALS SFA-5. ) ) ftat welding positions have a slightly conve< weld face, with a smooth and finely rippled surface. The electrodes are characteriz~d by a smoolh, quiet are. very low spatter. and mcdium are penctration. A E7028 Classitication A E7028 electrodcs are very much like E708 elcctrodcs. However, E7028 electrodes are suitable for fillet welds in the horizontal welding position and gróove welds in the ftat welding position only, whereas E708 electrodes are suitable for all positions. A7.6,9,2 The E7028 electrode coverings are much thicker. They make up approximately 50% of the weight of the electrodes. The iron conteo! of E7028 electrodes is higher (approximately 50% of the weight of the coverings). Consequently, on fillet welds in the horizontal position and groove welds in the ftat welding position, E7028 electrodes give a higher deposition rale than the E708 electrodes for a given size of electrode. A7.6.0 E7048 Classitication. Electrodes of the E7048 classification have the same usability, composition, and design characteristics as E708 electrodes, except that E7048 electrodes are specifically designed for exceptionally good vertical welding with downward progression (sec Table ). A7.8.2 A low viscosity slag limits their usability to horizontal fillets and ftat welding positions. With are penetration ranging from medium to deep (depending upon welding current). E6020 electrodes are best suited for thicker base metal. A 7.9 E6022 Classitication. Electrodes of the E6022 classification are rccommended for single pass. highspeed, high curren! welding of groove welds in the ftat welding position, lap joints in the horizontal welding position, and fillet welds on sheet metal. The weld face tends to be more convex and less unifórrn, especially since the welding speeds are highei. A 7.0 E7024 Classitication A 7.0. E7024 electrode coverings contain large amounts of iron powder in combination with ingredients similar lo those used in E602 and E603 electrodes. The coverings on E7024 electrodes are very thick and usually amount to about 50% of the weight cf the electrode, resulting in higher deposition efficlency. A7.0.2 The E7024 electrodes are well suited for making fillet welds in the ftat or horizontal position. The weld face is slightly convex to \ftat, with a very smooth surface and an extremely fine npple. These electrodes are characterized by a smooth, quiet are, A 7.7 E609 Classitication very low spatter, and low are penetration. They can be A7;7, E609 electrodes. although very similar to -used-with high travel-speeds:-eiectrodes-of these-clas- E603 and E6020 clectrodes in their coverings, have sifications can be operated on ac, dcep, or dcen. distinct diffcrences. E609 electrodes, with a rather A 7 0, 3 El ec r od es d esgna e d as E have Huid slag system, provide deeper are penetration and the same general usability characteristics as E7024 produce weld metal that meets a 22% minimum elon- electrodes. They are intended for use in situations regation requirement, meets the Grade radiographic quiring greater ductility and a lower transition-temstandards, and has an average impact strength of 20 ft- perature than norrnally is available from E7024 eleclb (27) when tested at o F (-I8 C). trodes. A E60 9 electrodes are suitable for multipass of up to in. (25 mm) thick steel. They are designed for use with ac, dcen, or dcep. While \ 6 in. (4.8 mm) and smaller diameter electrodes can be used for all welding positions (except vertical welding position with downward progression), the use of larger diameter electrodes should be limited to the ftat or horizontal fillet welding position. When welding in the vertical welding position with upward progression, weaving should be limited to minimize undercut. A 7.8 E6020 Classificalion A7.8. E6020 electrodes have a high iron oxide covering. They are characterized by a spray type are, produce a smooth and ftat, or slightly concave weld face and have an easily removable slag. A 7. E6027 Classilication A 7, L E6027 electrode coverings contain large amounts of iron powder ln combination with ingredients similar to those found in E6020 electrodes. The coverings on E6027 electrodes are also very thick and usually amount to about 50% of the weight of the electrode. A,.2 The E6027 electrodes are designed for fillet or groove welds in the ftat position with ac, dcep, or dcen, and will produce ftat or slightly concave weld face on fillet welds in the horizontal position with either ac or dcen. A7..3 E6027 electrodes have a spray-type are. They will operate at high travel speeds. Are penetration 4

164 995 SECTION is medium. Spauer loss is very Jow. E6027 ei<ctrodes produce a heavy slag which IS honeycombed on the understde. The slag is friable and easily removed. A7..4 Welds produced with E6027 electrodes have a Hat to slightly concave weld face with a smooth. fine, even ripple, and good wetting along the sides of the joint. The weld metal may be slightly mferior in radiographic soundness to that from E6020 electrodes. High amperages can be used, since a considerable portian of the electrical energy passing through the electrode is used to melt the covenng and the iron powder it contains. These electrodes are well suited for thicker base metal. A7.2 E7027 Classification. E7027 electrodes have the same usability and design characteristics as E6027 electrodes, except they are intended for use in situations requiring slightly higher tensile and yield strengths than are obtained wtth E6027 electrodes. They must also meet chemical composition requirements (see Table 7). In other respects, all previous discussions for E6027 electrodes also apply to E7027 electrodes. AS. Modification of Moisture Test Apparatus A8. Sorne laboratories have modified test apparatus for determining the moisture content of electrode coverings. The following are sorne of the modifications which have been successfully used: A8.. This specification recommends that only nickel boats be used rather than clay boats because lower blank values can be obtained. Sorne Jaboratories use zirconium silicate combustion tubes in preference to fused silica or mullite because zirconium siiicate will not devitrify or allow the escape of combustible gases at temperatures up to 2500 F ( 370 C). Sorne combustion tubes are reduced at the exit end and a separare dust trap is used. This dust trap consists of a 200 mm drying tube filled with glass wool which is insened between the Schwartz absorplion U-tube and the combustion tube. A suitable 300 F (49 C) heater is mounted around the dust trap to keep the evolved water from condensing in the trap. The dust trap is filled with glass wool which can be easily inspected to determine when the glass wool should he replaced. An extra spray trap may be installed downstream of the absorption U-tube to ensure that the concentrated sulfuric acid in the gas sealing bottle is not accidently drawn into the absorption U-tube. A8..2 On the entrance end of the combustion tube, a pusher rod can be used consi~ting of a '/, in. (3.2 mm) stamless stcel rod mounted in a '/, in. (6.4 mm) copper tee fitting. This is used at the entrance of the combustion lube and permits gradual introduction of the sample into the tube while oxygen is passing over the sample. In this way, any free moisture will not be lost. which can happen if the sample is introduced directly into the hot zone befare closing the end of the tube. A9. Special Tests A9. lt is recognized that supplementary tests may be necessary to determine the suitability of these welding electrodes for applications involving propenies not considered in this specification. In such cases, additional tests to determine specific propenies, such as hardness. corrosion resistance. rnechanical properties at higher or lower service temperatures, wear resistance, and suitability for welding combinations of different carbon and low alloy steels. may need to be conducted. A9.2 Diffusible Hydrogen Test. Hydrogen induced cracking of weld metal and the heat-affected zone gen erally are not problems with carbon steels containing 0.30%, or less, carbon. Nevenheless, the welding electrodes of the specification are sometimes used to join higher carbon steels or low alloy steels, where hydr<>gen induced cracking may be a serious problem. The coating moisture test has proveo to be a satisfactory test over many years as a means of-assessing the degree of care needed to avoid hydrogen induced cracking. This is, however, an indirect test. Moisture itself does not cause cracking, but the diffusible hydrogen that fonns from the moisture in the are can cause cracking. Since entry of diffusible hydrogen into the weld pool can he affected by the form of the moisture in the coating (for example, chemically bonded versus surface absorbed), there is a fundamental utility for considering diffusible hydrogen for low hydrogen electrodes. Accordingly, the use of optional designators for diffusible hydrogen is introduced to indicate the maximum average value obtained under a clearly defined test condition in ANSIJAWS A4.3, Standard Methodsfor Determina/ion of the Diffusib/e Hydrogen Contenl of Martensitic, Bainitic, and Ferritic Weld Metal Produced by Are We/ding. The user of this information is cautioned that actual welding conditions may result in different diffusible hydrogen values than those indicated by the designator. The use of a reference atmospheric condition during welding is necessitated because the are always is imperfectly shielded. Moisture from the air, distinct from that in the covering, can enter the are and subsequently 42 ) \

165 PART C - SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELOING ROOS. ELECTRODES. AND FILLER METALS SFA-5. AWS Oassification E45 E452 E70I()b E70tlb E702 E7020b E7030 E800b E80b E802 E8020b E8030 E90()b E90tb E902 TABLE A4 DISCONTINUED ELECTRODE CLASSIFICATIONS' Last A5. (ASTM A-233) Publication Date AWS aassification E9020 E9030 EIOOI()b EIOOitb E002 EI0020 EIOOJO E450 E 520 E604 E605 E606 E608 E6024 E6028 E6030 Last A5. (ASTM A-233) Publication Date _ Notes: a. See AJO (in tbe Appendix) for infonnation on discontinued classifications. b. Tbesc electrodo classifications were transferred from the ASTM A23-45T to the new AWS A5.S-48T. Thcy were later discontinued from that specification and replaced with the new MGM classifications in order to pennit a single classi!ication system with weld metal chemistry requirements in AWS A5.5-58T. t~e _ w~ld.pool, contnbutmg. to the resultmg._obse.cveddiffusible hydrogen. ThiS dfect can be minimized by maintaining as short an are length as possible consistent with a steady are. Experience has shown that the effect of are length is minar at the H 6 leve l. but it is very significan! at the H4 leve!. An electrode meeting the H4 requirement under the reference atmospheric conditions may not do so under conditions of higher humidity at the time of welding. This is especially true if a long are is maintaincd. The reference atmospheric condition during welding of the test assembly is O grains of water vapor per pound (.43g!kg) of dry air. This corresponds to 70"F (2 C) and 0% RH on a standard psychrometric chan at in. Hg (760 mm) barometric pressure. Actual cooiditions. measured using a sling psychrometer. that equal or exceed this reference condition provide assurance that the conditions dunng welding weill not diminish the final results of the test. A9.3 Absorbed Moisture Test. The development of low hydrogen electrode coverings that resist moisture absorption during exposure to humid air is a recent._.-improvement in covcred elcctrode technology. Not all commercial low hydrogen electrodes possess this characteristic. T o as::,e~s this characteristic. the absorbed moisture test described in Section 6, Absorbed Moisture Test. was devised. The exposure conditions selected for the test are arbitrary. Other conditions may yield quite different results. A task group of the AWS ASA Subcommittee evaluated this test and concluded that it can successfully differentiate moisture resistant electrodes from those which are not. The task group also obscrved considerable variab ijity of covering moisture results after exposure of elcctrodes in cooperative testing among severa! laboratories. The precision of the test is such that. with moisture resistan! electrodes from a single lot. the participating laboratories could observe exposed covering moisture values ranging. for example. from 0.5% or less to 0.35% or more. The cause of this variability is uncertain at present. but is considered by the task group to be related to variations in the exposure conditions. Because of this variability. the task group concluded that it is not realistic to set a limit for covering moisture of exposed moisture resistant electrodes lower than 0.4% at this time. 43

166 SFA SECI0N O A 0. Discounled Classifications A number of electrode classifications have been discontinued during the numerous revisions of this specification, reflecting either changes in commercial practice, or changes in the scope of filler metals classified in the specification. These discontinued electrode classificalions are listed in Table A4, along with the year th~y were last published m this specification. 44

167

168 SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) ELECTROOE HOLDER~ POWER S O URCE a_~'=::::"\ -ELECTRO DE ELECTRODE LEAD \ BASE METAL WORK LEAD/ TI- l

169 i: ' ELECTRO DE - COATING SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING

170 GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW) HAND- GAS OUT FEED CONTROL / WIRE SHIELDING S POOL GAS ~ SOURCE 't -~l- VOLTAGE ' ~ l \: CONTROL ( ~@' }l 0 DY-D u r J \. POWER SOURCE Hocan Brothers Company, ) U-4

171 , ; GAS METAL ARC WELDING [[ -!;

172 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) \ \ ' \ \ r l r llu INERT GAS POWER SOURCE 00 o LEAD )

173 ' } GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING Hooan t:!roners Comoany 4 ) IT-l

174

175 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW) HAND-HELD FLUX GUN OR HOPPER POWER SOURCE BASE M E TAL _. ;;;;;lt;,:;_,...,,;j.. ~FLUX HoOert Brotl'ar' Comoany

176 [:, '! \l li ': '!: DIRECTION ELECTRO DE "'- FROM FLUX - GRANULAR HOPPER l ' M Q L TEN W ELD METAL SUBMERGED ARC WELDING tuoarl BrultHHS Curnpan:r ) II 'l

177 FLUX COREO ARC WELDING (FCAW) ;v~~~ CONTROL -Al ELEeTRODE SYSTEM WIRE REEL ~ SHIEDLING GAS = SO URCE (OPTIONAL\ ~+- o ' r-7:7"". = _\.;: GAS r ~ 0 /., ~ ~ /..;. ~ :,_" t -, - ' ' ' ~ Go 0 N"' L '-- ""'-=- TvOc>AG/ ( '; ( '; CONTROL :., l WITHOUT ~=:J o v ' ).'\ GAS f ~ WIRE FEEO CONTROL : : ~AS ORIVE MOTOL :o l!jj[!j ~ :! ----~' i _?} e O N T A e TOA 7\ :::::;\:::::::f.'.,. BASE METAL WORK LEAD /' CONTROL _,! POWER SOURCE OV SUPPLY Hoi)IM BIO!hers Comony.IT-0

178 :. GAS IOPTIONAL) U \.. :'/' MOL TEN -. lj DIRECTION OF TRAVEL \l!-nozzle ioptional)....,. ',.., FLUX COREO ARC WELDING rr -

179 SEC-tiON IX ADDRESSES ONLY THREE TYPES OF WELDS. GROOVE WELDS a. U GROOVE b. J GROOVE c. V GROOVE d. PARTIAL PENETRATION e. ETC. 2. FILLET WELDS 3. STUD WELDS \5-----y L,-----,\ r+ ~~ ~ l~ ~--~~j ~~~~~4----:~~~-T--~ ~.i }+-- \2. GROOVE WELD l ROOT OPENING: or GAP ROOT FACE: GROOVE face: 5E'.'EL ANGLE: The separation between the member to be joine.d at root of the joint. Groove face adjacent to the root of the joint. The surface of a member included in the. groove. The Jngle formed between the prepared surface of a member and a plane perpendicular to the. surface of the membe.r. 5. GROOVE ANGLE: The total included angle of the groove be.tween part.s to be. joined by a groove weld. 6.?L.~ TE TliiC!'.NE.SS: Thickness welded of test plate or production weld ment. Usually indicjted by 'T'. L. 2. tll -

180 WELDING PROCESSES (Specifically addressed by Section IX) OFW S~IA\' SAW Gr!AW FCAW GTAW PAW ESW EGW EBW Stud welding SPECIAL WELDING. Corrosion-\esistant Weld Metal Overlay a. Si'iAW b. SAW c. G/'AW d. GTAW e. Pt\W 2. Hard-Facing Weld Metal Overlay (Wear Resistant) a. SMAW b. SAW c. GMAW d. OF'V e. PAW l. ll ~JT:- \

181 v 6 fillet WELD.>\. l THI\OAT Of A FILLET WC:LD: (by A\'IS) THC:ORETICAL THROAT: (by ASME) LEG Of A FILLET WELD: ROOT Of \VELD: TOE: Of A \VELO: f ACE Of WELD: SiZE OF \'/ELD(Si: The shorte.st distance from the root of the fillet weld to its face. De.sign throat ~.707 x leg. The shorte.st distance from the intersection of the two adjoining members to the fillet weld face. The distance from the root of thejoint to the toe of the fillet weld. Deepe.st point of useful penetration in a fillet weld. The junction!xtween the face of a weld and the base metal. The exposed surface of ;: weld on the side from which the weld ng was aone. leg l~ngth of the fi!!et. Usua!ly what is an drawings. PROCEDURE QUALifiCATION RECORD (PQR) Record of the actual values of the essential variables (and other variables if desired) used when welding a test coupon. PQR CONTENTS Verifies mechanical properties of the weld by destructive test ls intended to provide proof of weldability Lists actual variables used in making test sample All essentiai variables for each process and test result must be listed..3

182 WELDING PROCEDURE QUALifiCATION RECORD (WPS) Documents written (& qualified) to provide direction for making production welds to Code requirements (could be more than one piece of paper) In tended to provide direction to those individuals responsible for com :,lying with the we!ding requirements. May be used to provide direction to the welder or welding operator. WPS Lists acceptable ranges (minimums or maximums) foral! parameters Reíerences supporting PQRs Lists al! essentiji and non-essential (supplementary essential variables if notch toughness applies) Provide much more detailed description as a true guide for the welder and as a good reíerence for the foreman and Inspector l. 4

183 WELD DOCUMENTATION GUIDE January 982 WPS,----- POR WPQ '! WELDING PROCEDURE WELDER PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION PERFORMANCE SPECI FICATION RECORD OUALIFICATION CONCERNS CONCERNS CONCERNS HOW MECHANICAL DEPOSITING TO WELD PROPERTIES SOUND WELD METAL IS INTENDED TO BE IS INTENDED TO IS INTENOED TO A GUIDE FOR THE PROVIDE PROOF PROVIDE PROOF OF WELDER OF WELDABILITY WELDERS ABILITY LISTS ACCEPTABLE LISTS ACTUAL LISTS ACTUAL RANGES FOR ALL VARIABLES USED VARIABLES USED PARAMETERS IN MAKING TEST SAMPLE LISTS RANGES OF HIGHLY RECOMMENDED VARIABLES COVERED SUPPORTING POR OR PQR'S BE LISTS TEST LISTS TEST USTED ON THE WPS RESULTS RESULTS r--)! MANOATORY THAT THE WPS FOLLOWED BE USTED ON THE POR. MUST BE QUALIFIES WPS BY QUALIFIES BY WELDING SUPPORTED BY WELDING TEST TEST COUPONS USING A POR COUPONS, TESTING THE PARAMETERS SPECIMENS ANO OF A WPS, TESTING MUST PROIJ!DE DETAILED\ RECO,..,"""'JG null 'fli- V t:lu - SPECIMENS ANO DESCRIPTION OF DATA AND TEST RECOROING WELD VARIABLES NECESSARY RESULTS. DATA, TEST RESULTS TO PRODUCE A SOUNO ANO RANGES QUALIFIED WELD AS A TRUE GUIDE FOR THE WELDER ANO AS A GOOD REFERENCE FOR THE FOREMAN ANO INSPECTOR ' l \ r ' '..J ( } V t

184 WPS, POR, WPO This paper has been prepared as a guide to explain what WPS's, POR's, and WPO's are and how they should be used. WPS POR WPO Welding Procedure Specification Procedure Oualification Record Welder Performance Ouallfication Briefly, a WPS lists the variables, both essential and non-essential, and the acceptable ranges of these variables when using the WPS. The WPS is intended to provide direction for the welder. The POR is intended to provide proof of the weldability of the variables descrlbed in the WPS. The WPO lisis what was used in qualifying the welder, the range of parameters he is qualified for and the test results. The WPO is intended to provide proof of the welder's ability to deposit sound weld metal. WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (WPS) Each manufacturar or contractor shall lis! the parameters applicable to welding that he performs in construction of weldments built in accordance with the ASME Code. These parameters shall be listed in a document known as a "Welding Procedure Specification" (WPS). The WPS shall list in detall the P numbers to be joined, the filler metals to be used, the range of preheat and postweld heat treatment, the thickness range, and all other essential and nonessential variables required in Section IX for each specific process. The WPS is intended lo provide the welder with the direction he needs to weld in accordance with the Code and shall be available for reference by :he welders and the Authorized Inspector (Al). All welding variables are listed in Article IV- Welding Data. The variables listed on a WF..ay be essentlal variables,!hose which require requalification when changed, supplementery essentiai variables,!hose which require requalification when notch toughness requirements are a factor, and non-essential variables, those which require a revision to the WPS but do not require requalification. Whai may be an essential variable for one process, may be a nonessentiai variabie for another process or may not be a variable at all for a third process. T~e WPS specifications and directions should list the amperage range, electrode diameter size, preheat and post weld heat treatment for each base material thickness range. They may also lis! the type of electrode for various base metals within a P group, and the ranges for voltage, gas flow, wire feed speed, travel speed, slope, polarity, timers, technique, weavewidth dwell, torch angle, root gap, tip to work distance, tip to cup distance, cup size, and any additional information that will give the welder direction for making a weld uslng that WPS. The WPS is intended to provide information for the welder and anything may be contalned as long as every essential variable has been qualified. The proof of the weldability of a WPS is performed in accordance with this Code and the test results are documentad on a form called the "Procedure Oualification Record" (POR). The supporting POR number shall be available for each WPS and should be recordad on the WPS. You may write severa! WPS's from the data on a single POR (e.g., a G plata POR may support WPS's m_the 2G, 3F, or ~G on plata or pipe- within all other essential variables). You may also wnte a ~mgle WPS whch covers several essentlal variable changas as long as you h~.,, supportmg POR for each essential variable change (e.g., a single WPS may cover a thic : ~ange ~rom _6" thru -/4" if you have POR support for both the /6" thru 3/6" and v d" thru -.4" thc~mess ranges). (2) V.-2

185 PRCCEDURE QUAUF!CATION RECORD (POR) '- Each manufacturar or contractor shall qualify the WPS by the welding of test coupons. and.the testing of specimens, as required by this Code, and recording the weldlng data and test 'results in a document known as a "Procedure Qualification Record" (POR). This form shall document the essentlal variables of the specific welding process or processes (as listad In QW-262 thru QW-28) and the test results. These documents shall be certified by the manufacturar or contractor and shall be available for examination by the Authorized lnspec tlon (Al). lt is required that the essential and non-essential variables of a WPS be followed in welding the test coupons. The WPS identific:ation (including date and revision number) shall be listed on the PQR. The PQR form shall list the actual variables used within the limits of a narrow ranga, rather than the full range of the variables allowed. A manufacturar may include all additional information ha may consider helpful. The PQR is intended to prove the weldability of a given set of variables. The only variables that are cnsidered essential in procedure qualification are those which affect the physical or mechanical properties. For example: soundly depositad weld metal will yield the same mechanical and physical properties if the test coupon is a plate or a pipe, so plate now qualifies pipe if all other variables remain the same. The properties are also the same if the plate is welded in the flat position or vertical or overhead, so position is no longer a variable in procedure qualification (except where notch-toughness requirements are a factor). WELDER PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION (WPQ) '-,~ach manufacturar or contractor shall qualify each.elder or welding operator to be used in J)roduction to Code requirements. The performance qualification test shall be welded in accordance with onp. of his qua!ified We!ding Procedüíe Specifications (vvps). The weid test coupon is tested in accordance with the Code and the results are recordad on a.:'record of Ne!der or Welding Operators Quaiiíication Tests." The welder shall be requalified before welding on production where an essential variables has been changed, e.g., a changa to a thickness range or position beyond the welder's qualification. The Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ) is intended to prove the welder's ability to deposit sound weld metal when welding using a qualified WPS. Position, backing and pipe diameters are essential variables in WPQ. When welding in production to Code requirements, a welder must follow a qualified WPS, he must be qualified for the essential variables he is using in the WPS and he must weld within the ranges specified on the WPS for each variable. A welder qualified on a 3/4" thick test coupon is qualified for unlimited thickness, but only to the extent that a qualified WPS is covered. A welder qualified on an F4 electrode is qualifiect for all lower F numbers, but again only to the extent covered by qualified WPS's. (3)

186 GUIDE FOR COMPLETING ASME SECTION IX FORMS The following "guide" should be used for filling our forms QW-483 (WPS), QW-483 (PQ~ QW-484 (WPQ). nd The form QW-482 "WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (WPS)" was made up to include the required data for the SMAW, SAW, GMAW, and GTAW processes. lt is essential that the requirements of the Code be understood for each process and that all required data be recordad. The form QW-482 is a good guide to follow, but does not list all required data for some processes (i.e., PAW, EBW, etc.) t also lists data not required by all processes (i.e., it lists shielding gas which is not required or SAW). The data required on a WPS form will be essential variables, supplementary essential variables, and non-essential variables. What may be an essential variable for one process may be a non-essential variable for another process. A complete understanding of the requirements of the Code is essentlal to filling out a WPS form. The following form QW,482 has been numbered, with a brief explanation of what is required in each space. The form covers the SAW, SMAW, GTAW, and GMAW processes. This recommended form may be expanded to include other processes or the form may be modified so each process has an individual form. Combination processes or procedures may require an expanded form to cover the required detailed description. The ranges of each variable must be listed on the WPS. lf severa! diameters of electrodes are used, the range of amps, volls, etc., must be listed for each size. lf conditions change ov the material thickness range, then the conditions must be listed for each thickness e. -This may be listed on a second (or more) sheet(s) of the WPS. Typical items which are listed on the second (or more) sheet(s) are: process(es), electrode diameters, electrode type(s), filler diameter(s), filler type(s), curren! voltage(s), polarity, travel speed(s), type of gas, gas flow rate, material thickness range, technique(s), weld progression, tip to work distance, gas shield cup size(s), and other directions for meeting the requirements of the WPS. (4)

187 . ~l JS: A document pre:jared (and qualified) to provide direction for maki~g production we!cs. five STEPS TO A QUALiflED WPS \,. \'irite a sample WPS. 2. \'leld a test coupon using the WPS. 3. Prepare test specimens. 4. Evaluate test re.sults. 5. Document re.sults on a PQR and certify. TiilNGS for A!I'IANUfACTURER TO CONSIDER PRIOR TO WELDING l. Compatability of weld metal and base material. 2. ~e~allurgical propertie.s. 3. PW:-\T or other heat treatment. 4. Design of joints and loadings. 5. Desired mechanical properties. 6. Sen ice requirements. 7. \Ve!der's ability. \.. ~ ::~ 8. E:quipment available. 9. Loc:tion of welds. 0 '-comony. " 3. l

188 ~lanuf ACTURER'S RESPONSIBILITIES for RECORDS Qualify IVPS(s) Maintain WPS(s) and PQR(s). PQR inciudes welding data and test results All welding test coupons shall be by welders under direct control of manufacturer Certify PQR Certify that he has qualified ~eh WPS CONTENTS Of WPS Essemial variables. Non essential variables. Supplementary essential variables. (When impact.s are required). Other information if desired. 3.2

189 PROCEDURE QUAL;f!CATION RECORD (PC R) Modifies or justifies the WPS. Support document that documents the results of welding and testing a coupon.. CONTENTS OF PQR Essential variahles Supple.rnentary essential variables. (When impacts are requireá). Other information if desired. NOTE: Only actual information shall be documented. lf it wasn't observed it should not be recorded. G.e. - actual amps, volts. position. etc.)... J'Tl> C"T'. '. "- uuquau ''fi Jea. 'WPS SECOND: The PQR or PQRs TlIRD: The Qualified WPS NOTE: A manufacturer must have a WPS. This document (or set of documents) shall describe the parameters to be used for welding. A WPS may reference production drawings to cover sorne variables. lf al! information required by the WPS is on production drawings. the production drawings may be called the "WPS." A Code "WPS" may be many piec:s of paper or documents. They must be controlled but if al! variables are addressed... the Code reouirement' ;orp mpt 3.3 v- C::

190 YOU DON'T REQUALIFY A PROCEDURE, YOU QUALIFY A NEW PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD. HOWEVER, A W.P.S. NEED ONLY BE REQUALIFIED WHEN: AN ESSENTIAL VARIABLE CHANGES OH, THERE IS REASON TO QUESTION TO QUESTION IT'S VALIDITY. 3.4 V--

191 THE \AJ.P.S DESCRIBES.. THE ESSENTIAL VARIABLES. 2. THE NON-ESSENTIAL VARIABLES. 3. THE SUPPLEMENTARY ESSENTIAL VARIABLES. 4. ANYTHlNG ELSE USEFUL TO THE WELDER. 5. IT USTS THE ACCEPTABLE RANGES TO BE FOLLOWED. 3.ll V-~

192 QUAUFYING A WPS WRITE AN UN QUALIFIED WPS AROUND JOB PARAME TERS. WATCH VARIABLES QW-260, 260. EVALUATE RESULTS TO ARTICLE ACCEPTANCE STANDARD S QW-60, 60 ESTABLISH TEST COU PON SIZE QW--46, 4 62, 463. MAKE RE QUIREO TESTS PEA QW-46 WELO THE COUPON USING UN QUALIFIEO PARAMETERS QW-20, 260, 260. / CUT WELD TEST COU PONS INTO SPECIMENS QW-482, MONITOR ALL ESSENTIALS VARIABLES ANO RECORD THE ACTUAL \0\LU ES ON THE PQR QW RECOMMENO ALSO RE- CORDING NON ESSENTIAL W\RIABLES RECORD SUP- PLEMENTARY E88ENTIAL \0\RIABLES IF APPLICABLE COMPARE UNQUALI FIEO WP8 E88ENTIAL (ANO 6UPPLEMENTARY E66ENTIAL, IF AP PLICABLE) VARIA BLES WITH RESULTS OF PQR TO A88UAE COMPLIANCE TO IX. CERTIFICATE HOLDER APPROVES WPS (A) ON WPS / OR (B) ANOTHER QC-TYPE OOCUMENT USE WPS FOR PRODUCTION 3. 2 V- <

193 j. l FOR A W.P.S.. 2 TENSILE TESTS MINIMUM BEND TESTS MINIMUM. a. SIDE BENDS FOR 3/4" ANO GREATER. b. FACE & ROOT BENDS FOR LESS THAN 3/ a. c. YOUR OPTION FOR 3/8. TO LESS THAN 3i 4 ~. 3. THE MATERIALS TESTEO MUST BE ONE OF THOSE USTED ON THE W.P.S. v-io 3.3

194 QW-~SO SPECIMENS (.)\V~SI (;roovc-\vchl Proadurt QuaiiOcallon Thlckncs.s l.lmlls and Tcsl Spccimcns QW-45. TEtlSIOil TESTS AND TRAilSVERSE-BEilD TESTS A.tngr of lh t~nru al B.au MtUI Q~.~.ahf,td n INott r Thkknnl t ol Orposlltd Wtld MtUI Qu,,lilitd, In Hott Typr nd Humbu of Tu U Rcqulrrd llrnuon.and Guldrd Brnd Tutl lh Cknus r of Tut Co~.~pon Wddtd, n M u M u. Tcnsion QW-0 Sidr Brnd QW-IbO fur Bcnd QW-Ibü Root Bcnd QW-lUl ( Ol th-'' ~' Notr lll 2 Ovtl ~~- bul ltu th.tn }'.!~ to ltu th.n ' '. lo ltu lh.&n V. '/ And OIIU /.,,nd Olltr,, "' Yu H " NOTES: Su QW-40) 2,., tr.,.t,.0.tnd QW-40.4 for furthtr llmu on unge of Ullckncuu qu lificd. Also su QW fot JUow&blr t <tpl005 fot tht wrld.ng prouun of QW 40.7 onlr; othtrw u prr Notr fll ot 2 r, Ot 2, whlchrvu hlppllcablt. IH fout l dt btnd tnu m.tr bt iubilltuttd for lht rtquirtd hct.lond tooi btnd IUll, owhtn lhitknrn rh }',In. nd OVtr. 2 2 whrn t < J, 2 r whcn t t: Y. 2 whtn < Y. a 2) whrn ~ Y Notr lll c..

195 TYPES Of TESTS ARE BASED ON COUPON THICKNESS lf coupon is over l" thick. multiple specimens may be cut (mechanically) Twice as many specimens are required Special exception for pipe.y' OD or less TYPES OF TENSiON TESTS. REDUCED SECTION PLATE 2. REDUCED SECTION PIPE 3. TURNED SPECIMEN 4. FULL SECTION --- PIPE 3. 5 \-\?..-

196 =--=---=------= _-..:::::-.=..= =---- == Qi,c:ard QW-463.l<al PLATES - 'fa TO ' IN. PROCEOURE QUAUFJCA TION ' 'lvy-----' QW-463.l(b) PLA TES - OVER / 4 ANO ALTERNATE oíi TO ' IN. PROCEDURE QUAUFJCATION 3. 6 V

197 Ducard -~ Long,tudmal lace Oend specimen Reauctd-teCttOn tenlde spec men Long tudmal root-bend lpi!'cut'erl -~ - Lonq lud nal lace-~nd _.,_ IPI!'Ct~n Aeduced sectoon tens;le soec men long lud nar roor-bend ts.card QW-463.lCcl PLATES - LONGITUDINAL PROCEDU RE QUAL!FICA TI ON V --l4 3.7

198 ' n 986 Edition DATA- GRAPHICS Q\V-4G3.l(d), QW~.,(e) QW-463 Order of Rernova! (Cont'd) Ae-duced.-w!ction tensile Aoot bend face bend Horizontal plane ; d (when pipe is welded ll(_-- in horizonu.l po,;t;onl "' Aoot bend Aeduced~ction tentle Ppes- /6 to 3/.C in. Thtd:neu QW-463.l<dl PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION Aeduced-'SeCtmn rertsile --- Horizontal plane (when pi~ S "Yelded 0 honzontal lu<ed POSitiOn) Sode t>end Aeduced-5.ect on tensle P oes- Over 3/4 n Thicknen and Allernate From J/8 ul. but Less Than 3/4,., Thu:kness QW-463.Hel PROCEDURE QUAUFICATION \J-l~

199 986 Edit0n DATA- GRAPHICS QW~l.l(b), QW~l.l(cl QW-6 Test Specimens (Cont'd) G"nd o mooh>m tho mm,mum ~- JC amount needed to obtan ptane l_ ==::::;:::::;: parallel faces over the reduced _. sect on W. No more material than s needed to perform the test shell be removed. On ferrous mateoal these edges mav be thermally cut. Pn!!ferably by milling QW-462.Hb) TENSION - REDUCED SECTION - PIPE :--:>oc t AOdu«d ect>onfl 3 >n. mm. (Not i2 ~ /2 '" - :;-- $ > _l f T{Notellll T ~4 [ =++ J ') Rae! m mm /6 '" Edqe of widest tace of weld NOTES. ) The weld reinforcertw!nt shall be ground or miichtned 0 that the weld thtckness does not exceed th'!' ~se metal thtckness T. Machtne min mum amount to obta n appro,umately ~rallel surfaces. (2) The reduced section shall not be less than the wtdth of the weld plus 2v. QW-462.Hcl TENSION - REDUCED SECTION AL TERNA TE FOR PIPE V-l :, 3.9

200 QW-tó2-QW-462,(al SECTION IX - PART QW, WELDING 986 Edition QW-462 Test Specimens The purpose of the QW-462 figures is to give the manufacturer or con tractor guidance in dimensioning test specimens for tests required for procedure and performance qualifications. Unless a mínimum, maximum, or tolerance is given in the figures (oras QW- 50, QW-60, or QW-80 requires), the dimensions are to be considered approximate. All welding processes and filler material to be qua!ified must be include-d in the test specimen. X =coupon thickness including reinforcemcnt y =specimen thickness T =coupon thickness excluding rdnforcement W =spccimen width,% in. Wetd remforcement shall be ,.~--~~ machmed ftu~h wth b.at.e,.-=-="-"=-=-~ '-~=0...::~==-\-~ ~ \ metal Machme mínimum amount to obtain appro. "- \ ===:;: OIStortion parallet surfaces. f 0 in. oras re-quired Cold straightening ~-~ Length suff crent of the test coupon to extend rnto grip is permined prior equal to two-thrrds to removal of weld :! /4 in. grip length reinforcement. :n: IU: -l,f- ';:;l'v--- - : '' ) - \ '.t } Th<" <do< mav ' be thermally cut.. ~ Ed~ of w dest l i/4 m. - - H4 :n. ~' face of w.eld 2,., ' 'j t /4 in. ~\~" l- _J - -??\ Parallellength equals.,, w dest w dth of weld?. p lus /2 in. added length. \ ' Thrs secton mach ned preferably by mlllrng QW-4<>2.Hal TENSION - REDUCED SECTION - PLATE \J- n

201 QW~.Hdl, QW~2.l(el SECTION IX- PART QW, WELDING 986 Edition QW-462 Test Specimcns (Cont 'd) Stand~Jrd Oimensions, In. (b)!el Sp.cimen Specimen Spe-cimen A - length al reduced sect on (Note ( (Note () (Note ()] O- Oiameter :: :: :=;0.005 R - Aadius of fillet 3/8, min. /4, mrn. 3/6, min. 8 - Length of end section -3/8, approx. 8, approx: 78, approx. C - Orameter of end section /8 (di 0.88 specimen (Note 0.88 ::0.003 /8, mrn 2,,appro)(. 4 GENERAL NOTES: (al Use maximum dtameter specimen (a), (bj, (e), or (d)that can be cut from the section (b) Weld should be in center of reduced section. (e) Where only a smgle coupon s requrred the center of the speómen chould be midway betwo!en the surlaces. (d) The ends may be of any shape to lit the holders ot the testing machme m such a way that the load is apphed aialty. NOTE:!) Aeduced secton A should not be less than width of weld plus W. QW-4ó2.Hdl TENSION - REDUCED SECTION - TURNED SPECIMENS Weld reinforcement shall be machi~ flush wth ba~ metal. Plug QW-4ó2.Hel TENSION - FU LL SECTION - SMALL DIAMETER PIPE 3.2

202 TENSION TEST ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA. MINIMUM STRENGTH OF THE BASE MATERIAL. 2. MINIMUM STFIENGTH OF THE WEAKEFI MATERIAL IF DIFFERENT MATERIALS ARE USEO. 3. MINIMUM STRENGTH 0' THE WELO METAL IF THE BASE MATERIAL ANO THE FILLER MATERIAL HAVE DIFFERENT BTRENGTHB lit DEBIGN TEMPERATUFIE. 4. IF THE BREAK OCCURS IN THE BASE MATERIAL, AWAY FROM THE HEAT AFFECTEO ZONE, THE CRITERIA MAY BE 6'0. BELOW THE MINIMU!.I STRENGTH OF THE BASE MATERIAL. 3.22

203 ~~ ""' "' " "" r ~';, ~ ~\ l ~ ) ~ ( ~ / l ~ l! \. ". \t '\ l "' "'- ""'' -- l 'LI '.,. " l ~' l r! 3.23 \J,- 2.0

204 / / --- / -- / f------/ ~ \ L,_- - ~ / / ---- /., L r-- -/ r L~- -./ ~- r-----., / L / '\... _ "\ ---- J - SPEClttEN fl-l - SrECHtEN fl- 2 l SPECI:IEN fl-3 ~-. - SPECI~EN (\- 4

205 BEND TESTS Fa ce Bend Root Bend Transverse Side Bend Longitudinal Face Bend GUIDED BEND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA No open defects in weld or Heat Affected Zone greater than /8" Cracks at corners may be ignored untess re5ulting from stag or interna! defects \-L..l. 3.25

206 986 Edition DATA - GRAPHICS QW-46.2 QW~2 Test Specimens (Cont'd) (al For procedure oualificatlon of ma"rials other tnan P-No. in OW-422, if the surlaces of the tide bend tnt specirnens are~ cut removal by machtning or grincfing of not lea than /8 in. from the surface shall be requ.red. ( b) Such remo val is not r~uir~ for P-No. materials, but any resutng roughne-ss sh.all be dreuctd by machining or grinding. T,in. 3/8 to 2. inct. y, in. > /2 (Note T w (in.) P-No. 23, All other F-No ' metals P-No. 35 /B 3/8 /B 3/B (2) For ~rtormance qualification of all mater als in OW-422, if tn. surlaces of side be-nd tesu are gas cut, any retulting roughnest &hall be dressed by mad\ining or grinding. T T...l.. \...r on mtn /8 tn. min. _/" j't h R /Stn.m.an. w -----,--T----- J~:o- GENERAL NOTE: Weld Rinforcament and bac:king strip or backing ring, if any. may be remowd ftush wtth the surface of the wecimen. Thermal Ct.,, nudlining, 04' grinding may be employed. Cold stnighteni rrmitted prior to removal of the reinforcement. NOTE: (T)When we-cimen thickness Texceeds /2 in., use one of the following. (a) Cut specimen into multiple test specimens y ot approximately equal dimensions (3/4 in. to -/2 in.l y tested specimen thicknlt$$ when multiple specimens ua taken from one coupon lbl The specimen may be bent at full width. See requiremenu on jig width '" CW QW SIDE BEND V-:?, 3.26

207 QW-l62.3(a), QW-l62.3(b) SECTION IX - PART QW, WELDING 986 Edition Q\\'-462 Test Spccimcns (Cont'd) -/2 rn, rn. mm., l R" /8 rn ma:w.. II 0: b( ~r~! ~~ -r- LvJ r-----,--r------,...- (Platel, '- P;pe) ~ ~ ~~ ~! Face-bend specimen - Gon.m;n. Plate and Pip-e TÓ -/2 ;n.l R IJ_t;j :,--.(~te),_>- L _u~----~~ Root-bend apecimena - Pt.te and pipe /8 m. max. TI t.~:._ :,J P;pe) Y, in P-No.23,F-No. 23. T, in. or P-No. 35 AJI other metals /6 < /8 T r 8-3/8 8 r >38 8 3/8 NOTESo ( ) Weld reinfor~ent and backmg strip or back ing ring, if any, shall be removed flush with the surlace of the specimen. lf a rec~ed ring is used. this surface of the specimen may be mlichined to depth not exceeding the depth of the r~ss to remoye the ring, ex~t that in such cases the thickne-ss of the finished s:pecimen shall be that specified above. Do not ftame-<:ut nonferrous material. (2f the pipe being te~ is 4 in. nominal ru.rneter orlen, the width of the bend wecimen mav be J/4 m. or pipe dtameters 2 in. to end inc:luding 4 in. The bend specimen width may be 3/8 in. for pipe diemeters leis then 2 in. down to and inc:luding 3/8 in. andas an altern.etive, if the pipe being tested is equal to or leu th.an in. nominal pipe size (.35_in. O. 0.). the wm:lth of the bend spec:imens mev be that obtained by cuning the pipe into qu.t,rter sections, leis en eiioonai'\c:e for s.aw cuts or machine c:utting. These specimens cut into quenar sections are not required to have one surface machined flat as shown in QW462.3(al. Bend specimens taken from tubing of comparable sizes IT\.IIy be handled in a similar m0nner. AfJ7 QW-462.3(a) FACE AND ROOT ilends- TRANSVERSEu 6 in. min. l /2in. R.. /8 in. max.. U~ ~ Y. in. ' l... y -r All hu Root P-No.23,F-No.23 other B.nd Bend T, in. or P-No. 35 metals /6 < 8 r T /8-3/8 8 T >3/8 8 3/8 NOTE: ( Weld reinforcements end backing strip or backing ring, f any, shall be remoyed auentlly ftush with the undisturbed surface ot the base maten&!. lf a receased strip ia used, thil aurfaee of the specmen may be machined to a depth not aacaeding the depth of the recento remove the strip, exeept that tn such cases fhe th cknen of the tinished spectmen shall be that specfied bove. QW-4623bl FACE AND ROOT BENDS- LONGITUDINAL' V

208 9S6 E4:!ition DATA- GRAPHICS QW-466, QW-«i6.! QW-466 Test Jigs Tapped hole to suit testing machine Hardened rollers -/2 in. diam. may be substttuted for jig shoulders. ----As r«tqui red Jt4 ;;;:-V Shoulders h..-.:kn"td and grut.ed L---~~T-;:::= ~,n ;n. -/8 in. J/4 ;,;:-(7 P!un~Jer 3-7/8 in. M cffi l Thickness of Specimen, in. A. in. B. in.. C, in. D. in. P-No. 23 to P-No. 2X. P-No 2X wth F-No. 23. P-No. JS /6 r 80f'tess 2-/6 6-/2t J/8 8-/4 8-t2r + /6 -J/6 9-/4(.. /32 P-No. ; P-No. 25 to P-No 2 or P-No 22 or P-No. 25 3/6 r = J/8 Of' less 2-\!2 6-2/Jr -Jo J-/Jl 8-2/Jr +- /6-6 4-/Jr... 6 P-No. 5 3/6 t,. 3/8 OC" less 3 Sr -/2 J t + /8-5! P-No. 52, P-No. 6. P-No. 62 3/6 r,. 3/8 Of' less J.Jf /8 5 nr / All others 3/6 t 3/8 or leu -/2 4 3/4 2 3/ /8 -J 6 3/ + 6 GENERAL NOTE: For P Numbers. see QW--422; for F Numbers, see OW QW-4óó.l GUIDEO-BEND JIG V- 2 S. 3.28

209 GROOVE WELD TEST COUPON QUALlfiES for All fillet weld (a) Thicknesses (b) Sizes (e) Diameters of pipe (d) Within e.ssential variables (Note: Exception is P lla groups and P llb which requires special quali~cations.) fillet WELD QUALifiCATIONS l Tee fillet Te.st 4 5 Macro Etch Tests fillet PROCEDURES Plate - Pipe - 5 macro etches 4 macro etche.s Acceptance: No visible cracks in weld metal or HAZ. full fusion at the root and leg Iengths shall differ by le.ss than l/8" \)-?..6

210 986 Edition DATA- GRAPHIC:S QW.-ui2.4(a)-QW.-ui2.4(c) QW-462 Test Specimens (Cont'd) + 6 n. / <-" ~' 7 8 in. and les:s Owr /B In, r, Equal to or ~ss than T but not ~ than /8 in. Stop and restan wetd near the GENERAL NOTE: Macro test - The fillet sh.lll ~ow fus.ion at the root of the weld but not neceuarily ~yond the root. The wdd metal and heat affected zone sh~ll be frt~e of Ct"Kk.s. Max.finet size T QW-4ó2.4(al F!LLET WELDS - PROCEDURE QW-4ó2.4(b) FlLLET WELDS - PERFORMANCE /---- T Wlll thickness ,. /4 section bend ---.._ J on. S tan nd stop of weld '---- near center of bend T Base metal thickness;:. T Max. fillet size T Wall thickneu > T GENERAL NOTE: Either P De to-piate or pipe to'i)lpe may be used as shown. A86 QW-4ó2.4(c) F!LLET WELDS IN PIPE - PERFORMANCE 3. 3li

211 NEVER USE ARTICLE \VHEN QUALIFYING WELDERS OR WELDING OPERATORS ONLY ARTICLE III APPLIES WHO IS A WELDER? One who performs a manual or semi-automatic welding operation... PURPOSE Of QUALifYING A WELDER _ To determine the welder's ability to deposit sound weld metal. 4.

212 WHO IS A WELDING OPERATOR? One who operates machine or automatic welding equipment. PURPOSE Of QUALifYING A WELDING OPERATOR To determine the operator's mechanical ability to operate the weldin: equipment. RESPONSIBILITIES Of MfG. (for WELDERS) Conduct tests to qualify the welders to use one or more of mfg : welding procedures that will be used on Code work. Te.st weld made under supv. and control of Mfg. 4.2

213 i \ \ i! l WELDER'S PERFORt\.ANCE QUALIFICATION RECORD A W.P.Q. IS A DOCUMENT FOR RECORDING THE QUALIFICATIONS OF A WELDER OR WELDING OPERATOR. CONTENTS Of THE WPQ ( a ) Al! applicable variables used by the welder to make a test coupc l ( b ) Resuits of the tests (e) The ranges (when applicable)- sorne variables only have m: or max. values) qualified. 4.3

214 TliE WELDER'S QUALIFICATION!S LIMJTED BY TliE ESSENTIAL VARIABLES OF QW-350. TliE ESSENTIAL VARIABLES Of QW-350 DO NOT APPL Y TO WELD!NG OPERA TORS. WELDER RECORDS.@ WPQ e Continuity Log o l.d. Log 4.4 \) -3)

215 '--...:..-...:.--~--~--~~---.-.,...: "... " , WELDÍ:A A WELDERS LOG.- SMAW ~/Bs /.fis 7/, ig) /J~' GTAW y, /g-;.r,is RS /" >/ s- SAW s~s>;~ '% g.s- /,/~, f- - ' ~ s -- WELDEA B OTAW Y!b5 /,jr /Ziw, OMAW "j.fg5 q.,/k5,a., /rs e ' WELDEA C GMAW f>/,(ts ll/./g) SMAW 'l/. /i 5 --

216 4.o'! CERTifiCATION OF WELDERS (a) Not specifically required in IX. ( b) However. recertification and QA/QC program requirements strongly suggest this must be done. Continued CERTifiCATION Of WELDERS Must weld at least every 3 months. l l i ; j Must use each process at least every 6 months. Need not be on Code work. Continued CERTifiCATION - EXAMPLE A we!der is qualified on June to use the SMAW process. The welder is qualified on July to use the GTAW process. lf no welding is performed after July 30. when does this welder's SMA W qualification expire? GTA W? Continued CERTifiCATION - EXAMPLE 2 SMAW process - June GT AW process - July Si'lAW process - October SMAW process - November \Vhen does this welder's SM.-'\V qualification expire? GTAW?

217 WliAT WOULD BE REQUIRED IF A WELDER'S QUALifiCATIONS EXPIRE? REQUALifiCATION Of WELDERS When time limit expires When reason to doubt ability When outside limits of qualifled range.s RECERTIFICATION. THE WELOER MUST WELD EVERY THREE MONTHS. 2. THE WELOER MUST USE EVERY PROCESS AT LEAST EVERY SIX MONTHS. 3. REQUALIFICATION IS BASEO ON ONE COUPON. IF SUCESSFUL. THIS COUPON WILL RE-ESTABLISH THE WELDER'S QUALIFICATIONS FOR ALL THICKNESSES, DIAMETERS ETC. FOR E.A_CH PROCESS. 4. 7

218 PREPARATION Of TEST COUPONS Must use a WPS (qualijied or unqualijied) Preheat not required PWHT not required Welders who qualify a WPS may use that WPS in production (jillet welds are an exception) P-llB WPS groove may not be used to make a P-llB fillet weld but welder may be qualified. May be terminated if test appears to be unsatisfactory.. Mechanical a. Bends b. Macro/fracture 2. Radiography TYPES O f TESTS a. Only permitted by QW-.304 or QW-.305 b. 6" radiograph on plate or entire circumference of pipe MECHANICAL TESTS for WELDERS Plate groove test: 2 bend tests Pipe groove test: G or 2G - 2 bend tests SG or 6G - 4 bend tests Plate fillet test: 2 - macro. - fracture Pipe fillet test: 2 - macro. - fracture /, q

219 986 E.dit0n DATA- GRAPHICS QW-463.2(a)-QW-463.2(c) QW-463 Order of Removal (Cont'd) Discard!htS DteCe ----=--=--::..-= Aoot-bend [ pe<omeo - - f--==-=-----r-----.pectmen Face bend ;=----:-::..-=- --=--=-=-- -= Oiscard thi piece f-=. = -=--- --=,_._ == - - := Side-bend specimen ====.: lo- f==== - - Side-bend specimen ~=-=== - =--- -= ---- Ot~ard thts ptece Ois.card this piece QW-%3.2(a) PLA TES - Y, TO 'A IN. PERFORMANCE QUAUFICATION ~ ~~~ ~ QW-%32(bl PLATES - OVER :Y ANO ALTERNA TE 'li. TO :Y IN. PERFORMANCE QUAUFlCATION Oiscard, ~ =,_--= this piece Longitudinal ftce...t>end specirnen ::. =-= --- Longitudinal root~nd specimen =--=--=-'-= thl'l Discard pie~ QW-463.2(c) PLATES - LONGITUDINAL PERFORMANCE QUAUFlCATION

220 QW-463.2(d)-QW-6J.2(r) SECTION IX- PART QW. WELDING 986 Edition QW-463 Order of Removal (Cont'd) 45 deg deg...., 45 d<g deg...., Root bend F&ee bend Side bend Horizontal plena {wheo pipe is we!de-<: ~ in 5G or6g position) Facc bend Aoot bend Side bend Pipes- /6 Up to 3/4 in. Thickneu Pipes - 34 in. and Over Thid<neu and AJtemato From 3/8 in. but lau Than 3/4 in. Thickneu A87 QW-463.2(d) PERFORMANCE QUAUFICA TION QW-463.2<el PERFORMANCE QUAUFICA TION A87 30doo.~ ~ Aootbendl..._50~ Feco bend Foco bend /'; \ ' yside be~ ~ /Á. )-v--r 80deg. / ' '?\. // ' '/\, ~ Side bend ~ Side bend (_ " Horizontal reference line for fixed horizontal '- positton.l 80deg.lOOd<g--, -)- --~~... :) Pipe in fixed / [ Pipe in fixod ven;cal pos tion horizontal poition for (2GI tens for (5Gl tests 80d~ Side bend /~ Side bend />// /'J' Aoot~s~;v;;~SOd... ~~ d V..._ Root bend // Side bend F~ be~ ---'f-~~ GENERAL NOTE. When s de..qend tests ~re made.n accordance woth OW-452 and OW-452.3, they 'Shall be removed as shown tn QW-463.2n on place of!he lace and root benos. QW-463.2Cfl PIPE - lo!n. ASSEMBLY PERFORMANCE QUAUFICA TION 4.0--

221 986 Edition DATA -GRAI'HICS QW -4G3.2(g) Q\\'-463 Ordcr of Rcmoval (Cont'd) 22 t/2 deg deg. ti' -;~/2d~ f Side bend y \ '\ r~~dzontal... nce n~. fo\ fxed honzontal PQ5tion 90 deg. \ t.....,f-- 45 P>e n fxed ~~-~ J- 80 deg. ~..., deg. j)oshioi'i oof.o.u, t~sti 7 Pipe in fixed horizontal position for SG tests / 22 l/2 deg. SO deg. ': f--side ~~b<nd GENERAL NOTE: When sode bend tests are made in accordance wh QW-452. and OW-;452.3, hey ~hall be removed as 5hown n OW 46J.2(gl.n place al the lace and root bends. QW-463.2(gl 6IN. OR SIN. ASSEMBLY PERFORMANCE QUAUFICATION V - 3. '3 4.

222 QW~2.J(a), QW~2.J(b) SECTION IX - PART QW, WELDING 986 Editloa. QW-462 Test Specimens (Omt'd) ~==...,...,r,_m;n._l, " 'i± c(tf,------,-.., ,...-r (Pie te) (P;pe),..._ ~ _-_-_-_-_-_J_~_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ ~ tt. in. P No.23.F-No.23, T, in. or P-Na. 35 Al! other metals ~v<l i\..- -r-~ Ly..J 6 < /B r r /B-3/B /8 r >38 /8 3/8 Faca-~nd apecimen -?tate and Pipe NOTES: () Weld reinforcement and backiog strip or backmg ring, if any ~ sh~ll be removed flush with the StJrfa«of the specimen. lf a receued ring is used, this wrface of the specimen may be /2 in. mechined to a depth not exceeding the depth of the recess to ~ in. min. R /8 in. ma. '----L 'II.Ó TI remove the rin;, except that in wch case: the thlckneu of the finished 'P«imen shall be that specified above. Da not flame-cut nonferrous matel"~l. (2} lf the pipe being tened is 4 in. nominal diameter or less. the width of the bend s:;>ecimen may be 3/4 in. for pipe diameten 2 in. to nd including 4 in. The bend specimen width t;j ~:; :.;:..:.=..::.::..:::.:-:.: :.:-;-:..:;-.:: :.: :.: :. :..::-.::-:.: :.:-:.:; : ( Pa te) msy be ::!/8 in. for pipe diameten less than 2 in. down to and (Pipo) including 3/8 in. and es an ajtem.ative, if the prpe being tested L ~ ~~~ is equel to or leu tha;n in. nominal pipe size (.35 in. O. 0.). ti:' wkith of the bend specimens mav be that obtained by cutting the pipo into QVart'er sections, leu an allowance for s:aw cuts or madtine euninv. These speci~s cut into quan:er s.ections are not required 0 have one surlece machined flat as dlown in OW-462.3(a). Bend sp~rmens taken from tubing: of comprable sizes mty be handted in a similar manner. A87 QW-4623(a) FACE ANO ROOT SENOS- TRANSVERSE'-' -/2 iro. 6 in. mrn.-----" Y. rn. All Fec Root P-No.23.F-No.23 other Bef'd Bend T, in. or P-No. 35 metals /6<8 r r / r >3/8 /8 3/8 NOTE. ()Weld n'tnforcemeots and backrng strip or backing rrng. rf anv. shau be removed essenually flush with the undrsturbed surface of the base matenal. lf a recassed stnp is used. thrs surface of the specimen may be machined te a depth not e~tceedrng the depth of the re-ce u to remove the strio. e~tcept that in such c.ues the thrckness of the fimshed specrmen shau be that soecifie<l above QW-4623(bl FACE ANO ROOI SENOS- LONGITUDINAL' /.,.?

223 986 Edition DATA- GRAPHICS Q\\'462.2 QW-462 Test Spedmens (Cont'd) (a) For procedure quelification of matenels other than P-No. in QW-422, tf the sudaces of the ~tde bend test specimens ere gas cut remo\'8 by machmmg or grinding of not less than /8 in. from the surface shall be required. ( b) Such removel is not requtred for P-No. materia h. but any resutng roughn~s shall be dreued by m&ehinmg or grindmg. (2) For performance Qualification of eh meteriah in QW~22, if the surfaces of sidc bend tests are gas cut, any resuhing roughness shall be dreued by machining or grinding. T, in. 3/8 to /2, tnct. y, in. T w (in.) P-No. 23, F-No. 23, or P-No. 35 All other metals 8 J/8 > -2 )Note 8 J/8 ~_t ri T T l_ ~-..L GENERAL NOTE: Weld n:jinfc;c::ment cnd b:cidn; :t:--:p: O!"-~king ri"lj, if.eny, rt\i!iy.bce _ temoyed flush with the surface of the specimen. Thermal cuning, machining, or grinding may be employed. Cold straightentng is per mined prior to removiii of the remforcement. :; NOTE: ( ) When wecimen thickness T exceeds /2 in., use one of the followmg. (e) Cut ~tmen into multipie te'lt specimens y of epprox.imately equal dtmensions (3/4 in. to -!2 in.). y tested specunen thtckneu v.oen multiple specimens are te ken f rom ene coupon lb) The spectmen may be bent at full width. See' requtremenu on jg width in QW466.. QW SIOE BEND 4.3 V-4c

224 MECHAN! CAL TES TIN G ACCEITANCE CRITERIA &nd.s - no ddect ~ceeding /8" me.asured on con ve."~; surface of the weld after bending. Fillet Macro - vi.sually no cracl\5 or lack of fusion. Line.ar root less than l/32" are accept.able.. Fillet Fracture a. no bre.aks b. fracture indicates no incomplete root fusion. no inclusions and porosity gre.ater then 3/8" for ptate. Oí greater than io% of quarter section thickness on pipe. MACRO ETCHING Ferrous and nonferrous etching solutions of QW-470 Written procedure not required Personnel n~ not have any specified qualifications for perforrning the tests. 4.4 \J-4

225 986 F...dition DATA - GRAPH!CS Q W -4{í2.4(a)-( W -4{;2.4{ e) QW-462 Test Spccimcns (Ccnt'd) Size of fillet- thickneu of T 2 not greater than 3/4 in. r, /8 in. and len Over /8 in. r, Equal to or leu than T but not leu th n /8 in. ' 6 in. mm. j_f---'-"--'-'"'----í r, TL--6 -m.-m<-n.-~ MKro T u Specomen Stop and restan weld near the GENERAL NOTE: Macro test - The fillet shall show fusion at the root of the weld but not neceuarily beyond the root. The ~Id metal and heat affecte<l zone shall be free of cracks. Max.Jillet size T QW-462.4(al F!LLET WELDS - PROCEOURE QW-462.4(b) F!LLET WELOS - PERFORMANCE T wall thickneu ~ /4 ~ion bend- T Base metal thickness > T Max.. fillet size T Wall thickness > T GENERAL NOTE: e,mer pl~ to..piate or pipe-to-p De mav be used as showor.m. A86 QW-4ó2.4(cl FILLET WELDS IN PIPE - PERFORMANCE 4.5 "-4 2

226 CHOICES for TEST COUPON Position Backing Pipe or p!ate COMBINATION PROCESSES More than one F-number More than one process More than one welder RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING f'o R WELD ERS SMAW. SAW. GTAW. PAW. FCAW. and GMAW (not GMAW S} P l thru ll. P 3X and P 4X b~ materials GTAW ajso inc!udes P 2X and P SX b~ materials RADIOGRAPHY fo R WELDS BY A WELD ER Test Coupon - 6" long RT Production Weld - 6" long RT (Qualification on pipe r~uire.s RT of entire drcumference of the pipe. Maximum of 4 pipe to accumulate 6" of total weld.) 4. la \f-4-:?

227 RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING FOR WELDING OPERATORS THE REQUIREMENTS FOR RADIOGRAPHING WELDING OPERATORS IS FOUND IN Q.W THE REQUIREMENTS ARE THE SAME AS FOR WELDERS. THIS IS A FAIRLY NEW REQUIREMENT ANO G.M.A.W. SHORT ARC MUST ALWAYS BE QUALIFIEO MECHANICALLY. RADIOGRAPHY for WELDING OPERATORS - Test Coupon - 6" long RT - Production Weld - Y long RT (Qu~Iification on ~ipe requires RT of entire drcumference of the pipe. Maxmum of 4 ptpe to accumulate 6" of total weld) \}

228 IVELDER RADIOGRAPH ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA COMPARISON &ction IX (QW-9.2) Section VIII Div. (rull RT -uw-5)... (a) Unear indication.s: ( ) Any axj\ or zone o( incomplete rusion or Penetr.ltion (2) Any dogat<d Slag indusion greate: t..':m:!8" for t s 3/8"!3 t for t >3/8" to 2Y " ind. 3/4'" for t greata than 2' '' (3) Any group of slag indusiol3 in Une great<:r than t in a 2t lcngth (e.<ccpt when distancc bdwcen inclusion:s is grcater than 6L). (b) Roundcd indication:s: () Max. dimension 20"'-o t or!8". whichcva is smalla. (2) When T is los L~an /8" max. numbcr of indication:s i.:s 2 in 6" lcngth. (3) When T is equal to or greater than l/8" = charts in AppcndiJt l. When max. dia. is los than L/32" it is irrelevant. (a) Unear indicatlon:s: () Any erad\ or zone of incomplete rusion or Pcnctration (2) Any elongatcd Slag indusion grcatu than: /4" for t los than 3/4" /3 t for t - 3/4" to 2Y4' ind. 3/4" for t grcatu than 2 y," (3) Any group of slag indusions in line_greatt!!'~than t-in -l2t-!ogth e..ccpt when distancc bdwecn indusion:s i.:s grcatu than 6L). (b) Roundcd indications: () Max. dimension 25% t or 5/32" whic.hcv<:r is smalla. (Sorne e..ccption.s) (2) See AppcndiJt 4. When T is los than /8" max. numbcr of indica tiorl:! i.:s 2 in 6" length. (3) See Appcndix 4. (Sorne rango more rotrictive. sorne los rotrictive than Section IX.) t - T - L - thicl<nos of dcpositcd wdd metal. thicknos of b= matenal. length of longot imperfection in a group. /, o

229 failure Of TEST COUPONS for WELDING OPERATORS S ame as we!ders except for production RT. Production RT for immediate rete.st is 6' long. lmmediate RETEST: f AILURE O f TEST COUPONS for WELDERS Mechanical - 2 consecutive test coupons RT te5t coupon - RT production - 2 consecutive te.st coupons (not 2" in one test coupon) additional 2.. radiograph Same method that failed must be used for immediate retests. With additional training just start over, no speciflcs in IX. \).. 4c

230 WELDERS DO NOT HA VE NON-ESSENTIAL NOR SUPPLEMENTARY ESSENTIAL VARIABLES WELDERS DO NOT NECESSARILY IiAVE TO FOLLOW A WPS WliEN QUALIFYING May omit PWiiT and preheat Base material substitution Possible filler metal substitution Must. as mínimum. follow or record essential variables. \J-4-

231 WELDER QUALifiCATION USING A WPS ) 2-Side or Mochamcal Tt::Sts Gem::<III y 2) -Face and -Root (Se<: QW-302.J 6: 45) Se<: QW-302. G<:n<:rat for All Proc= ) May delete PWtiT (QW-30) 2) Pasition (QW-4ó.9) 3) E.acking (QW-303 6: 350) 4) Small dia. Pipe (QW-452.J) 5) Alttrnate ba><: maals (QW-423) 6) ü=tial Variablo (QW-350) ltt. Umited by QW-304 ) 6'" coupon 2) 6'" production 3) Entire circ. for Pipe r Se<: QW PASS QW-60 QW-80 Rctot w!trrig r fail" ~ L::J Q lmmcdat~ re. tc:t lmm~diat~ r~test Twi<~ a.s many coupo ns QW-320 Twice as many couporu (QW-320), Additional 2"" of Production Weld fl.!: :!RTirlC.~ TION ) 3 :'0. mus weld 2) 6 r.oo. e; ch proc= 3) Rc..:Lc..Jn to douot: ability Mochanical or RT ::.. Zl

232 QW-353 SHIELDED METAL-ARC WELDING (SMAWl Essential Variables Paragraph QW-40Z.4 - Bad:lng Joint.s Brief of Variables QW <> Pipe Oiamctcr B.uc Metals.8 <> P-Numbcr QW-404 FiUff Md..tls.ll F-No. 4X limits.5 <> F-Nu!'"ber limits.jo <> t Wctd deposit QW Position Posttions J <> t Vertical wcldinq QW-354 SEMIAUTOMATIC SUBMERGED-ARC WELDING (SAWl Essential Variables Paragraph Brief of Variables QW...,.OJ.6 <> Pipe dimletet Base MeUls.8 4>?-tlumb~ QW...,.04 JO <> t Wcld deposit Filler MetaJs QW-<05. + Position PosiUons QW-355 SEMIAUTOMATIC GAS METAL-ARC WELDING (GMAWl [This lncludes Flux-Cored Are Welding (FCAWll Essenlial Variables Paragraph Brief of Variables QW-402 Jotnt.s.4 Backing QW-403 Base Metals.6 <> 8 <> Pipe diamcter P-Numb~.ll F-No. 4X limits QW-404 Filler Metals QW-405 Posttmns >.JO 4> 32 +.J 4> F-No. 2X limtts F-Number t Weld metal t Umtt (S. Cir. Are.) Posttion r t Vertical weldinq QW ; Gas baclcmg G'-' Qw...:oq 2 T ran">ter mode Electncal \J ??

233 QW-452 Performance Quallflcatlon lblckness Llmlts and Test Speclmens QW-452. TRANSVERSE-BEND TESTS Thlckness t of D poslt d W ld Motal QuaiiO d. In. [Not C2ll CS" QW-JlO.ll Typr and Number of Tests Requlred CGulded B nd T"tsl!Not" CJ),(4)J Typ of Jolnt Thlcknm of Test Coupon W ldod, In. [Not ()] Max. Stde Bend QW-462.2(a) Faco B nd [Note (5 QW-462.3Cal Root B nd!note (5)] QW-462.3(a) Groove Groove Groove Up to % lncl. Over % but leu than ~ :Y.. and onr 2t 2 Max. lo be welded Note (b) Note (7) 2 <. ),)" i') A88 NOTES: ( When uslng one, two, or more welders, the thld:ness t of the deposlted weld metal for each welder wlth each procus shall be determlnt:d and used lndlvldually In the Thlckneu column. (2) Two or more pipe tut coupom of dlrferent thld"n~h~~ m:~y be u~ed to det~'rmlne the deposltl'd weld met:tl thld ne~' f'lij.llifl~d tlnd th.h thlckneu may be applled to productlon welds to the smal/est dlarnder for whlth lhe wetr ls quallfled In a!.c.ordanc~ with QW-4~2.3 <JI Thlckneu of test coupon of ~ In. or ovtr shall be used for quallfylng a comblnatlon of three or more welders ea eh of whlch may use the same ora dlfferent weldlng procus. (~)A total of four speclmens h requlrtd to quallfy for po~ltlom 5G and bg a~ prescribtd In QW-~02.3. (5) Fact- and root-bend tuts rnay be ustd to quallfy comblnatlon test of: (.) ont welder uslng two wtldlng proctssts; or Cb) two welders uslng tht samt ora dlfftrtnt weldlng process. (bl For a %In. thlck coupon, two slde-bend tuts may be subhituttd for tht required face- and roct-bend tests. (7) Two stde-bend tests may be substltuted for the requlrtd face- and root-btnd tests. o ' i ~ )' o ~ J. ~ t' -

234 /, ') /, QW-4523 GROOVE-WELD D!AMETER UMfTS>.> Outside Oiameter of Test Coupon, in. Less than l Minimum Out.side Oiameter Qualified, in. Siu wdded NOTES: 2'!. and o.,.«() Ty~ and num~r of tests requi~ sh.all be io acconl.lnce...,.;o, QW (2} 2 V. in is considered the equivalent of NPS 2Y.z. r '"''"~ t---i -. 2" b= rnotll l" Schl 2" b= rnrul Which of tho abovo is small diarnoter pipe wdding und,- Se::ton IX? WHAT!S THt LARGEST DIAmTER Of Plrt THE WELDER liay_be _QUALlfítD ON TO lllakf THIS Wr:LD? --- dia. Schl. 80 2"' b= mrul \- S

235 QW-423 Altcrnatc Base Materials for Welder Q ualification QW-423. Base material used for welder qualification may be substituted for the P-Number material specified in the WPS in accordance with the following. Base Metal(s) for W elder Qualification Qualified Production Base Metal(s) P-No. through P-No. and P-No. 4X P-No. 2 through P-No. 25 P-No. 52 P-Nc. 62 P-No. through P-No. ll and P-No. 4X P-No. 2 through P-No. 25 P-No. 5 and P-No. 52 P-No. 6 and P-No

236 EXA~lPLE 3/8", E700 - l. What is welder qualifiecl thicknes.s? 2. What is welder qualified F Number(s)? 3. How many and what type bends are required? EXAMPLE 2 3/8" E70 lo l. What is welder qualified thickness? 2. What is welder qualified F Number(s)? 3. tow many and what type bends are required?

237 QW-4<i0-QW-46!. SECfiON IX - PART QW. WELDING I9S6 E.dicion QW-4óü GRAPHICS QW-46 Positions Tabulation of Posrtions of Wehis Poaition Flat Oi69nm lnclinetion Rotuion Re-fMence of A..;la, d-;. of Faee, ~. A O te 5 50 to 20 Hon:ontal B Oto 5 -[ 80 to to 280 Overhead e Oto 80 -{ Oto to 360 Venial o 5to E 80 to 90 o '. - ~.. lm - -,.. -.'=,, o ' <.oo - lec 0(., "' -- r ::<~ g'c., "'--- Oéog. -e... ' ( V'Go O de-;.<-, ' ' ' <..J í "'P. '-., '(' i l o.\ gl ; ' '_':) GENERAL NOTE: The hortzontal referenc:e plane taken to lie alwavs betow the weld under considef"ation. lnclination of a.us ts mnsured from the honzont l reference plan e toward the venicii. Ang~ of roution of faee is measured from a line perpendicut.r to the ajos of the weld and ty;ng in a vertical plane c;pntacning this ajas The reference position 0 deg.) of rotat on of the fa ce invanabfy potnts in the direchon opposste to that in wh ch the a~~:is angte mcreases. The angle or rotation of the lace of weld s measured in a doctwit;e direction from thi' reference posihon 0 deg.) when IOOkng at po nt P. QW-46. POSffiONS OF WELOS - GROOVE WELOS

238 QW-46.3-QW-46.5 SECTION IX- PART QW,.WELDir-;G 986 Editíon QW-46 Positions (Cont'd) ldi4g G lbi2g (e} JG QW-463 GROOVE WELDS IN PLATE -TEST POSITIONS o ] ) (a} G Rotated lcl SG lbi2g V ldl6g QW-46.4 GROOVE WELDS IN PIPE - TEST POSITIONS Axu of weld -.;:;::- Throat of weld.. ~Az? " \o'erttc.al (al F lbl2f (e) JF (di 4F QW-46.5 FILLET WELDS IN PLA TE - TEST POSITIONS V-SS

239 Edition DATA- GRAPHICS Q\\'~.6 QW-4<íl Positions (Cont'd) / / / / 45 deg. (a) tf (Routed) U::! 2F (el 2FR (Routodl (d) 4F teisf QW-%l.ó FILLET WELOS IN PIPE - TEST POSmONS

240 4. 30 REMEMBER E ven though the welder's range may indude many f Nos.. and large thickness ranges. he i.s limited by the qualified procedures. Without a qualified WPS the welder maybe qualified to ranges (induding min. or max.) that may not be acceptable for Code welding. LIMITS Of POSITlONS Qualification on groove welds qualifies for fillet welds. See QW-46.9 Special orientations not required but permitted (plus or minus 5 ) V- S-

241 986 Edicion DATA- GR...:d'HiC:::i (.._l \\' -4(d.9 QW-46 Positions (Cont'd) QW-46.9 PERFORI.lA:iCE QUAUFICATION POSmON AND 0;,:.ETER UMITATIONS (Within the Other Limitations of QW-3~3) Position and T~ ~ Wer..-: Qualified [Note. <lll Qualificatlon Test Groove Fil!et Weld Position Plate and Ppe Over 24 in fl :: ~ ~ 2.:. i~.. O.D. Plate and Ppe PIJote - Groove lg ZG 3G 4G JG and 4G 2G, JG, and 4G F F,H F,V F,O F,V,O All F [N.. ne (2) F,H W.:-te C2ll t= [\'.:-'.." (2)) r CN,;~tl." (2Jl F (f'\otl." (2)] F,H (N..::tl." (2)] F F,H F,H,V F,H,O All All Plate - Fillet lf 2F 3F 4F JF,and <CF F (Note (2)] F) (Note (2)] F,H,V (Note (2)) F,H,O (Note C2ll Al! {Note (2)] Pp~ - Groove (Note (3)] lg ZG 5G 6G 2G &nd 5G F F.H F,V,O All All F F,H F,\',0, All All F F,H All All All Ptpe - Fil!et U-lote ())} lf 2F ZFR CF SF F F,H F,H F,H.O All NOTES: Cll Positions of wt-ldif\9 as shown fn QW-46. and QW F = Flat H = HorizonU:I V= Vertical O = Overhead (2) Pipe 2% in and over. ())S«darncter restrictiotts in QW , QW~52.4, and QW l

242 /..,... A we!dcr is qualified on the following test coupons. What are his position limits7 l. 6" día. pipe groove in 6G7 2. Plate groove in 4G position? " dia. pipe Schl. 60 3" thick shell May a welder qualified on a plate groove in the lg position make this_ groove weld and fillet weld cap?

243 3.5 W ap.s./p.qara /W~P~On FORMS. Q.W.-482 AND 483 AN'O Q.W '-' ;::: v"" u"" M M ~t: t.\... ~.,...,.,....,...,..., c- ~ Ut:u rvntv~ 3. LOCATED IN A NON-MANDATORY APPENDIX 4. SAMPLE IS PRINTED ON THE EXAMPLE IN THE CODE.

244 MULTIPLE PQR(S) SUPPORTING ONE WPS More than one PQR may support a single WPS Example: PQR w/pwlit and PQR 2 w/o PWliT support a WPS w/and w/o PWliT ' '. ', NOTE:'. Although '. t may be con f usmg,.., l. ls poss 'bl e t o h ave on y WPS to cover all possible welding drc*mstances. ONE PQR MAY SUPPORT SEVERAL WPSs For control and cijrity to production peopl( mjnufacturers may iirnit particui;:wwps usage. Ex<Hnple:, PQR covers all diamcter of electroctes for wclding. \Vt'S l covers only l!6" to /8". e!ectrodes. WPS 2 covers only l /8" to L/4" electrodes. COMBINATION WELDING PROCESSES AND PROCEDURES A change in welding process requiring requalification. Severa! processes may be included in one WPS (they may be qualified separately or in combination). Using more than one WPS to complete a weld. For WPSs with more than one process. a weld may be made using the same WPS and de!eting one or more of the processes within the essentia! variables. \/t-'2..

245 POWER BOILERS

246 CONTENTS A Detailed Contents Precedes Each Part. the Appendc<~ and the Fonns Foreword... Statements of Policy. Pcrsonncl.. Preamble... Summary of Changcs... vii xi xiii xxiii XX\' Pan PG Pan PW Pan PR Part PB Parr PWT Pan PFT Part PFH Pan PMB Pan PEB Pan PVG General Requrcmems for All Methods of Construction. Requirements for Bmler:. Fabncatcd hy Welding. Requirements for Boiler~ Fabricated b) Rn'eting Requirements for Bmler:. Fabric::lted by Brazing R-:qui:-e:nems for Warertubc Bmlers. Requiremcnts for Fretubc Boilcrs Optional Requm:!mems for Feedwatcr Heater (When Located Wtthm Scopc of Secuon I Rules) Requirements for Mmtature Boders.. Requircments for Electric Bailen;... Requirements for Organic Flud VaJ?_orizers. 8 y 20 l2j S Appcndix App~ndix A Manda!Of)' - Preparation of Technical Inqwries to thc Bmkr and Pressure Vessel Comminee... E:\planation of the Code Containmg Maner Not ~bndatory Cnless Specifically Referred to in the Rules of the Code Data Report Fonns and Guides. Codes. Standards. and Specific-alions Referenced in Text..... Guide to Infonnation Appearing on Certificare of Authorization. Sample Calculations for Externa! Pre.-.sure Desgn... SI Units lndex V

247 ( { \. '

248 PART PG General PG- PG-2 PG-3 Scope.. Sen'ICC Limitations Referenced Standards \latcrials PG-5 PG-6 PG-7 PG-8 PG-9 PG-0 PG- i PG-2 PG-3 General... PI ate. Forgings.. Ca.stmg.s... Pipe.\, Tubcs, and Prcssure Contammg Part~ Material Identified With or Prodm:ed to a Specification Not Pc: ntted b~ This Section. and Material Not Fully ldei!ltied Miscellaneous Pres~urc Part.s Gage Glass Body and Connector r..bterials.. Stays S JO 2 2 Dcsign PG-6 PG-7 PG-8 PG-9 PG-2 PG-22 PG-23 PG-25 PG-27 PG-28 PG-29 PG-30 PG-3 General Fabrication by a Combma0n of Mt'thods Hydrostatic Deformauon Test Cold Fonning of Au~tell!t!C Materials Maxmum Allowable Working Prcs'\ure Loadings.... Stress Values for Calculation Formulas Quality Factors for Steel Castings... Cylindrical Components Under Interna! Pressure... Welded Access or Inspectwn Openings Under Externa! Pressure. Dished Heads Stayed Dishcd Heads.... Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers Openings and Compcnsation PG-32 Opcnmgs m Shells. Header.s. and Heads.. PG-33 Compensauon Required for Openings in Shells and Fornled Heads PG-34 Flanged-n Openings m Formed Heads.. PG-35 Compensarion Required for Openings in Flat Heads... PG-36 PG-37 PG-38 PG-39 Limits of Metal Available for Compensation.. Strength of Compensation... Compcnsauon for MuJr pje Openings. Methods of Auachmenl of Pipe and Nozzle 7\ecks to Vessel Walls Ji

249 PG-42 PG-43 PG-44 PG-46 PG-47 PG-48 PG-49 PG-52 PG-53 PG-55 General Rcquirements for FittLngs, Flanges, and Val ves. Nozzle Neck Thtckness. lnspection Openings.. Stayed ~Smfaces.. Staybolts... Location of Staybolts. Dimensions of Staybolts. Ligaments Ligaments. Supports and Attachment Lugs Boiler Externa! Piping and Boiler Propcr Conncctions PG-58 Out\ets and Externa\ Pipmg. PG-59 Application Requircmcnts for the Botlcr Proper Dcsign and Application PG-60 Requiremcnts fot Mt~cellancous Pipe. Valves, and F!ttings PG-6 Fecdwater Supply Safcty Valvcs and Safcty Rclicf Valvcs PG-67 Boiler Safety Valvc Requircmcnts PG-68 Superhcatcr and Rchcalt:t Safety V;~l\ c Rcquirement: PG-69 Ccrtification of Capacity of Safet~.md Safcty Rel!ef Vah c.., PG-70 PG-7 PG-72 Capacny of Safety Valves. Mountmg Operation. PG-73 Mínimum Rcqtmements for Safety ar.d Safety Relief Valve'i. 55 )Q ( Fabrication PG-75 PG-76 PG-77 General Cuttmg PI ates and Other Stock. Plate ldentification PG-78 Rcpairs of Defects in Materials. 67 PG-79 Tube Hales and Ends PG-80 PG-8 PG-82 Pennissible Out-of-Roundne!>s of Cylindrical Shells.. Tolerance for Formed Heads. Hales for Stays l Inspection and Tests PG-90 General. PG-9 Qualificauon of lnspectors. PG-93 lnspection and Repair of Flat Plate in Comer Joints. PG-99 Hydrostauc Test.... PG-00 Hydrostatlc Deformaton Test Certification by Stamping and Data Report'i PG-0 Hcating Surface Computation. 7 2

250 PG-04 PG-05 PG-06 P0-07 PG-08 PG-09 PG-0 PG- PG-2 PG-3 General.. Code Symbol Stamps.. Stamping of Boi\ers. Field Assembly Stamping for Field Assembled Bmlers. Stamping of Prcs... urc Piping.. Stamping of Safety Valves. Location of Stampings. Manufacturers' Data Report Forms. Master Data Report Form Figures PG-9 PG-28 PG-3 PG-32 PG-33 PG-36 PG-36.4 PG-38 PG-42. PG-46.2 PG-52. PG-52.2 PG-52.3 PG-52. PG-52.5 PG-52.6 PG PG PG-59. PG-60 PG-67.4 PG-80 PG-05. PG-05.2 PG-05.3 PG-05 4 PG-06 Cold Forming Opcration<; for Flaring. Swagmg. and Upseumg of Tubing Maxunum Interna! Projection of Welded Access or Inspection Openings.. Some Acccptablc Typcs of Un~tayed Flat Hcads and Covers. Chart Showmg Limlts of Si!c-; of Openmgs With Inherent Compens::uion lll Cylmdrical She!Ls Cha: fo: Dctenn;ning Valuc of F Limirs of Rcinfotccmclll for Typical Openmgs.. Sorne Rcprescntativc Contigurauons Describmg thc,. Reinforccmem DimensHm Illustrations of thc Rule Gtven m PG-38 4 Wclding End TransitHms Ma,imum Envelopc. Act cptab!c Proportion'> for End~ of Throu :h-stays Diagram for Detcrnumng thc Efficu.:ncy of Longitudinal and Diagonal Ltg:arncnt~ Bctwccn Opt:mng'> in Cylindnca! Shells. Example of Tu be Sp:cing With Pitch of Hole~ Equal in Evcry Row Example of Tu he Spacmg With Pitch of Hales Unequal m Evcry Second Row. Example of Tubc Spacing Wtth PHch of Holes Varying m Evcry Second and Third Row. Example of Tubc Spacmg Wtth Tube Hole~ on Dtagonal Lmes. Dagram for Detcrminmg Equ valent Longnudmal Efficicncy of Diag.onal Ligaments Betwecn Opcnmg.s in Cylmdrical Shells... Code Jurisdictional Lmits for Ppmg - Drum Type Boilers.... Code Jurisdtctional Limtts for Piping - Forced-Flow Steam Generator With No Fixed Steam or Waterline.... Typical Boiler Bushings... Typtcal Arrangement of Steam and Water Connect0ns for a Water Column Requirements for Pressure Relief Forced-Fiow Steam Generator.. Ma'l(tmUin Permt'>Stble Deviation From a Ctrcular Form e for Cyhndncal Pans Under Externa! Pressure Ofticial Symboh for St:mps to Denote The American SocietY of lvtechantcal Enginet r.., Standard for Boilers Oflicial Symbol for Stamp to Denote The American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standard for Assembly... Oflinal Symbol for Stamp to Denote The /\menean Society of r..tcchanical Engmecrs' Standard for \\'eided Piping... Offictal Symbol for Stamp to Denote The American Society of Mechanical Engineers' Stundard for Safety Valves Fonn of Stamping JI,, '

251 Tables PG-9 PG-39 Post Cold Fonning Strain Limits and Hcat-Trcatment Reqmremcnts Minimum Number of Threads pcr Conncction ( ( 4

252 PART PW General PW- General.... B3 l\ latcrials PW-5 General. ncsign PW-8 PW-9 P\V-0 PW- PW-3 PW-4 PW-5 PW-6 PW-9 General. Des gn of Welded Jmnh. Heat Treatment. Radiographic and Ultrasonc E\:!llltnalillll of \\'cllkd Butt h'lll!' Head-to-Flangc Rcquircment\. Openings in or Adjaccnt to \Vt'lds Welded Connecoons... Minimum Requircments for Auachment \\'elds. Welded-in Stays... Fabrication P\V-26 PW-27 P\V-28 PW-29 PW-3 PW-33 P\V-34 PW-35 PW-36 PW-38 PW-39 PW-40 PW-4 P\V-42 PW-43 General... Welding Proccsses. Welding Qualification and Wcld Record:.. Base Metal Prcpamtion.. Assembly... Alignment Tolcrance. Shdls and Vessels ( lncludng Pipe or Tu be Ust'd a<; a Shell) Alignment, Tu be and Pipe. Finished Longitudmal and Circumferential Joints. Miscellaneous Welding: Requrements. Preheating.. Requirements for Post\\'eld Heat Treatment Repair of Defects... Circumferential Joints in Pipes. Tubes, ;md Headers.. Joints in Valves and Other Boiler Appurtenances. Loading on Stmctural Attachmcnts. 97 ~S 9S 9S \l lnspection and Tests P\V-46 General.. P\V-47 Check of Weldmg Procedure. PW-48 Check of Welder and Welding Operator Perfonnance Qualificatlons. PW-49 Check of Heat Treatment PractiL'C.!

253 PW-5 P\\'.52 PW-53 PW-54 Acceptance Standards for Radiography Acceptancc Standards for Ultrasomc E\ammation. Test Plates. Hydrostatic Test lis Figures PW-9. PW-9.2 PW-6 PW-6. PW-6 2 PW-9.4(a) PW-9.4(b) PW-43. PW-43.2 PW-53. PW-53.2 PW-53.3 Buttwclding of Plates of Unequal Thtcknes'. Prohibued Welded Joint. Load-Carrying Paths in Wclded Nozzle.-\ttachments.. Sorne Acceptablc Types of Welded Nozzles and Other Conneclions to Shells. Drums, and Headers Sorne Acccptable Form<; of Weid'> for Lugs. Hanger~. and Brackets on Shclh, Drurns. and Headers Some Acccptable Types of Dtagonal Braces for lnstallatwn by Welding. Unacccptabk Types of Dwgonal Braces for lnstallation by Weldmg. Chart for D~.:tcrmimng Load F<Jctor, Ll. ~kthod of Computation of Attachments to Tubes Test Spccunens Frol\l Longttudtnul Wc!ded Test Platc~ ivlethod of Fornung Longitudinal Test Plate:.. Dctails of Test Spccimen'i l} (_ Tablcs P\\'- PW-33 PW-39 Re4uitt:Li RadiOgraphll und Ultt:.t'\0\H: E.\:.t!lllll.ltion oí \\'dtlcú Butt jomt:-. Altgnment Toleran<.~ of Sectiom to Be Buttwclded. r-..-tandatory Rcquircment:. f0 Po<>twc\d Hcat Treatmcnt 0f Ptc:.surc P.ub 36 and Attachments.. 00 PW-39. Altctnate Postweld Hcat Ttcatment Requuements for Carbon and L(lW Alloy Stccl'i. 07 PW--B Tubc Attachmcnt Anglt: Dc:-.ign Factor, K. 2 82

254 PART PR REQUIREI\ENTS FOR BOILERS FABRICATED BY RIVETING rvlanufarturcrs usmg riveted con:'truction ::;hall usl' the 97 Edition of ScctiOn l. Boders or pans tht;rcot constructcd by using riveted construction \'ljlllrc thcuse of thc applicab\c Manufacturcrs Data Repon Fonns ~s includcd in thc 97 Edllion of Secuon l. 9

255 PART PB General PB- General l\laterials ( PB-5 PB-6 PB-7 General. Brazing Filler Metals... Fluxes and Atrnosphcres Design PB-8 PB-9 PB-0 General. Strength of Brazed Jomts. Brazed Juint Efficiency PB-4 PB-5 Apphcation of Brazing Filler ~letal Penmssiblc Types o! Jomts. i2j 24 Pll-6 Jomt Clearance. 24 PB-7 Jomt Brazing Procedure 2-f Pll-8 Opening~. 2-l PB-9 Br.tzed Connectiom.. 26 Fabrication PB-26 PB-28 General Qualification of BrD-zing Procedure PB-29 PB-30 PB-3 Qualification of Brazers and Brazing Operators Cleaning of Surfaces to Be Brazed. Clearance Between Surfaces to Be Brazed PB-32 PB-33 Postbrazing Operations... Repair of Defecuve Brazing ( Inspcction and Tests PB-46 General PB-47 PB-48 PB-49 Check of Brazing Procedure Brazer and Brazing Operator. Vi ;;ual Exanunation Exemptions PB-50 Exemptions

256 Marking and l~cptlrts PB-5! General. Figure PB-5 Sorne Acceptable Types of Brazcd Jotnb...! 25 Tables PB- PB-6 Maximum Design Temperatures [ F ( C)/ úr Braltn,!; Ftlk~ Recommended Joint Clcarance at Rtazmg Tt'mpcr.tlll!l'. \letal. rn 25 2

257 PART PB REQUIREMENTS FOR BOILERS FABRICATED BY BRAZING Pll- GENERAL GENERAL PB-. Scope. The ruks in Part PB are apphcable to pressure parts of boi!ers. including piping constructcd under the provisions of this Section. that are fabncated by brazing Thesc rules shall be used m conjunction with the general requtrcments in Part PG and thc specific requiremenrs m the applicable Parts of tis Section th~h pertam to the type of bo!lcr undcr considcration. The rules in Part PB are not applicable to nonpressure beanng anachments to pressure parts lhat ha ve essentially no lo<id-canying function (such as extended heat transfer surface, msulation support pins, etc.) Pll-.4 Responsihility. Each Manufocturer (Certificate of Authorization Holder) is rcsponsible for the brazing done by hi~ organization and shall establish thc procedures ~md conduct thc tests reqturcd by Section IX. and when ncce~sary thosc req0red by thts Section to qualify thc brazing procedures used in the construct!on of brazed as"cmblics and the performance tests of brazers 2 who apply thcse p0cedures. Such bra7.ing will ordinarily be done by cmployees of the rvlanufacturer who accept~ thc rcspur.sibl!ity far Code con:.tructwn of the bot!cr or part bcing brazed. Altemativcly, the :víanufactureí may pcrforrn Cüdt brazing using ihc ser\'ices of indt\'idual brazcrs who are not in his cmploy provided all thc followlllg conduions are met. ( ',, PB-.. Definition of Brazing. A group of wclding processes that produces coalcscence of materials by heating them to the brazing temperjture m thc presence of a filler metal having liquidus abovc 840oF (-l50 C) ond below the solidus of thc base metal The filler metal is dtstributed between the c\osely fittcd faying surfaces of the jomt by capdlary action. PB-..2 Brazmg processes that are permitted for use under this Pan are classified by method of heating as follows: (a) torch brazing; (b) fumace brazing; (e) inductíon brazing; (d) resistance brazing; (e) dip brazmg - salt ond flux bath. PB-.2 Elevated Temperature. Ma\trnum design temperature is dependent on the brazing filler metal and on the base metals being joined. The maximum design temperatures for sorne brazing filler mctals are shown in Toble PB-. PB-.3 Service Restrictions. Brazed components may be used for servtcc up to the tempcratures as shown in Table PB- proyided acceptable qualification tests are performed. ~tbility Pll-.4. All Code constructíon sholl be the responof the Manufacturcr PB-.4.2 All brazing shall be performed in accord :.mcc with Manufacturcr's brazing proccdurc specifications that have bccn qualif\cd b~ thc Manufacturer in accordancc v.nth thc rcquircment:; of Section IX and when neccssary, ba~cd on dcsign tempcrature, with thc additional requtremcnts of this Section. PB-.4.3 All brazers shall be qualified by the Manufacturer m accordancc with thc requirements of Section IX. Pll-.4.4 The Manufacturer"s quahty control systern shall mclude the following ::ts a mmtmum. Pll-.4A.I A requirement for complete and exclustve admtmstratjvc ::tnd technical superviston of all brazers by the Manufacturer. PB-.4A.2 Evidencc.of the Monufacturer"s authonty to assign and remove brazers at hts discretion without involvernent of any other organiz::ttion. ~l:mufacturcr tnclude~ contrac!or, A!>.\o:=mhler, and mstaller. 2 Brazer me lude~ brjling operator. ' \ 22

258 PART PWT General PWT- General. 30 l\ l:.llt rioll<; PII'T-5 General... -\. 30 Dl sign P\VT-8 PWT-SI P\VT-0 PII'T- General Tu bes and Ppc.. Tu be Wall Thickncss. Tube Conncction.s.! P\VT-2 P\\'T-3 P\\'T--+ PWT-5 Stayhollmg BoA Type lcager". Staying Segmem uf Head~. Firing Door.-. Acce!-.S and Frring Door.~ jjj Figurt's P\\"T- P\\"T-2. PWT-2.2 E.\amplc~ of Acccptablc For ms of Tu be Attachmcnt Box Typc Hcader Jornt. Mcthod of Forrnmg Watcrlcg Joints hy Wcldrng Tablc PII'T-0 Maximum Allowable Wurkmg Prcssurcs for Scarnles!-. Stcel and Electric Rcsistance Welded Steel Tubes or Nipples f(lf Watt"nubc Boilers. Where E:\panded Into Drums or -feaders. for Diffcrent Diameters and Gages of Tubes Confonmng to thc Requircmcnts of Spccifications SA-78 Grade A. SA-92. and SA ! 29

259 PART PWT REQUIREMENTS FOR WATERTUBE BOILERS PWT- GENERAL GENERAL The rules m Part PWT are applicablc to watertubc boilcrs and parts thereof and shall be used in conjunction with the general rcquirements in Part PG as we\ as with the spccial requirements in the applicablc Part" of this Section that apply to the method of fabricatwn used. The rules in Part PWT do not apply to extemal p:ping. PWT-5 GENERAL MATERIALS P\VT -5. Materials u sed in the constructlon of pressurc parts for watertube boilers shall conform to one of thc specitlcations in Section II and shall be lunitcd to those for which allowablc stress values are givcn Tables A and B of Section II, Part D, for Sect0n construction or as otherwisc spectfically pennitted m Part PG and Part PWT. PWT-5,2 Mud drums of boilers shall be of either wrought steel or cast steel as designated in SA-26. PWT-8 GENERAL DESIGN The rules in the followmg paragraphs apply spccifically to thc destgn of watertube boilers and parts thereof and shall be used in conjunctton with thc general requirements for design in Part PG as well as with the specific requirements for design in the applicable Parts of this Section that apply to the method of fabrication used. PWT-9 TUBES AND PIPE I,\VT 9. Economzcr. boilcr gencrator. and super heatcr tubes :;hall comply wnh thc ~pcciflcatit)ns as - listcd in PG-Y. P\VT 9.2 Seamless stee\ pipe not cxceedmg NPS! 2 (DN 40) complving with SA-53 or SA-06 may be threaded into the tubeshect. drum, or "stccl fittmg of a watenube boder. Stee\ fittmgs. f uscd, rnust fui! y CUVe! the thre,lds. I,\\'T 9.3.-\ wbe in which a fusible plug is to be installed shall be not less than 0.22 in. (5.6 mm) in thickness at the plug n order to sccuc four fui! threads for the plug (See also A 20.) PWT-0 TUBE W.-\LL THICKNESS P\VT.}O.l The minimum tubc wa\ thckncss at thc maximum allowable workmg prcssurc for carbon or alloy steel tu bes or mpples subjccted to interna! pcssurc for watertubc boilers. economizers, and supcrheatcrs shall be detemined in accordance with PG PWT-0.2 Where the outside d~ameter of a clfcular boiler pressure part c'ceeds S m. (27 mm), the mmimum thickness shall be dctcrmined by the formula in PG PWT-0.3 For wbes of the materials listed in its title, Table P\\--0 may be used in lieu of thc formula for detcrmimng the rmnimum wall thickness of tubcs where expanded mto drums or headers. pro\'lded thc maximum mean \'.'all ternperature docs not exceed 700 F (37 'C) PWT- TUBE CONNECTIONS Tubes, pipe. ond nipples may be attached to shells. heads. headers. and finings by one of the following mcthods. ( ( 30

260 P\\'T-4 PART PWT - REQUIREMENTS FOR \'.'.\ TERTü~E BOILER> J'WT-5 o / FIG. PWT-2. BOX TYPE HEADER JOINT / l : j -+ tn. (02 rr.m) max. / '/ '/ /. p/2 0 All other doors, except explosion doors, not used in the firing of the boiler may be provided with bolts or fastenings in lieu of self-locking latching devices. Explosion doors, if u sed and if located in the setting \valls within 7 ft (2. m) of the finng ftoor or operating platform. shall be provided with substantial deftectors to di ven the blasl P\VT-5 ACCESS ANO FIRING DOORS The mínimum size of an access or fire door openinf!. in which the mínimum fumace dimension is 24 \. (6 O mm). shall be not less than 2 in. x 6 in. (305 mm x 406 mm) or equi, alent area, in. (280 mm) to be the lcast dmension in any case. A ctrcuial opcning shall be not less than 5 in. (38 mm) in diameter. FIG. PWT-2.2 METHOD OF FORMING WATERLEG JOINTS BY WELDING For fumacc dlllll'ilsjons le:;" tlwn 24 (60 mm). thc upemng. ~houlj be ::.: m. x 3 / 2. (70 mm x :'9 mm) or l~ugcr whcrc pls::oiblc. In ca~es whetc thc SIZC 0 :-;hapc of thl' boi!cr pohiblts an üpelll!l); of th~\t sizc. [\\\) opcnin~-: with.l lllj!limum ~izc or i in (25 mn, '! m ay be u::-eu. prl'r'c: ::b!y opprosac ca eh,~thcr, tn pcnmt inspccltlm and ~-. lcamng of the furnacc. lf the burn.:-r JS remo\ ablc so.ls to pcrmn in~pcction and c!caning through thc burner opcning. a separare accc~:; opcning necd not be fko\'ijed 35

261 PART PFT General PFT- General... ~lateriab PFT-5 General. l>t.. sign PFT-8 PFT-9 PFT-0 PFT- PFT-2 Genctal. Thtckne:-.s RequiJemcnb Sbcll Joint\.. Attachmcnt of llcad-; and Tubc.\ht:d\. Tu bes Ctlmbustitlll ClwmiJcrs PFT- J PFT-4 PFT- 5 PFT-6 PFf-7 PFT-~ PFT-'-.J PFT-20 PFT-2 CornbustJon ChambcJ Tubc<;hcct General Plain CiJcular Furnaces. Adam,on Type.. Rmg Rcnforced Typc. Conugatcd Funaccs Combined Piain Circul.u.tnd Co u_gatcd T'pc. Attachmenl of FurnaL.::- Ftrebo:ü:' and Watcrleg~ U -U -l- \-l) Srayed Surfaces PFT-22 PFT-23 PFT-24 PFT-25 PFT-26 PFT-27 PFr-2~ PFT-29 PFr-30 Pl7f-3 Pl-T-3~ General Working Pre.\.'.urc fot Staycd CLn ved Surtaces Staying Honzonta Rcturn Tu he Botlcr\. Staymg Scgmcnt\ of Hcath. Aea Supportcd by Stay Maximum Spacmg Staybolt.\ and Sta)'\. Flextblc Staybohs. Crown Bar.\ and Girdcr Stay\ Stay Tubc~ Stres:-.es in O!agtHWI St:l) ~ 4) -l) -7 -l. S 4S 4S )0 50 )() 5 ) Doors and Opcnin.!.\ PFT---0 \Vcldcd Doot Opening<;. \36

262 PFT-4 PFT-42 PFT-43 PFT-44 Opcnmgs in \\'rapper Sheet:.. Fireside Acc~~s Openings Rcqurremcnts for Inspccuor Opemngs Opcning Betwcen 8otler and Safety Valve 52! Domes PFT-45 Rcqurrements for Domes.. 53 Setting PFT-46 Method of Suppor 53 Piping. Fitting:s, and Applhmt cs PFT-47 Water GtlS\>C'> PFT-48 PFT-49 PFT-50 PFT-5 Fecd Ptpmg. Blowoff Ptptng Thickncs:. of Furn.ce" and Tu be~ UnJer Exter::3! Prc~sure. \-laximum Allowabk Workmg Pre-;..,ure Figures PFT-2. PFT-6 PFT-7.2 PFT-8. PIT-9 Pf T-20 PFT-2 PFT-23. PFT-25 PFT-27 PFT-32 PFT-46. PFT-46.2 Somc Accqnablc Fotlll:. ot Tu be Atl~lchmcnt on Frrctub~ Huiler". Ad;.umon Type Fll!nace Corl\lnrctton.. Acccptablc Type of Rtng ReinlurceJ Furnacc Mor i:-.on FU! nace. ConnCCl\0 nctween Plain.md Comtgated Fu mace. \Vclding Ogcc Ring tvcthod of Formrng Watcr!eg Jomt:. by Wcldmg. Stayed Wrapper Sheet r.f Locornotm.~ Typc Boiler. Example of Staymg of lkad::. t\d)acent lo e~ lmdttcal FUrní.lCC.\ Pttch of StayhoJt<; :\dpcenr to Uppcr Comer:- of Firehoxes Measurement~ for Delenntntng Strcsses t 0.tgonul Stays. Spacing and Weld Detaib for Wall-Support Lugs Sct tn Patr\ on Honzontai-Rcturn Tubular Botlcr~. \Velded Bruckct Connection for Honwntai-Return Tubular Boilers 40 l-l2 42 -l:\ S

263 PART PFT REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRETUBE BOILERS PFT- GENERAL GENERAL The rules in Part PFf are apphcablc ro tlrctubc boilcrs and part<> thcreof and shall be used in conjunctton with thc general requirements in Pan PG as well as wtth thc spccific requircments in the apphcabk Parts of this Section that apply to the method of fabrication used. PFT-5 GENERAL MATEI~IALS PFT -5. Materials used in the constructton of prcssurc parts for tiretube boilers shall conform to one of thc spc:.:ifications givcn in Section Il and shall be limited tu thosc for which allowable stress values are given '" Tablcs A and B of Section. Part D. or as othcrwisc spccifically perrnmed m Pa!l PG and Part PFT PFT-5.2 Watcrleg and doorframe rings of vertical firctube boilers and of Jocomotive and othcr typc boilers shall be of wrought iron or steel, or cast steel as designated in the SA-26. The ogec or other llanged construction may be used as a substitute in any case. PFT-8 GENERAL DESIGN The rules in thc following paragraphs apply specifically to the dcsign of firctube boilers and p;ms thereof and shall be used in conjunction with the general requirements for design in Part PG as well as with the.;pecific requiremcnts for design in the applicable Parts of this Section that apply to the method of fabrication used. 38 PFT-9 THICKI\ESS REQUIREMENTS PFT-9. Shcll and Dome. Thc thickncss aftcr formmg shall be as deremuned in accordancc with thc ules m Part PG but sh:ll not bl' les..:; than thc valuc~ ~hown m thc following rabie ln\h.ie Dtarnctt.:r nf Shell 0 Dome.. tnmll J( (94) or undt>r Ove 36 (Sl4) to Ovc:r 54 (] 372) \(l 7'2 ( l 82 ) On-r 72 ( l 829) I'FT-9.2 Tubcsheet ~lllllllllllll (\) /4 (6 4) ;;lh (~ (}) Tlw:!..JI('~-.. ~:~ { lj.5) /~ ( 2 7 PFT-9.2. Thc thjck.nt'ss shall be as dctcrmincd in accordance with Pan PG ami Part PFT but sh.ll not be less than the values g_ven in thc following table. ln~idc Dtameter of She. tn. (mm) 42 ( 067) or under Ovcr 42 ( 067) to 54 ( 37~) O ver 54 ( 372) 0 72 ( 8::!9) Over 72 ( 829) ~ltrnum Tha:!..nl'~~- (!ll!ll) '~~ (l),)j 7 / r, ( 2) /~ (!2.7) "!, (4.3) PFT When buttwclded to thc shcll of a firctube boiler. a formed tubesh~et with a straight flange longer than (. times the tubcsheet t!hckness shall ha ve a straight flange thickness not less than that spcc!íled the tablc in PFT but n no case less than 0.75 rimes the thickneso:; of the shell to which it S attached. PFT-0 SHELL JOil'\TS Longitudinal and ctrcumferential welded joints of a shel\ or drum shjii comply with the rules in Part P\V. (

264 ( PART PFH OPTIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FEEDWATER HEATER (WHEN LOCATED WITHIN SCOPE OF SECTION RULES) ( PFH- A fecd,vater heater is a hcat exchanger in which feedwater 0 be supplied lo a boilcr is heated by steam or water extracted from the boiler or thc prime mover. \Vhen such a feedwater heater IS.located \Vithin thc iumt ot' Scction I piping. as detinej by PG it falls within the scope of Section I rules. \Vilh this arrangcmcnt. the fcedwater heater may be constructcd in compliance with Section VIII. Divsion l. subject to the followlflg conditions. PFH-. The feedwater heater shall conform wllh Sccuon VIII. Division rules for unfired steam boilcrs IUW-2(c)]. PFH-.2 The maximum allowablc working pressure of the primary (feedwater) side of the hcater shall be not Iess than the design pressure requirements of ASME 83., para PFH-.3 The dcsign t;:mpcr,nur( of thc tubc:-; :-;hall be not les>; than thc salllr.hed '>tc.lm temper: ture corrc:o; punding to thc maximum al]o\\.lb le workwg prc~~urc of thc shell. If the ~team cntcrin;_.: thc shell side of the fccdwatcr heall'r rs super hc~ncd. thc Je.-.i~n tcllpl'ratuic of thc tubc<.; I!l thc dc~u;'~rhcatlllt', zone shal! be not le~s than the s.nurat0n tcmpcr.nurc COITL'Spondm~ to!!~:-:imtlm ~!l(mable :,b~'n _; i..k ''úrkin ; prcs~urc plus 35,F ( I9 CJ. PFH-.4 ThL' fecd\o,.'atcr hcatcr 'hall be stampcd \\ ith thc AS~ le Codc "U" "ymbol :uhl be documcntcd with thc ASME U- Data h>rm. PFH-.5 A nameplatc pcr UCI-9 sh~\ bt.' furni:-:;hed and sln\ show rile additinnal.: formatlon "ami Pan PFH o( Secoon " PFII-.6 Thc ~ta,tcr D.Ha Rcp0 for thc complcted boilet unit (using Manuf.Icturcr~ Data Report Form P-2, P-3. P3A. or P-S. as applicable) shall indicatc "Feedwater heater con~tructed to Scction VIII. Division, as pcrmnted by Part PHI. \ \_ 58

265 PFT-5..2 PART PFT - REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRETUBE BOILERS l'ft-5..4 than 4, the value of A shall be calculated using the following formula:. A = (i5jt}' For values of A grcater than 0.0, use a valuc of 0.0. Step 2: Using the valuc of B obtamed in Step, calculate a value of Pa using the following formula: 2.67 ] P,, = [ D,lt -O 0833 R Step 3: Calculate a valuc of P 2 uswg the following formula:?-,=-- 2Su [ --- l CI- D,.II D,/t where S 8 is the lesser of 2 times themaximum allowable stress values at desgn metal tempcrature from Tables la and lb of Section. Pan D: ot,.8 umes the yield strength of the material at Dcsign Metal Temperature from Table Y - of Scction. Pan D. Step 4: The smaller of the valucs of ', calculated in Step 2. or P, 2 calculated Stcp 3 <hall be used for the maxtmum allowable externa! pressurc Pw ( P a is smaller than P. selcct a larger valuc for t and rcpeat the design procedure untd a Yalue for P is obtained that is equal to or grcater than P. PFT-5..3 The design prcssure or maximum allowable working prc~sure shall fhh be less than the maximum expected dtfference m opctaung prcssure that may exist between the outsde and thc Sde of the fumace or rube at any time. PFT-5..4 \\'hen IHO:l'e.ssary, fu maces shall be provided with stiffencrs or other addiuunal means of support to prcvent l'l\'cfsti"l'~~ or brgc dtstortions under the externa! loadmg~ listej in PG-2:?. other than pressure and temper.uure 57

266 PART PMB General PMB- General.. 60 PMB-l Scope l\.atcrials PMB-5 Gt:ncral. 60 Design PMIH GcncLJ[. 60 PMB-9 Wclding. 6 PMB-0 Washout Openings.. 6 PMB- Feedwater Supply. '" llll PMB-2 Blowoff.. 6 PMB- 3 \Vat~r Gage~ 6! PMB--l Ft"tures and Fittmg<;.. 6 PMB-5 Safety Valvc~. 6 PMB-6 Steam Stop Valves 62 PMB-7 Autnmatic Dcvtce~. 62 PMB-2 Inspcctton

267 ( PART PMB REQUIREMENTS FOR MINIATURE BOILERS PMB- GENERAL GENERAL Thc rules in Part PMB are apphcable to miniature boilcrs and pjns thercof and shall be used in conjunction with the general requirements in Pmt PG as well as with the spectal requirements in the applicable Parts of this Scction that apply to the method of fabrication used. PMll-2 SCOPE This paragraph contains special rules of construction for miniaturc boilcrs only. Thc classification miniaturc apphcs to boilers that do not excecd the following Jimits: 6 in. (406 mm) inside diameter of shell 20 sq ft (.9 m 2 ) hcating surface (not applicable to electric boilers) 5 cu ft (0.4 m 3 ) gross volumc, exclusive of casing and tnsulation 00 psig (690 kpa) maximum allowable working pressure Where any of the above hmits are exceeded, the rules for power boilers shall apply. If the boiler meets the miniature classification, the rules in this paragraph shall supplement the rules for power boilers and take precedence over them when there is conftict. Pl\\-5 GENERAL MATERIALS Pi\IB-5. Materials used in the construct!on of pressurc parts for miniature boilers shall confom to one Thi" gro~s volume is intended to mclude such gas passages as are tntcgral wlth thc a\~emblcd pres,ure pan~ and a definition ~. the vo!ume of a rectangular or cyhndrica\ enclosure mto whtch all the pressure part" of the boikr in ther final assembled positions cou\d be fincd Projecting nou.lc:' or fitting'> need not be con~tdered in the volur.je of the specificat0ns in Section and shall be limited to those for which allowable stress values are given in Tables A and Il of Scctton. Part D, unless specifically permmcd in the other applicablc Parts of this Section. rr,ul-5.~ Steel platc-s subject to pressure in any pan of a mmiaturc boile shall be of pressure vessel quahty. Thc plates for shclls or hcads shall be not less than /4 m. (6 mm) m thickness. cxccpt that seamless shells shall be not less than :Y c,. (4 ~ mm) in thickness. Hcads used as tubcsheeb. with tube~ rollcd in. shall be at least.5; 6 in. (8 mm) thickness. Pl\!B-5.3 Steam boiler pans of not ovcr 600 cu tn. (9.83 m 3 ) in volume may be cast from copper alloy complying with requirements of SB-6 or SB-62 of wall thickn~ss not lcss than / 4 in. (6 mm). Such steam boilcr parts shall be cquipped with at least one brass washout plug of not less than / 2 in. ( 3 mm) and shall be tested toa hydrostatic prcssure of 600 psi (4 40 kpa). PMB-5A Heads or parts of miniature boilers, when not exposed to the drect action of the fire. may be made of cast iron or malleable iron provided it complies with a specification penniued in ths Section. PMB-5.5 Due to the small size of parts of miniature boilers, the requirements of Jdentification, PG-77., need not be met, provided the Manufacturer certifies on the Data Report accompanying the boiler that the material is in accordance with the requirements of this Section. Provisions shall be made by the Manufacturer whereby he shall be able to supply complete information regarding thc material and details of construcuon of any boiler built under the provisions of this Code. Pl\-8 GENERAL DESIGN The rules in thc following paragraphs apply specifically w the design of miniaturc boilcrs and parts e \_ 60

268 PART PEB General PEB- PEB-2 l'eb-3 General.... Scope.... Optional Requirements for the Roi!cr Ptc'>wrc Vc..,<;e] i\l<.~tcrials PEB-5 General. 64 Dcsign, PEB-8 PEB-9 PEB-0 l'e!l- PEB-2 l'ell-3 PE!l--i l'eb- S PEB-6 PEB-7 PEB-8 PEB-9 General. \Vdding. n~pectio!l" Openings. Fcedwater Supply... Bl('WOff. \\" ~Her Gages... Ptessure Gage.s S, fety Valv6. Automatic Devices. Hydrostatic Test... ln.spection and Stamping of Boilcr'> tvlanufacturer:-;' Data Rt'port fnt Elcctr ic Butlers !65 i

269 ( PART PEB REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BOILERS l'eb- GENERAL GENERAL The rules in Part PEB are applicable lo electric boilers and parts thercof and shall be used in conjunction with the general requiremcnts in Part PG as well as with the special rcquirements in the applicablc Parts of this Section that apply lo the method of fabrication used. PEB,2 SCOPE PEB~2. This Part contains special rules for construction of electric boilers both of the electrode and immersion resistance element type. This Part does not include electric boilers where the heat is applied lo the boiler pressure vessel externally by electric resstance heating elements, induction coils, or other electrical mcans. These types of clectnc boilers shall be constructed in accordance with other applicable Parts of this Section. l'eb-2.2 Electric boilers shall be marked with the "S" or "M" symbol (except when lhe boiler pressure vessel is constructed under the provisions of PEB-3) by the Manufacturer of the boiler pressure vessel. When the trim, fixtures, and fitlings such as valves, threaded piping, and appurtenances are connected to the electric boiler by a Manufacturer not authorized to apply the "S" or "M" stamps, the boiler assembler shall apply an "E" stamp to the completed assembly. "E" stamp holders are limited to the use of assembly methods that do not require welding or brazing. l'eb-2.3 An electrode type boiler is defined as an electric boiler in whtch heat is generated by the passage of an electric current using water as the conductor. PEB-2.4 An immersion resistance element type boiler is detined as an electric boiler in which heat is generated by the passage of an electric current through a resistance heating element immersed in water. PEII-3 OPTJONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BOlLER PRESSURE VESSEL The boder presc;ure vesscl may be con!-:.tructcd m_ compltanct: wnh thc ASME Prcssurc Ycsscl Codc Section VIII. DiYiston l. rules for unfircd stearn boiler$. [U\V-2(c)] suhj::-ct to the following condttions PEB-3. Thc Manu(acturcr who ccrtifics anj stamps the completed boiler shall spccify to thc.. u starnp holder a\ additional rcquiremcnts of Part PEB. whch are not rcquucmcnts of Section VIII. Dtvt!-:.ion. and sha\ ensure th.lt thcsc requircments are sattsfied. PEB-3.2 Thest addiuonal rcqlllrcmcnts are: PEB-3.2. The materials of construction shall comply witlt the requtrements of PEB-5. ;tnd PEB-5 3. PEB Inspection opcnings!-!hall comrly wnh thc requtrements of PEB-0. PEB-3.3 The boiler pressurc vesscl sha!l be swmped with the AS~!E Code u" symbol and be documcntcd with the AS~!E U-l or U-lA Data Report. PEB-3.4 The master Data Rcport P-2A for the Electnc Boiler shall indicme "Boiler pressurc vcssel constructed to Section \'. Division as permitted by Part PEB." l'eb-5 GENERAL l\ la TER!ALS PEB-5. Materials used in the construction of pressure parts for electrk boiiers shall conform to one of the specifications m Secuon and shall be lirmted to!hose perrmtted by PG-6, PG-7, PG-8, and PG-9 for which allo\vable stress \'alues are given tn Tables A and 8 of Section ll, Part D. unless specifically permttled in other applicable parts of this Section. ( i. 64

270 I'EII-9 PART PEil - PEB-9 RE()UIRE,\IE:\TS FOR ELECTRIC lloiler;; \-IANUFACTURERS" DATA REI'ORT FOR EI.ECTRIC BOILERS PEB l9. This rorm Cün'lists nf (\\'0 parts. Part is to be comp!ctcd by tht: t'vlanufacturer or the boilcr prcssurc vc~sel \vho.;;; thc holder of the "S" or "M" stamp and hs inspection agcncy Part s to be complctcd by thc Manufactun:r rc~ptlnsible for thc complctcd clectnc boilcr who sha!l be authonzed to use any of the "S." "ívl" or "E" stamps. PEB I9.2 \Vhcn thc boilcr prc~sure \'CSscl is constructcd by <l tr"' stamp holder and ccrttticd on a U- or U- A Dat:t Re port. Part :-.hall be complctcd hy the s: "!\:t: 0 E '>tamp holde to thc extcnt indicc.hcd n Guide A-35. I'EII

271 PART PVG General PVG- General I\laterials PVG-5 General ( Dcsign PVG-8 PYG-9 PYG-0 PVG- PVG-2 General.... General Requirements... Gage Glasses.... Drain Valves.... Safety Valves Figure PVG-2 Constant e for Vapor Related to RatiO of SpccJtiC Heab. (: e,.,/(,.) 70 68

272 FORM P-2 MANUFACTURERS' DATA REPORT FOR All TYPES OF BOILERS EXCEPT WATERTUBE ANO ELECTRIC As Required by the Provisions ot the ASME Code Rules. Section Manufactur&d by 0) (Name and adrlfess of w.anulacturer) Manufacture<! for 0 (Name ano naaress of purcnaser) Locatton of Jnst&ltatcon (Namo ana aadress) Type 0 Boller No --;:::::::;-;C:::::::-:::--;--- Y ear Buril.::'; (HAT, etc.) {Mir's. Sena! No) (CAN) (Orawng NO.) (Nal'l Boara ~>V.) 5. The chemlcal and physlcal propertles ol au parts mee! lile reqwrements ol matenal s~cif catlons olt/0 AS~ ~E BOILER AN.D PRESSURE VESSEL COOE. The aeslgn, constructlo/, and workmanshlp conrorm to Secon or tte ASME Boller and Pressur.: \'t:r.súl COJ.:> ----;::;0~'':;---- Addenda to. and COde Cases ,===, (Yoar) (Date (Numoers) Manufacturer's ParUaJ Data Repons properly wcntiijed ana Sgnea by Cornnussmneo lnspectors urt:> anactl<'"~ ror ttle too.- ng lloms ot!/lis roport ~--~~ ~~~~~==~~~ (Namo ol part, om nurnbor. mtr's name and ldün!tyng stampl 6. snous or drums _@ (\) (no) (mal't. spec gr.) [lhlckness (n JJ [{J a (0)) (tcnglh. ns,lü) [dij (ID)) (longth. lllsidc) 7. l[j e [long (seamtess. wotded)j [ofiicicrlcy (as compared to scarnlcss) j [grtr (seamtess....,~~.:~~d)j (no ol shcll courses) B. Heads (Matenal SpeciiiCüiiOrl No Tlucknoss ri.jt Dsned. Elllp~Oid<ll 9 Tubesheet 8 Tuoc Hales ~-, CMan Spec.,_Grade, Thckncss) ua) 0. Boller Tubes. No. (Mal'! Spec. Grade) (S:rar~.'lt or 8en!) o, ;;;-:=:::e::-. length Ga ugc -----;---,-,-,---.,--,----- ( vanous, gjve max & tnln) (or ltuckncss) Fum.:~.ce Stze Lengtn, caen secton,;o ~ ' {0.0 orw x H) Type (Piam. AOamson, Rlrlg llcnlorccd, Corrugawd, Comt.Jnled. or Staycc) -----c~~~--~qy~'-c-c~~--~---seams Type ~ (Mai'J. Spoc., Grade, Thlckncss) (Searntess. wetccu) 2. StaybOits No ,, ~@" 'o-:::::\0": ~::-;::::@=' '-,-:-:c==-:-=:-:c= Pltch ---;:::---;-:-:--=--;---- MAWP ----"'----- P" (Hor. and Vert) 3 Stays or braces: (DiiJ, Ma!'l Sp!!c Grl](lü, S Ze Telltale. l>o::t Area) Matenat N" "nd M O< F>g PFI-32 Dos!. Twbts MAWP Lo~:aflon Spec. No Type Sle Ptch L/ 0 sr.~ll psi () F H. above (b) R H. above tubes (e) F.H below lubes (d) R H below tubes (e) Through says (f) Domo bra~:es 4. 0her Pans.., ~ ,., (Unel Descnpnon e. Domú. Boller PpHlg, etc.). 2 3 (Ma!'J Spec, Grado, SIZC, Malürr3 ThiCknoss. MAWP) Ths form (E00068) may be ootanea 0m the ASME Order Dept.. 22 Law OriVe. eo~ :.?300. rarfcta. NJ ~5

273 Form P SECTION Form P-2 (Back) ( 5. Openlngs: (a) Stoam ----:---;;;:-;;:::==@7,::,:::;-, (b) Safety Valve ;;;:-o;:;:--;::;;-~;: ~--~ ~.--~ (e) Bloworr ---;,.,--,o-~-=-,----,,-,---- (d) Feed -----::-:,-=-o---:c~-:-:c= (No, Slzo, Type, ana LocaUon) (No. Stze, Typo, ana Localloo) (o) Manholes: No. Size LocaUon (f) Handhotos: No. Size Locallon FUsible P!ug ( Used) (No., Da. Loca.llon, Mtr's Stamp) 7 Boller Supports: No Type ---,.,--=----,--,--- Attachment ,-c-----,=-:-:: (Saaates. Legs, Lugs) (Bortea or Wotded) 6 MAWP -----"'-----psi Basea On ---,=:,-;=--:'@'f-:=-=-- Heallng (COdo Par. anajor Fonnula) (Total) "'" 9 Shap HydrosatC Test ps g 20 Maxmum Desgne< Steammg Capacty lb/hr 2 Acmarks e ~ CERTIFICA TE OF SHOP COMPLIANCE Wo certlry that!he statements maae In thls data repon aro correct ana lhal all detalls ol deslgn, matenal. constructton. and workmnnshlp _ol thls boller conform lo Soctlon of!he ASME BOI!..ER ANO DFlf.:SSU 0 E VES SEL CODE Our Cercato ol Authorlzatton no lo uso tne (S) symbot expres c]i) Date Slgnoo ~:~.. rno (Authortzoo Reprosontatlve) CERTIFICA TE OF SHOP INSPECTION e Bo ter constructea by, IM undo~jgnea, hotamg a valla commsson ssuea by the NatJonat Board al Boller ana Pressure vessel lnspectors andjor the stale or provlnce ol a.nd al havo lnspec\ed pa.rts of lhls bojier referred lo as áata ltems and havo examtned Manulacturers Par! la! Dala Reports lo Uems constructo<! thls t>ollor In accoraance w\h Soction Of lte ASME BOILEA ANO PRESSUAE VESSEL CODE and state ltlat, 0!he besl o! m y know!eoge and bellel.the manufacturar has By slgnlng lhls corcae nalther the lnspéetor nor tus omploycr makes any warranty. expressect or tmplled, coocomtng!he bollar descrtbed In \!lis Manulacturer's Data Report Furttlermore. ne tner me Inspector nor his employer snall be fiable ln any manner lar any porsonalln(ury or property da.mage ora toss of any klnd ansfng lrom or connectea wl\h ltlls tnspect on. Da lo Slgnea Commlsslons A.rtnon:ed lns~\0<) (Na,n Board ~ncl <mdorwements), Slale, Pr~nce, arw: CERTIFICA TE OF FIELD ASSEMBLY COMPLIANCE i \ We certlfy lhat lhe lletd assembty constructlon ol all pars of thls boiler confarms wtth the requtrements ol SECTION of \he ASME BOJLEA ANO PRESSUAE VESSEL CODE Qur Certllcate o! Authorlzallon to use tne (A) or symbol expires DaiO SJgned Name (AI.JtllOml'd (Assembter) i ' 26

274 APPENDIX Form P-2 Form P-2 (Back CERTIFICA TE OF FIELD ASSEMBLY INSPECTION,!he underslgned, holding a vatld commlsslon lssue<f by the Na!lonaJ Board el Bollar and Pressure Vesset lnspectors ancl/or IM state or province ol and emptoyed by ~~---;;; -- llave compared statements In this Manufacturer's Data Report w tila descnoed boller and state thal!he parts relerred te as dala ltems 8l not tnctuded In!he certlftcal6 of shop lnspcchon. llave t>een tnspected by me and that te tne t>esl ol my Knowtedge and bello!!he manufacturar andjor the assembter has constructed and assembled thts bocter In accordance wllh tne appllcable secuons of!he ASME BOILER ANO PAESSURE VE SS EL CODE. The descrlbed bollar was tnspected and subjecled toa hydrostallc test el By sgntng thls certlflcate nethet \M Inspector nor hls emptoyer makes any warranty. expressod or lmplted, concemlng the bollar descriood In lhls Manutacturer's Data Repor. rurtermore. nelthertho Inspector nor hls employer shall be Hable In ony manner lor any personal tnjury or property damage or a loss ot any klnd ansjng trom or connecoo wuh thls lnspecllon Dale Slgnoo ~:-;=::::-:;-;::::-::::::: Commlsslons-;:-;:-::;-;;-:::-::;-.,-:;-::::::::::::~ ':"0:;--;;::;:-;;=:::::-::::~;:;- IAulhollled Jnspeclof) (Nafl Board (ncl o:tno~menl5), Sate, PCMnce, and No.] psl 27

275 A SECTION A-35 GUIDE FOR COMPLETING MANUFACTURERS' DATA REPORT, FORM P-2 (See PG-2.2.) G) N ame and address of Manufacturar, i.e., maker of all components not covered by Partial Data Reports. 0 Name and address of purchaser and/or owner. 0 Name and address of location where boiler is to be installed. lf not known, so indtcate (e.g., "Not known-built for stock"). 0 Show type of boiler documentad by this Data Report. ldentificatton of boiler by applicable numbers lf intended for tnstallation n Canada, indtcate the Canadran Design Registration Number and drawing number. Year in which fabrication was completed in shop Date (year) of Section Edition under whtch boiier was constructed. lssue date of most recent Addenda to Sectton under which boiler was constructed (e.g., "990"). To be completed when one or more components comprislng the boiler are furnshed by others and certfed by Partial Data Report(s), Form P Show quantity and inside dimensions n inches lf more than two shells or drums are u sed, enter data in Line Show the complete ASME Material Specification No and Grade as listed 0 the appropriate stress a!lowance table in the Appendix of Section (e.g., "SA-285 8"). Exception A specfcation number for a material not dentical toan ASME Specification may be shown only if such materal meets the cnteria in the Foreword of ths Section. When material IS accepted through a Code Case, the applcable Case number shall be lndicate type of Show joint efficiency for welded Same Show number of furnace~ For cylindrical furnaces of the Adamson, ring remforced, and combined types, show length of each sccton and total length. For other types, show total Jength For stayed (firebox) type furnace, also complete Lme lf threaded, show diameter at root of Minimum cross sectional area after deducting for telltale hale. Maximum zllowable working pressure for the stayed area calculated according to the rules contaed m Part PFT. Type of stay or brace, e.g., diagonal, girder, through, See applicable paragraphs and figures in Part PFT. List parts not covered elsewhere on the Data Report. lf insufficient space, attach a supplementary sheet (Form Tabulate data for parts listed on Line Show data for main, auxiliary steam outlets, and feedline connections only. Does not apply to small openings for water columns, controls, vents, drains, instrumentation, orto openings for connectlons interna! to the boiler such as risers, downtakes, or Maximum allowable working pressure established in accordance with Show Section paragraph which applies tothe weakest part ofthe boiler as established by calculation or deformation Boiler heating surface calculated in accordance with Hydrostatic pressure applted in accordance with PG 99 and witnessed by the Authonzed Inspector. To be completed and signed by an authorized representatve of the Show Manufacturer's ASME Certificate of Authorizaton number, kind of symbol, and date of expration of said Thts certificate to be completed by the Authorized fnspection Agency representative who periorms the in-shop nspection. e ' 28

276 .-\PPENDIX To determine what goes in the space, you should be guided by the followrng Natonal Board Stamped Bolers and Pressure Vessels (see Form P-2 Ltne 4) After "and/or State or Province" rn the certrfication blocks- lf the Inspector has a va lid commission for the state or province where the r:.. mufacturer's shop is located, msen the na me of that state or province. lf the Manufacturer is located in a non-code s:jte or poov mce, 'rnsert the na me of the state or province where the Inspector took his origmal examinatron to obtan hrs Na'.0nal Board Comm Jss" on, provided he still has a va lid commission for that state or province. Otherwrse, if no vald commssion. show the name of the state or province where he has a va lid commssion authonzing hrm to ma~e the shop mspection. Boilers and Pressure Vessels Not Stamped Nationaf Board Follow the above procedure. However, in this case do not lst any Natronal Board Commisson number after the lnspector's signature at the bottom of the lndicate in this space the data items covered on Form P-2 on Lines 6 @ lndicate by Line numbers those items furnshed by other and for whrch Partai Data Reports (Form P-4) have been examined. The lnspector's Natronal Board commission number must be shown when the boler S stamped Nationa! Board; otherwise show onty his state or provmce commiss ron number. above) To be completed when appllcable, and sgned by an authorized representatrve of :ne organrzaton responsible for feld assembly of the boiler. Show assembler's ASME Certrfcate of Authonzaton number, knd of symbol, and ca:tj of ex maton of said authorization. Th"s certificare to be completed by the Au:horized lnspectron Agency represent8il :.: who p~rforrns the fe\d assernbty inspection. 29

277 Form P-2A 200 SECTIO~ FORM P-2A MANUFACTURERS' DATA REPORT FOR ALL TYPES OF ELECTRIC BOILERS As Required by the Provisions of the ASME Code Rules, Seétion PART -- To Be Completad by lhe Manufacturar ot lha BoUer Pressure vassel. Manufacturad tly 0 (Nama ana aadress of manufacturar of bollar prassura vessel) 2. Manufacluradfor ~~~~c-~q)~--.~~~-c (Nama ana adóress of purchaset) J. Locallon of lnslallal/on ,,.--c-'0~ 3 :...,..,...-, (Name an(j addrass) Type ----;:::::;::;:::::::--::20:=:::-:o=::::::::;-- Boller No ;;=:-';: '::::::-e-:-: ,., 0''':-::----- (reslstance elemenl, electrode) (Mfr's. Sena! No.) (CAN) ;;:='.: '::-,;:-; ::;::::;:-.;: :::,-=, ,- Year Bullt := '---- (Orawlng No.) (Nat'l Brd. No.) 5. The chemical and physcal properues of au parts meet the requirements of Material Spedflcatlons of the ASME BOlLE A ANO PAESSUAE VESSEL CODE. The deslgn, construcllon, and wo<manshp confonn to Seclon t of the ASME Boltcr and Pressure Vesse/ Code 0 Addenda lo, and Code Cases (yaar) date) (Numt>ers) Manufacturer's Partial Data Reports propeny klenlifled and slgnea by Commlsstoned lnspectors are attacm<i lar \he louowing \ems of thls report Shells or 0) (Name ol part. tem numt:>er, mtr's name and ldentlymg stamp) (no) (mal'! spec. gr.) [lhlckness (n )) oa {0)) (tcngtn. msde) [Ola {ID)) (longth, lnslde) 7. Jolnts --=:::-=:-::':@'=::-e::==,- ---;====-=="@'=::c:-:c,-,-c:-==::-:-- --;:,=-:-c:-:-:c7"@'c:--==--=:--::=:::-==::::;-- llong (seamless, wetded)j [etllcjency (as compared to seamless)j [glrh {seamless, welcted)] (no. or she\ courses) B Heads ~~~-o~--c-c-----~c-~-c-cc---~--~c-e7c-~ (Mal't Spec. ~o tnckness!la!, CShe<l, clllpso ctat radlus of ctsh) 9. Other Parts "@' ==~---c--:-:~--:---: (Bnel aescnphon l. e, dome. botter ppng, etc) G ~ 2 ' ~=~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (Mal'l. Spec, Gr, sze. malenaj th ckness, MAWP) 0. Openlngs. (a) (b) Safety Vatve (No. stze, and type) ,(7N~o-.. -,~ z~,-.~en-=-=d~-ype::-:c) ~ {e) B!owot ;-:;-:---;,---,-:-,--,------<dl Fecct =----:----:-c:-7--,::-:-c, (No.. slze. anct type) (No, szo. type and toca!lon) (e) Manholes. No Sze Locauon () Hanctholes: No S2a Locauon (g) EtementsfEtectrOdes No Sze Locauon Boter Suppors: No Type ,,-,=-,--:----:=-: (sactdles, legs, tugs) Anachment -,~~~~~~c (OOtted or welcted) 2.MAWP ~~ ~----psl ~edon ~~~==~~7=~~~~ (Cocte para. and/or formula) 3 Shop Hydrostatrc Test,@, ps g 4 Maxmum Desgned Steammg Capacty 0/hr 5 Remarks ( (. CERTIFICA TE OF COMPLIANCE OF BOILER PRESSURE VESSEL Wo cery tho statements in Par olthls Data Repor to be Correct. Our Certr!cate ol A.ulhonzahon No ,_,--- ~ ' lo use the (S) or (M), ~ SymOOI expires @~' ' Date Sgned -----~:::::=:::--;;:::::==:::::::----- Name ;::;:,-::;-;:,=:-=::::::::::-c::::::::;;---- (A.uthonzed Aepresenta!lve) (mlr. of bol\er pressure vesser) Tns lorm (EOOt20) may be obtatned lrom tne ASME Orcter Dept, 22 Law onve. Box Faltteld, NJ

278 Forlll CERTIFICA TE OF SHOP INSPECTION OF BOILER PRESSURE VESSEL BOILEAPAESSUAEVESSELMADEBY al l. ltle understgned, tloidmg a valfd commrsslon lssued by the Natronat Board or Bollar and Pressure Vessellnspec!ors anajor \he S tale or Provrnce and emptoyea by ,o;: have lnspcctoo parts ol thrs Dorler pressure vessel retened toas dala ncms -, ~@~''' and havo examinad Manufacturer's Partral Dala Acports lar \cms :@~'' and slale that, lo!he bes! of m y knowledge and belref,!he manulacturer has constructoo lhrs t>orler pressure vcsselrn accordance wrlh!he applrcadte secuons Ollhe ASME BOILEA ANO PRESSUAE VESSEL COOE By slgnlng lhrs certrrrcate nejihor!he Inspector nor hrs emproyer makes any warranty, expres~ed or rmprred. concernrng tilo borler pressure vessel descrlbed In lhls Manufaclurer's Data Roport. Furthcrmore. nerthor lile Inspector nor hrs employer shaij bo!rabie In any manner lar any personal Jn ury or property damage or B loss ot any klnd arlslng from or connecled wrth thrs lnspectron Oala ;-,-,, ,-.,---::-:-; Commrsstons -:-:-,-c:;:--;:--;--:-c,--c,.-::;-:-:c-:'2~::,)'-:c::c--;:;:-.:-;-c:c-:::::::--:::::;-;:;-::-;- (Aulhonz&d Inspector) Nal'l Board (rncl endorsomenls). S!ato. Provrnce. and No l Part -To Be Completed by the Manufacturer Rcsponsrblc lar tne Completed B0ler 6 Piptng Val ves [ll (a) (b) (C} llem Srze S oh Spec. Steam Pipe Feed Wa!er Feod Water Btowott Bolted, Threaded, or Welded Srze Type Ra!lng No Stop CheCk 7 Safely Valves(s) No Srze Set Press Total Capacr y lb/hr r8 MOallng Etements JnstaHed. Ouantlly kw Total EleclrOOes Ouantrty kw Total Hydrostalrc Test of Complele<l Borter CERTIFICA TE OF COMPLIANCE OF COMPLETED BOILER We certuy lhatttlfs compteled Doller conlorms wrl/ /lc requm:>mcnls ol SECTION of ltle ASME BOILEA ANO PRESSURE VES SEL CODE Our Certrfrcate ol AUihonzatron No éjl lo use tfle (S). (M). or (E) 0J Symbor expires @~"" Date Slgnea, -::c-:::c:-::::::-====-::c-----by --;;:=::-::= (AI.ltnorrzod A.o>prcsentatrve) (ASsemDier) CERTIFICA TE OF SHOP INSPECTION OF COMPLETED BOILER BOILER MAOE BY ni , lhe undersfgned, hotarng a valla commlsston lssued by!he Natronal Board of Ballet and Pressure Vessel tnsp<!ciors andjor!he State or Provlnce of 8 ana employea Dy or ,,---- and tlave mspected!he compleled barrer and have examrned Manulacturor s Parta! Data Reports fur and state lhat, lo the bes! of my knowtedge and be!ref, lile M.'inulacturer has constructed lhrs borjer tn accordance wrth!he app!rcable secllons ol the ASME BOILEA ANO PRESSURE VESSEL COOE By slgntng thls cer'llltcate nerther the Inspector nor hrs emplo 'er makes any warranly. expressed or mplred. concemmg the borler dcscrrt>ed rn thrs Manufacturer's Data Re port. Furtllermore. nellher!he tnspeclor nor rus emptoyer sllall be llable rn any manner lar any personal Jn ury or propcrty damage ora toss of any krna arrsrng trom or connected wrth this mspeclton Orue ;::-c;::o:::::::-;::::::::::c; Commrssrons (Authorrzed Board (rnct endorsem*nts). State. Provtnce. and No J

279 A SECTION A-35. GUIDE FOR COMPLETING MANUFACTURERS' DATA REPORT, FORM P-2A (See PG ) 0 Name and address of Manufacturer, i.e., maker of all components not cave red by Partal Data Reports. When the boiler pressure vessel is constructed by a "U" symbol holder and certified on a U- or U-A Data Report, indicate on fine "Boiler pressure vessel constructed to Section Vlll, Division, as permitted by Part PEB," and attach the U- or U-A Data Report. 0 Name and address of purchaser and/or owner (to be completed by the Manufacturar of the completad boiler). 0 Name and address of location where boiler is to be installed. lf not known, so indicate (e.g., "Not known-built for stock") (to be completad by the Manufacturar of the completad boiler). 0 Show type of electric boller documented by this Data ldentfication of boiler by applicable numbers. lf intended for mstaltaton in Canada, indicate the Canadian Design Registration Number and drawing number. The Manufacturer of the boiler pressure vessel shalt apply the ASME Code symbol stamp and the National Board Number when requ_red. lt S his responsbilty to complete Part of the Data Repon, and forward t with the vessel to the company who will apply the trim ("E" symbol holder). The Manufacturer responsible for the tri m and completed boiler shall complete Part ofthe Data Report and f the boiler s to be stamped "National Board," forward the or~gmal Data Report to the Natonal Board for registraton. ( Year in which fabrication was completed in shop. 0 Date (year) of Section Edition under whch boifer was constructed. 0 lssue date of most recent Addenda to Section under whch boler was constructed (e.g., "990"). 0 To be completed when one or more components compnsng the boler pressure vessel and furnshed by others and certifed by Partial Data Report(s), Form P-4. Show quantty and inside dimensions in inches lf more than two shells or drums are used, enter data in @ Show the complete ASME Material Specficaton No. and Grade as lsted n the appropnate stress allowance table m the Appendix of Section (e.g., "SA-285-B"). Exception: A specifcation number for a material not identical toan ASME Specification may be shown only if su eh material meets the criteria n the Foreword of this Secton. When material is accepted through a Code Case, the applicable Case number shall be shown. lndcate type of joint(s). Show joint efficiency for welded joints. Same as@ above. Ust parts not covered elsewhere on the data report. lf insufficient space, attach a supplementary sheet (Form P-6). Tabulate data for parts listed on Same as@ above. Show data for main and auxillary steam outlets only. Does not apply to small openings for water column, controls, vents, Maximum allowable working pressure established in accordance with PG-2 or Secton Show Section paragraph which apples to the weakest part of the boiter pressure vessel as established by calculation or deformation test. Deleted. Hydrostatic pressure applied in accordance with PG-99 and witnessed by the Authomed To be completed and signed by an authorized representative of the Manufacturer. Show Manufacturer's ASME Certificate of Authorizaton number, kind of symbol, and date of expration of said authorization. This certifica teto be completed by the Authorized lnspection Agency representative who performs the in-shop inspection. ( 222

280 .-\I'PE:-..'Dl To determine what goes in the space, you shou/d be QUided by thc following National Board Stamped Boifers and Pressure Vessels (sec Form P 2A LC 4) After "and/or State or Province" n the certficaton b!ockslf the Inspector has a valid commisson for thc state or province where the Manufacturer's shop IS located, nsert the name of the state or provnce.!f the Manufacturer is located in a non-code state or provincc, nsert thc na me cf the state or provnce where the Inspector took hs orgnal cxamnation to obtain his Natwnal Board Commisson, provided he still has a val id commission for that state or province. Otherwse, f no val id commission, show the name of the state or province where he has a valid commission authoming him to make the shop inspection. Boilers and Pressure Vessels Not Stamped National Board Follow the above procedure. However, n this case do not list any National Board CommiSSIOn number after the lnspector's signature at the bottom of the block. lndcate m this space the data items covered on Form P-2 on Unes 6 lndicate by Line numbcrs those items furnished by othcrs and for whch Partal Data Rcports (Form P-4) havc been examned The lnspector's Natonal Board commisson numhcr must be shown when the boiler IS stampccl "National Board"; otherwise show only his state or province commisson nurnber (See above \ Whcn pping IS supplied wth the bollcr for steam, blowoff, and fecdwatcr, complete this secton. When welde<i ppmg S suppled by another stamp holder, leave blank, c.md provde seoarate Fonn P-4A. Complete t/lis sectlon when valves are furnished wth the boilcr. To be completcd and signed by an authonzed reprcscntatve of thc organiz;:ltion responsjic for assem!jiy of thc boder Show ASM E Ccrtfcate of Authonzaton number, kincl of svmbol, and date of said authonzation When the boder prcssure \'tjssel!s constructed by a "U" symbol holdor and cc!tifl~d on a U- or U-A Data \cpolt, thc "E" :>ymboi hoider shall complete lines through 4 of Part This certificatc ro be cornpleted by the Authonzed lnspecton Agcncv rcprcsentative who periorms thc in-shop nspcction Lcavc b~ank where fnal shop mspcc!lon s not rcqlmed as perrnlttcd by PEB-8. lndcate this space if the welded piping is furnshcd by others ~nd s covcred on Form P-4A.

281 Form P SECTION FORM P-3 MANUFACTURERS' DATA REPORT FOR WATERTUBE BOILERS, SUPERHEATERS, WATERWALLS, ANO ECONOMIZERS As Required by the Provisions ol the ASME Cede Rules, Section MASTER DATA REPORT (Check one) YESO NOO. ManWactu~~ ~~~~~G)~ ~~~~~~ (Nam and llddr u ot manulaclur r) 2. Manufactured for -,:,--,.-.- -::-;;;-::::;;:;:;; (Name and address of purc;huer) 3. locauon of lnllllllalion "':::::::: :::;::::;::; <t Unlt ldentlflcallon ---,;;;;;;;;;;;;-;;0~ ;,-;;;;;;c; ;;;; ;;--ld Nos (Complete boler, auperheater, waterwall, eeonomlzer, etc.) (Name and &d~eu) (M!(s Sena! No.) (CRN) {Drii.\Ying No ) (Nan. BOard No ) (Yeat Suoltj 5. The ehemlcej and physleal prop.rtles ot ah parts m"t the requlrements of matenal speclhcii.loont olthe ASME BOILER ANO PRE~URE VESSEL CODE The dtllgn, conj~ructlon, I.Od worutlanshlp o:onfotm to Sectlon o/ \ha ASME Booleo and Poessute V u l Code ,;Ql~'s ~ ( ~~") Add ndato "' ~c andcodecas.s ~CC~~c IDate) {Numbers) Supp*rng Manulacturer's Data Repens properly odentlfoed and sogned by Commssooned lnspectors are auached fo< the lollowong uems of thos report {Ntma ot part, tem number, mlfs nam. and Jdenlltying stamp) ( ( - - No. ' Tube Hol LJgam nl Shell Platas Tut>esh-ts El!oc;oency,,. [OSidt Ooametar, lns d length Mat'I.S~ No, Thockness, lnsd Radous, Th c ness lnsode Radous, longi\u Clreum ft Grade don al ler~tntlal '" " " '" '" ' longotudlnal Corcum. 6 "' ~~ Jolnts Joontl Effi Elf No. N;~ c~ency coen-ey ' "lndou.ta () Seamleu; (2} Fusoon -ldftd 6{b) Boiler Tube Olatni!l~tr Thleknns Man SPK Ms.l't. Soe< No, 6(e) Mud Orum --:C..-;c:"c,-:~,C:':,7"C,é'oc -,_=_,,_."";:,.=,---- (For s.eet. header boilftlt. Stale S ze, SniPI!, Mal'l. tpi!c. no.: Thocl!.n~ttt) Thlcknen. '" Heads Hydro- Re.Jous Manholu llllllc Typa ot Dosh No. Sozft Test, ~» 6Y_ lnd C&Ie ~ () Fla!, {'2 Doshftd, (J) Ethp~odal, (4) Hi!mttph neal. S(c) Headers No. ~ '--.,- ::.. c(jc (Bo or sonuous or rour.d, Mat'l spec:. no., Thocl!.nftss) e' --,:-"oc'-:;;--:--,.--:--;,.:@':::-:::, Heads or Ends _c@"oc--' '--,.-@0 =---- Hroro Test, ps,9= ' snapa, Mari spac no ; Thoc~<.n u) S(d) Staybolts ----=-o:--:-:---:c---;,-:-=:=,-.,-:cc:::;-:;::-;c::;-:=::; (Mart. spac no.. Onln>&ter, S.ze l~t!ltala; Nat atea) Potch tn Nel Arel! tn 2 MAWP {H~ and Vart) (Supportftd by one bol!) Heads Hydro Test, psl t9 (Shape, Mal'!. s~ no: Thocl!.neu) 7(al WaterweU Hftade" Heads or Ends 7(b) Walerwall Tubes... Mat~tnlll Thoeknen, Thockn~tss, Mat~tllal Hydro. Cka.mater, Thicl!.nen, M&!ftf'I&J No. Slz~t and Shap~t Spa.c;. No. Spae. No in. Spec No Test, ps '" '"- '" 6{a) Econom z~tr H ad"" 8[:>) Economlz~tr Tubel Thts rorm (E00069) may be oblatned rrom lhe ASME Order Depl., 22 Law Dnve. Box 2300, Falrfleld. NJ \. 224

282 APPENDIX Form P 3 Form P-3 (Back) 9(~ Supertleater Headelll Heads or End Q(b) Superhealer Tube MatertaJ Thlcl<ness, Thlckneu, Matenal Hydro. D ameter, Thckn.u, MatertaJ No. Slze &lid SheJ:~ Spec. No. lo. Spe~:. No Test, psi. lo lo. Spee. No. """" '" <i3j -~" ~ "~ 6<) IO(aj Other Part () ~ (3J 0(0) Tublttllor Other P.n. Openings () Sleatn :Vl::'---;>J;;"--;r;;;--,;;;;;-;;;;;:;o;;@S;;;;;--;;;,=;;;2@~--- /Q No., s ze, ano type of noues o~utts) (3) BlowoN -----'""'"---.,.,,.--,=-:::c==:c""=="""'==c (No., s ze, ano type o/ noules or oullels) Code Par. and{or Ma.xmum Allowable Formula on Whoch Shop Hydro > Worlung Pressure MAWP 5 Based Tesl, PSI Bo ler b Walerwall ' Economzer d Supefheater Other PaJ Heang Surlace, "' HO!&! ng surtace lo be stamped en / { CII'\Jm heads } j Th s heallng surlaee nol lo be us.xj for de!ermoning mni / mum salety valve capacrty. 3 Feld Hydro. Test, pil 4 Maxmum Desrgncd Steamrng Capacrty lb/hr 5 Remarks CERTIFICA TE OF SHOP COMPLIANCE We certlfy lhat lhe statements made In thls data reportare corree! and that a!l aetarts ot desrgn, malerral, construclron, and worxmanshlp olthls boller conlorm to Secllon olthe ASME BOtLEA ANO PRESSURE VES SEL CODE. Our Ccrtllrcate ot Authorlzat/on to use ttw Symbal Date Slgned N ame {Authorrzed Aepresentatrve) (Manufacturer) ' BOILER MAOE TE OF SH0 INSPECTION l. the undcrsrgned, holdrng a valld commlsslon lssued by!he Nalronal Board of Oorlcr and Pressure Vesset lnspcctors and/or the sial e or provlnce and employed by al havo lnspecled parts olthrs boller relerred lo as dala and have examined Supportrng Manuf<Jcturcr ~ Data Reports for rtems and statc lh<lt.to!he bes! ol m y knowledge ana beuel,!he Manutacturer has constructed lhls boller In accordancc wrlh Sectron of!he ASME BOlLE A ANO PAESSUAE VESSEL CODE By slgnlng thls certrflcate nel!her the Inspector nor hrs employer makes any warranty. expressed or lmplred, concernlng lhe bollar descrbed In thrs Manutacturer's Data Roport Furthermore, nerther the Inspector nor hrs employer shall be trable m any manner for any personal Jn)uryor property dama e or a ross of any klnd arlslng from or connected wrth thls rnspecuon Date Slgned Commtsslons (Authonzeo Inspector) {Nan Board (rncl endorsem*nts), State, Ptovlnce, and No.] QJI CERTIFICA TE OF FIELD ASSEMBLY COMPLIANCE We ccrtlty thatthe fleld a.ssembty ot all parts of thrs borler conforms wrth!he requtrements ot SECTION t olthc ASME BOJ LEA ANO PAESSUAE VESSEL CODE. Our Certlflcate ol Aulhorlzallon to use the (A) or Symbol Date Slgned N ame (Aulhorrzea Representatrve) (Assembter) 225

283 Form P SECTION Form P-3 (Back Cont'd) (,, :: :: CERTIFICA TE OF FIELD ASSEMBLY INSPECTION. the underslgned, holding a va/id commtsslon lssued by lhe Nallonal Board of Boller and Pressure Vessel nspecors and/or the state or provlnce ,,-- halle comparea statements In lhls Manulacturer's Data Report Wl\h thedescrtbed bollar and state thallhe parts relerred lo as data not lncluded In the Certtftcate ol Shop tnspecuon, have been lnspected by me and that to!he bes! ol my knowi&dge and emptoyoo by and bellelthe Manufacturar andjor lhe assembter has construeled and assembled thls bollar In accordance Wlth the appllcabte secttons of the ASME BOILEA ANO PRESSURE VESSEL COOE. The aescrtbed botlet was tnspected e.nd subjeded lo a hydrostallc test of psi. By sjgntng thts certtflcate netther the Inspector nor hls emptoyer makes any warranty, expresse<:l or lmplled, concemlng!he boller descrtbe<l In thls Manufacturer's Dala Report. FurtMnnore, nellher the Inspector nor hls employer shall be llable In lii'iy manner for any per.;onal tnjury or property damage ora loss of any klnd artstng from or connected Wlth thts lnspedlon. Date Slgned, -::-::-:--;--.,-:-:---,-,---- Commlsslons._--::c-:::-::--c-:--;-----c-@""'"--:-:--;::--:--:::-:-:--~:-c-:-;-- (Aulhorlntd Inspector) (Ne.l'l. Board ~ncj endonements), StaJ.e, Provlnce, lltld No l e.{,_, :.. ( e '''! _ 226

284 APPENDIX r\-352 ' A GUIDE FOR COMPLETING MANUFACTURERS' DATA REPORT, FORM P-3 (See PG-2.2.2) Na me and address of Manufacturer, e., maker of all components not covered by Supportng Dau Reports N ame and address of purchaser and/or owner Name and address of location where boiler is to be installed. lf not known, so mdcate (e.g., "~:-! known-bult for stock") Name the unit documented by ths Data Report Note that this report may cover a complete bol~r unt or separate component items {e.g, superheaters and economzers) fabricated by a manufacturer other than :he Manufacturer of the boiler unit. ldentification of boiler by applcable numbers. lf intended for mstallation in Canada, indicate the Canadan Design Registration Number and drawr~g number. Year in which fabrication wns completed in shop. Date {year) of Section Edition under which boiter was construcied lssue date of Addenda to Section under which boller was constructed (e g. " 990") To be completed when one or more components compnsing tlle bo-lier are furnrshed by others, anc: supported by Data Reports such as Forms P-3, P-4, and P-4a, as Show the complete ASME Material Spedfrcation No. and Grade as listed in the appropnate stress allowance table rn the Appendrx of Sect0n (e.g., "SA-285-8"). Exceptron: A specrficat0n number for a maten al not IC:?ntrcal toan ASME Specifrcatron may be shown on/y lf su eh material rneets ttle entena Hl the Foreword of thrs Sectror When materral is accepted through a Code Case, the applicablc Case nurnbcr shall be Nominal thickness of the Minrmum thickncss aher Radrus on concave srde of Shop hydrostatic test, ir any, applrea' to rndivraual part prior to test apolred to the assembled borler (s:>e Unes 2 and 3). @ Outside diarneter Mínimum thickness of tu bes. This space for headers not covered on Lrnes 7(a) tlrrough 0(a} lt rs rntendcd prrmarrly for sectional headers on strarght tu be watertube boilers. lndrcate stlape as flat, drshed, ellipsoidal, or hemispherrcal. Use insrde drmensions for size. lndrcate shape as square, round, etc. Show data for m él in, auxítrary steam outlets, and feedlrne connecuons only. Does not apply to srnall openings for water columns, controls, vents, drains, instrumentatron, orto openrngs for conncctions rnterna! to the borler such as rrsers, downtakes, or downcomers. Size is nominal pipe size. Descrrbe type as flanged, weldrng :eck, etc. To be completed and sgned by an authorized representatiye of the Manufacturer. Show Manufacturer's ASME Certificate of AutllOrrzatron number, kind of symbol, ano date of expiration of Thrs certificare to be cornpleted by the Authorized lnspectron Agency re prescntatjve who performs the i n-shop rnspection. To determine what goes rn the space, vou should be gurded by the fol!owing Nationaf Board Stamped Boilers and Pressure Vessels (see Form P-3 Lrne 4) Aher "and/or Sta te or Provrnce" in the certifrcation blockslf the Inspector has a va lid commissron for thc state or provrnl:e where the Manufacturcr's shop rs located, rnsert the na me of that state or provrnce. lf the Manufacturer rs located rn a non-cacle state or provrnce, rnsert the na me of the state or provrnce where the Inspector took his orrginal examination to obtain his Natronal Board Commission, provided he still has a val id commisson for that state or province. Otherwrse. if no valrd commissron, show thc name of the state or provrnce where he has a valid commissron authorizing him to make the shop inspectron Boilers and Pressure Vessels Not Stamped National Board Follow the above procedure. However, in this case do not lrst any Natronal Board Commrssron number after the lnspector's signature at the bottom of the block. 227!~ '! \ \

285 (,. A SECTION lndicate the Data ltems covered on Form P 3 on Lines 6 through 4. lnd.icate by Une numbers those items furnish~d by others for which Supportng Data Reports h:av_~ been exammed. The lnspector's National Board commission numbermust be shown when the boileris stamped Natiorial Board; otherwse show only his state or province commission number. (See above.) To be completed, when applicable, and signed by an authorized representativa of the organization responsible for feld assembly of the boiler. Show ASME Certificate of Authorization number, kind of symbol, and date of expiration of said authorization. This certificate to be completed by the Authorized lnspection Agency representative who performs the feld assembly inspection. lndcate those items on Line 6 through 4 of Form P-3 inspected in the field that were not inspected in the shop.. List parts not covered elsewhere on the Data Report. lf insufficierit space,_attach a supplementary sheet (Form P-6). \ C.... o~..:- : ::_. ) (... -: 228 J

286 ( ó,. /i ~ FACULTAD DE IN<:;ENIERÍA l.jnai'v. DIVISIÓN DE EDUCACIÓN CC>NTINUA "Tres décadas de orgullosa excelencia" B " " '!J DIPLOMADO EN INGENIERÍA DE CALDERAS Y RECIPIENTES A PRESIÓN MÓDULO IV : MATERIALES, SOLDADURA Y CALDERAS DE POTENCIA TEMA: CUDADO DE CALDERAS E JNSTALCIONES TfPJCAS EXPOSITOR: ING. ASCENCION CASTAREDA CANO SEDE: PALACIO DE MINERIA MAYO 2003 Palacio de Mineña, Calle de Tacuba No. 5, Primer piso. Delegación Cuauhtémoc. CP 06000, Col. Centro, México D.F., APDO Postal M-2285 Tels: al24, y Fax:

287 DIPLOMADO EN INGENIERÍA DE CALDERAS Y RECIPIENTES SUJETOS A PRESIÓN MODULO',;~, MATERIALES, SOLDADURA Y CALDERAS DE POTENCIA TEMA 2: CUIDADO DE CALDERAS. Contenido: a) Procedimiento para la puesta en marcha de calderas. b) Precauciones durante el proceso de arranque. e) Indicadores importantes en la operación de calderas. d) Recomendaciones para el cuidado de las calderas. Antes de iniciar el desarrollo del tema, les quiero mostrar a través de diapositivas, lo que le sucede a las calderas al no tener cuidado en su operación y/o mantenimiento. Vamos a dar inicio a nuestro tema, considerando que tenemos instalada una caldera nueva tipo tubos de fuego y que ya fue probada en fábrica. Además que tiene su equipo auxiliar completo y que durante su montaje e instalación, se cumplió con los siguientes requisitos: Requisitos legales. Actualmente se tiene la norma oficial mexicana NOM-22-STPS-996. Relativa a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene para el funcionamiento de los recipientes sujetos a presión y generadores de vapor ó calderas que operen en los centros de trabajo. Puntos a considerar:.- Tener por escrito un manual de seguridad e higiene para la operación y mantenimiento de la caldera, sus accesorios y dispositivos. 2.- La caldera debe ser instalada en lugares en donde los riesgos sean mínimos.

288 3.- La caldera se encuentre en piso firme y nivelado capaz de soportar el peso muerto de la misma. 4.- El equipo debe de estar libre de impactos, con suficiente ventilación. Para una ventilación adecuada, el cuarto de calderas deberá estar provisto de áreas de escape de aire caliente en la parte superior del cuarto de calderas, y de áreas para la admisión de aire fresco, necesario para ventilación del mismo y para la combustión. 5.- Debe contar con iluminación general y complementaria: En caldera 60 Luxes como mínimo. En quemador 00 Luxes como mínimo. En cabezal de vapor 60 Luxes como mínimo. Área de manómetros 00 Luxes como mínimo. 6.- Espacio mínimo de.5 m entre el techo y la parte más alta de la caldera. 7.- Espacio mínimo de.0 m alrededor de la caldera. Requisitos técnicos del equipo..- Tener espacio suficiente ya sea por la parte delantera o trasera, para poder cambiar los tubos flux. 2.- Es necesario que el cuarto de calderas cuente con un sistema de drenaje, con registros en: centro de la caldera, en la zona del equipo suavizador y en las trincheras en caso de que existan. 3.- Para la descarga de las purgas, se recomienda un tanque separador centrífugo o una fosa de purgas. 4.- Dentro del tablero de la caldera tener una copia del diagrama eléctrico de la misma. La Instalación comprende: REVISIÓN DE LA INSTALACIÓN.- Sistema de alimentación de agua...- Toma de agua a una presión de 2 a 3 Kg/cm 2 ( ver manómetro).2.- Equipo suavizador de agua ( simple o doble).3.- Tanque de condensados con sus accesorios y altura adecuada, para producir así una carga positiva en la succión de la bomba y evitar la evaporación del agua al funcionar ésta. Se sugieren las siguientesalturas del tanque de condensados con respecto a la línea de centros de la bomba, cuando la temperatura del agua exceda a 82 C (80 F).

289 Temperatura en ac Altura en m. 82 a o más 93 a o más 96 a o más.4.- Bomba de alimentación de agua. La conexión entre el tanque de condensados y la bomba, deberá ser de por lo menos el mismo diámetro de succión de la bomba, teniendo un filtro lo mas cercano a ésta y una válvula tipo compuerta..5.- Tubería de alimentación de agua desde la bomba hasta la toma de la caldera conservando el mismo diámetro de descarga de la bomba; Además debe contar con una válvula tipo globo lo mas cercano a la caldera y junto a ésta una o dos válvulas de retención. 2.- Sistema de alimentación de combustible Utilizando combustóleo Tanque(s) de almacenamiento general. Su instalación se rige por la norma oficial mexicana NOM-005-STPS-993,, Bomba de trasiego. Tubería aislada con la tubería que conduce el vapor para el precalentador del tanque de combustóleo Tanque de día Bomba. de alimentación de combustible al quemador de la. caldera, incluye filtro en la succión y válvulas de control manual. '' Precalentador de vapor y eléctrico ( pueden estar separados o en una sola pieza ), con accesorios y controles para el control automático del vapor y de la temperatura la cual se eleva a 93 C, esta temperatura puede variar dependiendo del tipo de quemador Línea de atomización, dependiendo del fabricante de la caldera, ésta puede ser con aire o vapor Se utiliza piloto de gas L. P. o natural Utilizando gas natural. ( Las instalaciones de gas natural se rigen por la nonna oficial mexicana NOM-SECRE ) En la caseta que esta dentro de las instalaciones de la empresa se regula el gasto y la presión requerida; Se conduce hasta el cuarto de calderas. /.o,,, V,. ',. -r~ :!..... :t~' 4

290 Dentro del cuarto de calderas, se tiene: Una válvula de corte manual, un manómetro de rango adecuado y un regulador que nos baja la presión del gas a la requerida por el quemador Después del regulador esta el tren principal de gas y el quemador Se utiliza piloto de gas natural Utilizando gas L.P. ( Las instalaciones de gas L.P. se rigen por el proyecto de norma oficial mexicana NOM-004-SEDG- 998, 0.0. del 20 de enero de Tanque(s) de almacenamiento Vaporizador( es) con su tanque trampa. (Si son necesarios) Banco de regulación. Se baja la presión del gas L.P. normalmente a.5 Kg/cm Se conduce el gas L.P. a la presión mencionada hasta dentro del cuarto de calderas Dentro del cuarto de calderas se tiene un segundo regulador llamado de 2a. Etapa que-baja la presión del gas L.P. a la requerida por el quemador de la caldera Antes del regulador mencionado, se encuentra instalada una válvula de corte manual, un filtro y un manómetro de rango adecuado Después del regulador de 2a. Etapa, se encuentra el tren principal de gas L. P. y el quemador de la caldera Se utiliza piloto de gas L.P Utilizando diesel o gasóleo Tanque(s) de almacenamiento general. Su instalación se rige por la norma oficial mexicana NOM-005-STPS Bomba de alimentación de combustible al quemador. Entre la bomba y el tanque va instalada una válvula de corte manual y un filtro; A la descarga de la bomba va un manómetro de rango adecuado y dependiendo del tamaño y tipo de quemador va una válvula de alivio - con línea de retorno de combustible Dependiendo del fabricante y del tamaño del quemador; Se puede atomizar mecánicamente, con aire o vapor Dependiendo del tamaño del quemador puede llevar piloto de gas L.P. o de diesel.

291 ' 3.- Sistema de salida de gases Termómetro de 00 a 500 C con carátula del diámetro adecuado Chimenea del mismo diámetro al de la caldera y altura adecuada Puertos de muestreo de acuerdo al instructivo CCAT-FF-00 de la SEDESOL Plataforma (si es necesario). 4.- Sistema de purgas La(s) purga(s) de fondo deben contar con una válvula de cierre lento tipo Y ", y una válvula de cierre rápido seleccionadas a la presión adecuada. Instaladas en el orden descrito a partir de la salida de la caldera En la purga de la columna de nivel, va una válvula tipo globo.. seleccionada a la presión adecuada.. 4.3_- Las descargas de la purga del cristal de nivel y la purga del tren, de controles, se pueden unir y conectarse en la tubería de descarga de la columna de nivel La descarga de la purga de la columna de nivel, se puede unir a.;-' la descarga de la(s) purga(s) de fondo La descarga de la(s) purga(s} de fondo, va a una fosa o a un tanque separador centrifugo....., 5.- Sistema de energía eléctrica Para el. correcto funcionamiento del equipo eléctrico, es conveniente que el voltaje se mantenga lo más constante posible. Esto es de vital importancia para el circuito de control, el cual no admite variaciones en + o - 0% de los O volts nominales Para el correcto funcionamiento y protección del control programador, se utiliza un transformador tipo seco de "'h KVA de 220 o 440 V a 0 V Todos los motores deben estar protegidos con arrancadores magnéticos.

292 6.- Sistema de vapor 6..- Inmediatamente después de la salida de vapor de la caldera, va una válvula tipo globo seleccionada para la presión adecuada. Toda tubería de vapor deberá estar debidamente aislada y dependiendo de su longitud tendrá juntas de expansión En sistemas intercomunicados de vapor con igual presión de trabajo, se deben instalar válvulas de retención a la salida de cada caldera y cuando haya diferentes presiones instalarlas en las calderas de baja presión Si se utiliza cabezal de vapor, deberá de contar con: Válvula de seguridad, manómetro de rango adecuado, trampa de vapor con descarga al tanque de condensados. Además estará aislado La descarga de la(s) válvula(s) de seguridad serán independientes y deben soportarse en una forma tal que evite cualquier esfuerzo sobre la(s) válvula(s). Antes de iniciar el proceso de arranque se recomienda, destapar la caldera por ambos lados y realizar una prueba hidrostática a la presión de diseño, además revisar los refractarios para verificar que no sufrieron ningun daño durante el transporte y montaje de la misma. A continuación, veremos como se realiza una prueba hidrostática de acuerdo a la sección No. del código ASME. PROCEDIMIENTO PARA LA PUESTA EN MARCHA DE CALDERAS Y PRECAUCIONES DURANTE EL PROCESO DE ARRANQUE ) Realizar una inspección ocular a todo el exterior de la caldera, para verificar que ño haya sufrido algún daño en su cuerpo o en alguno de sus controles y accesorios, durante el transporte y montaje.... 2) Revisar que haya energía eléctrica en el tablero de control de la caldera y en el arrancador de la bomba de agua (voltaje adecuado). 3) Revisar que el acoplamiento entre el motor y la bomba de agua se. encuentre debidamente alineado 4) Revisar el sentido de la rotación del ventilador, bomba de agua y en su caso de la bomba de combustible que sea el adecuado.

293 5) Revisar que el tanque de condensados tenga agua y que este al nivel adecuado 6) Revisar que todas las válvulas de alimentación de agua estén abiertas, retirar el manómetro en la descarga de la bomba para verificar que circula el agua y eliminar el aire que había en la tubería tanto de succión como de descarga. Cuando salga agua sin burbujas colocar de nuevo el manómetro. 7) Revisar que la presión de agua a la entrada del equipo suavizador sea la adecuada ( 2 a 3 Kg/cm 2 ). 8) Abrir la válvula de venteo de la caldera. 9) Revisar que las válvulas de purga de fondo, purga de columna de nivel, purga del cristal de nivel, purga del tren de controles, salida principal de vapor y purga de superficie ( si cuenta con ella ), estén cerradas. 0) Retirar la tapa del control principal de nivel, revisar que no este obstruido el flotador y que las cápsulas de mercurio estén en buen estado y en su lugar. '..,... ) Verificar que los grifos de prueba del control principal de nivel estén cerrados. 2) Verificar que las válvulas del cristal de nivel estén abiertas. 3) Revisar que el control de presión límite y el control de presión modulante estén ajustados a la presión que va trabajar la caldera, así como su diferencial. 4) Revisar en la placa de la(s) válvula(s) de seguridad la presión a la cual esta calibrada. Ésta debe ser mayor a la presión de trabajo pero np mas que la presión de diseño. 5) Revisar el electrodo de ignición que no se haya dañado durante el transporte y montaje de la caldera. 6) Verificar que el voltaje que está recibiendo el motor modutrol sea el adecuado ( 24 V). 8

294 7) Arrancar la bomba de alimentación de agua colocando el selector de tres posiciones, en automático, verificando el amperaje del motor. 8) Verificar que la bomba esta inyectando agua dentro de la caldera, sintiendo el paso en la tubería de descarga de la misma. También se puede verificar tocando la descarga de la válvula de venteo o escuchar el ruido que produce el aire al salir de la caldera. 9) Revisar la tubería y conexiones del agua de alimentación para corregir posibles fugas. 20) Observar en la mirilla de cristal, el nivel del agua dentro de la caldera y marcar el nivel cuando se pare la bomba automáticamente. Este nivel normalmente es de 63 mm medido a partir de su base. 2) Purgar la caldera por el fondo, marcar en la mirilla de cristal, el nivel donde arranca la bomba automáticamente. Aproximadamente es de 44 mm medido a partir de su base. 22) Colocar el selector de la bomba de agua en la posición de apagado y seguir purgando la caldera por el fondo, marcar en la mirilla de cristal, el nivel de corte del quemador ( actúa una alarma auditiva ). Aproximadamente es de 38mm medido a partir de su base. 23) Verificar que el control de baja presión de aire para la combustión este ajustado a la presión requerida y que funcione correctamente. 24) De acuerdo al tipo de combustible, revisar que no estén bloqueados los controles eléctricos de seguridad con que cuenta la caldera. A.- Utilizando gas natural o L.P. - Control por baja presión de gas. - Control por alta presión de gas. B.- Utilizando combustóleo. - Microswitch de arranque. 9

295 - Control por baja presión de aire para atomización. -Control por baja presión de combustible. - Control por baja temperatura de combustible. - Control por alta temperatura de combustible. C.- Utilizando diesel o gasóleo. - Microswitch de arranque. - Control por baja presión de aire para atomización. - Control por baja presión de combustible. 25) Abrir todas las válvulas manuales de alimentación de combustible desde el tanque de almacenamiento hasta el quemador de la caldera. 26) Si se utiliza retorno de combustible, también abrir todas las válvulas. 27) Abrir la válvula manual que alimenta el gas al piloto, verificar la presión la cual debe ser de 5 a O pulgadas columna de agua.,, 28) Cuando se utiliza combustóleo, en algunas calderas el arranque en frío se hace con diese! y se atomiza con aire; Ya que se tiene vapor a 3 Kg/cm 2, se abren todas las válvulas manuales que controlan el \ paso de vapor a: tanque de almacenamiento general y tanque de.;; día, al llegar a las temperaturas recomendadas ( 30 C en el tanque ~ de almacenamiento general y 60 e en el tanque de día ). se arranca la bomba de trasiego para circular el combustóleo entre el tanque general y el de día. Se apaga la caldera y se abren las válvulas del combustóleo que hay entre el tanque de día y el quemador, se cierran las válvulas del diese l. Se arranca la bomba de alimentación de combustible para circular el combustóleo entre el tanque de día y el quemador, se abre la válvula que controla el paso del vapor al precalentador y se enciende el precalentador eléctrico para elevar la temperatura del combustóleo a 93 C y pueda funcionar el quemador. Algunas calderas atomizan con vapor en este momento se hace el cambio. ~: ~... ~ l 29) En las calderas que utilizan combustibles líquidos y que tienen línea de retorno, se puede poner a funcionar la bomba de combustible para revisar y ajustar las presiones requeridas por el quemador de la caldera. ID

296 Presión de combustible líquido recomendada en operación de alta alimentación, utilizando atomización con aire o vapor: Presión de abastecimiento: 5.0 Kg/crn 2 Presión de entrada al quemador: 2.5 a 3.5 Kg/cm 2 Presión de retorno: Aprox..0 Kg/cm 2 de diferencia con respecto a la presión de entrada. Presión de atomización con aire: Sin flujo de combustible la presión mínima es de 0.5 Kg/cm 2 Con combustible en fuego bajo sube a 0.80 Kg/cm 2 Con combustible en fuego alto no debe sobrepasar los 2.0 Kg/cm 2 Presión de atomización con vapor: Dentro del rango de 0.8 a.4 Kg/cm 2 La presión de combustible líquido utilizando atomización mecánica es de 7 Kg/cm ) La presión de combustible en calderas que utilizan gas L. P. o natural, es baja y depende del tamaño del quemador y del lugar donde este instalado. Se mide en pulgadas columna de agua, en onzas/ pulg 2 o en gr./cm 2 3) Todos los valores de presión y temperatura mencionados en los puntos anteriores se dan como referencia para poder arrancar la caldera. Los valores reales nos lo dará el análisis de gases que se hace a la caldera en operación para dejarla dentro de norma. 32) Hasta este punto se tiene la caldera lista para iniciar el proceso de arranque. 33) Encender la caldera iniciando el ciclo del control de flama modulante, el cual tiene la siguiente secuencia: - Se energiza el motor del ventilador y el motor modutrol iniciando un tiempo de prepurga que tiene una duración de 70 segundos, en este lapso la compuerta del aire pasa de fuego bajo a fuego alto y viceversa. - A los 70 segundos se energiza el transformador de ignición y la válvula solenoide del piloto de gas, estableciéndose el encendido del piloto. - La fotocelda registra la señal de la flama del piloto. Periodo no mayor a O segundos.

297 - Se energiza la válvula principal de combustible, encendiendo la caldera. - Después de un período de 5 segundos para verificar la presencia de la flama principal, se apaga el piloto. - A los 05 segundos se tiene el fin del ciclo de encendido, el programador se para. El quemador modula hasta que la carga de demanda es satisfecha, regresando a fuego bajo. - Para el quemador. Hay un periodo de pospurga cortándose la corriente al motor del ventilador a los 20 segundos. - El sistema queda listo para iniciar otro ciclo. 34) Ya que se tiene la caldera encendida se mantiene en fuego bajo y se le da un calentamiento inicial lento de la siguiente manera: Trabaje la caldera por 0 minutos y apagela por 5 minutos, repita lo anterior tres veces más. Después déjela trabajando en fuego bajo hasta que llegue a una presión de vapor de 3.0 Kg/cm 2, Durante este periodo se recomienda apretar nuevamente los registros pasmano, el registro pasa-hombre y las tapas de la caldera. Posteriormente se puede pasar a automático, verificando que se apague la caldera a la presión a la cual está ajustado el control de presión límite. 35) Se recuerda que cuando empiece a salir vapor por la válvula de ; venteo, ésta se cierra. 36) Antes de que una caldera nueva sea puesta en servicio, debe limpiarse cuidadosamente a fin de eliminar la grasa y otras materias orgánicas, óxidos, escamas de laminación, fundentes de soldadura y cualquier otro material inherente a la fabricación y al montaje. El objetivo a lograr durante la limpieza de una caldera nueva es producir una superficie metálica limpia en todas las partes de la misma que están en contacto con el agua y el vapor durante la operación. Se recomienda que ésta limpieza química la realice la compañía que esta a cargo del tratamiento del agua. 37) Después que se realizo el lavado químico, se arranca la caldera hasta que pare por presión. Abra lentamente la válvula principal de salida de vapor y verifique que la caldera encienda a la presión que esta ajustado el diferencial del control de presión límite. \"l.

298 38) Verifique que actúan las protecciones de seguridad de la caldera, las cuales son: ~Paro por alta presión de vapor.- Esta prueba se realizó en el punto No. 34 -Paro por bajo nivel de agua. Estando la caldera en operación, apagar la bomba de agua y purgar la caldera por el fondo. Viendo la mirilla de cristal revisar que el quemador se apague en el nivel que tenemos marcado por corte de bajo nivel. -Paro por falla de flama.- Teniendo en operación la caldera, retirar la fotocelda del quemador y taparla, dependiendo del control de flama y del tipo de detección, la caldera debe apagarse en un tiempo corto ( seg. ). 39) Por ultimo, verificar o en su caso ajustar que la caldera este bien carburada desde fuego bajo hasta fuego alto, tomando lecturas de los gases con equipo autorizado por SEMARNAP. La norma oficial mexicana que rige es la NOM-085-ECOL-994 en su tabla No. 5 40) Caldera lista para su operación normal. INDICADORES IMPORTANTES EN LA OPERACIÓN DE CALDERAS J.. CONTROL DE NIVEL Se puede decir que éste es uno de los controles más importantes de las calderas, el tipo de control más usual es el de cápsulas de mercurio líquido. En la parte superior trae una cabeza donde van alojadas dos cápsulas de mercurio, una es de dos hilos la cual controla la bomba que alimenta el agua a la caldera; La otra cápsula es de tres hilos, es la que manda cortar el quemador y activa una alarma sonora al mismo tiempo cuando ocurre un bajo nivel dentro de la caldera. Como la falla de éste control es la causa más frecuente de siniestros hoy en día, algunos fabricantes de calderas, además del control principal de nivel le instalan un segundo control del tipo de varillas; Y hasta un tercer control: el tapón fusible ( en si éste es un indicador). \3

299 '~ NIVEL DE AGUA lje OPF.RACIOtl - l!ivel DE ARRA!!QUE DE LA 00~3A DE ALIMEKTACION - DE AGUA. ~~l~te POR BAJO NIVEL DE ' LA COLUMNA DR AGUA... ',., --~~--- CORTE POR BAJO ~IVEL DEL CONTROL AUXlLIAR. SEGUNDO CONTROL DE BAJO ~IVEL EN DASH A ELECTRODOS NIVRL DE ~GUt DESCU BRIF.NDO EL TAPON FUSIBLE TBRI!ICO PRIM~RA DI~ rur.os ULIJX I!ILERA SUPERIOR. --~ =. -C /!. '.. :: ~~ ,

300 La práctica ha demostrado que estos intentos de doble protección no son la solución. Si no se purga correctamente la columna de nivel y al lavarse interiormente la unidad, no se hace con esmero ni se inspeccionan cuidadosamente las condiciones reales de funcionamiento de sus partes, por mas controles que se instalen va a ocurrir la falla. 2.- MANÓMETRO PRINCIPAL DE VAPOR. La caldera debe tener un manómetro graduado en Kg/cm 2, Kpa o bar, éste manómetro se calibrará periódicamente, está instalado en la zona de vapor y forma parte de lo que se llama tren de controles. Cuidar que la presión de trabajo se ubique dentro del tercio medio de la carátula y que ésta sea del tamaño adecuado al tamaño de la caldera, para poder leer desde el frente de la caldera la presión del vapor sin ningún problema. Para especificar un manómetro se requiere: - Rango de la presión - Diámetro de carátula - Posición de la conexión - Diámetro de la conexión -Tipo de fluido que va a manejar 3.- CONTROL DE FLAMA En la actualidad, el tipo de control y de detección de flama se rige por la norma oficial mexicana NOM-027-SEDG-996. Los fabricantes de calderas deben de cumplir con esta norma. Toda la norma se resume a dos tablas: Tabla.- Clases de controles de seguridad de flama según el ciclo de trabajo. Tabla 2.- Sistemas de detección de flama. Esta norma tiene algunas fallas, como son: Acepta calderas que trabajen solo con una flama hasta capacidades de 70 c.c. Acepta calderas que utilicen varilla detectora como medio de detección hasta capacidades de 473 c.c.

301 A continuación se presenta una tabla de controles de flama de la marca Honeywell ( más común en calderas }, donde se indica dentro de que clase entran de acuerdo a la norma y de acuerdo a la practica, hasta que capacidad de caldera se recomiendan. NOM-IJ27-SEl}(j-l'J96 SlSTI::I\.IA >:: DliTtoCUON l>e FLAMA SISTEMi\ 'TIPO COMBUSTIBLE CAPACIDAD \li\:\>.~ Mi\R Ms. br IKcal!hn C.l".\ Al. FOTORF.SISTF.NCIA T>F. T>IF.SEI. 675 (400,000\ 4B4J IHON SULFURO DE CADMIO l:il TU!:lO l::lecl"iwnlco AL DIESEL l ~375 (' \ 23<>.70 HON V ACIO (FOTODIODO) Bü VAULLA DETECTORA DE üas 6750 (4'000,000) (473.37) HON IONIZACION Dll fl.ama CON FOTORESISTENCIA DE DIESEL/GAS/COMBUSTOLEO 6750 (4'000,000) ) HON SULFURO DE PLOMO SIN AIJTOVERIFICACION PlNAMlCA DDN FOTOTUBO SENSIBLE A D!ESELiGAS/COMBUSTOLEO 6750 (4'000,000 (473.37\ HON RADIAC0N ULTRA VIOLilT A SIN AJJTOVERJFIC' ACTON. DINAMICA CDD FOTORESISTENCV\ DE DIESEL/GAS/COMBUSTOLEO SJNLIMITE HON SULFURO ur:!'lomo CON AIJTOVERTFICACION DINi\MTCA DDD fototudo SllNSIDLil A DIDSilLiGAS/COMDUSTOLilO SIN LI'MlTil IION RAT>IACION In.TRA V0.F.T A CON AUTOVER!flCACION DINAMICA.~ NOTA: i\ PARTIR DE INSTALACIONES CUYA CAPACIDAD DE LIBERACTON DE CALOR SOBRE PASE LOS 57 (37,500 Kcallhr) (4.44 C.C.), INDEPENDIENTEMENTE DEL TIPO DE COMBUSTIBLE l)ue UTILICEN; SE DEDilRA DE UTILIZAR CONTROL DE SEüURlDAD CONTRA falla DE Fl.AMA CON T>ETF.CCIÓN T>'F. Fl.AMA POR MF.T>lOS F.l.F.CTRONTCOS (NO TF.RMTCQ).. lb

302 CONTROLES DE FLAMA MARCA HONEYWELL MÁS COMUNES PARA CALDERAS Modelo Servicio Respuesta a Base falla de nama RA890FI346 Una o dos 3.O segundos Q270AI024 (Clase 2 8) na mas.2 ('; f. RA890GI260 Una o dos 3.0 segundos Q270AI024 jciase2 Al namas R479SAIOI6 Una o dos 0.8 segundos Q270Ai024 (Clase 8 8) namas ( '}/Ff.) R440LI 47 Moduiante 2a4 QS20AI089 (Clase 4 A) (Levas) segundos Fotocelda Amplificador Pre-purga Post-purga Seg. Seg. C703AI003 Rectificación Varilla Detectora integrado C7027AI023 Integrado (Ultravioleta) C703AI003 R7289AIOI2 Rectificación (Color verde) 7,0,30,60 o C7027AI023 R7290AIOI9 90 (Ultravioleta) (Color violeta) C705AI076 R7248AI (Infrarroja) (Color rojo) : Combustible Recomendado para taldera e:. t. Diesel Hasta 40 Gas Hasta 20 Gas Hasta 40 Diesel Gas Liquido Hasta 60 R440GII7 Modulan te 2a4 QS2AI089 (Ciase 4 Al (Levas) segundos C8-20 (R440GI023). Modulantc 2a4 QS20AI70 (Ciase 4 AJ (Levas) segundos C7027Ai023 R7249AI (Ultravioleta) (Color violeta) C70SAI 8 R7248Ai (infrarroja) (Color rojo) Gas Todos 80 ct en adelante 8C7000L 000 Modulante 2a4 QS20AI089 <Clase 4 Al {) (Eiectrónioo) segundos C8-70 (8C7000LIOI8) Modulante 2a4 Q520AII70 (Clase 4 A) () (Eiectróniool segundos De acuerdo a el modulo programado puede utilizar det=ión infrarroja o ultravioleta. De acuerdo a el modulo programado puede utilizar det=ión infrarroja o uiuavioleta. Todos Todos Modelo exclusivo calderas marca Cleaver Brooks. ( ) Autoverificación Dinámica. GZA

303 SISTEMA AL BL :' ' '. ' ' l. -J TIPO FOTORESISTENCIA DE SULFURO DE CADMIO TUBO ELECTRONICO AL V A CIÓ (FOTODIOOO) (RECIFICACIÓN) NOM-027-SEDG-996 SISTEMAS DE DETECCIÓN DE FLAMA MARCA Y MODELO HONEYWELL C554A CONTROL DE FLAMAS IC55 HONEYWELL C703A CAPACIDAD MÁXIMA Mjlbr (KcaVbr} lc.c.l 675 (400,000) (47.4) CONTROL DE FLAMAS (2'000,000) (26.70) COMBUSTIBLE DIESEL DIESEL BG VARILLA DETECTORA DE IONIZACIÓN DE FLAMA (RECTIFICACIÓN) HONEYWELL C7008A CONTROL DE FLAMAS C7008A 6750 (4 '000,000) (47.37) GAS CON DON CDD DDD FOTORESISTENCIA DE SULFURO DE PLOMO SIN AUTOVERIFICACIÓN DINÁMICA FOTOTUBO SENSIBLE A RADIACIÓN ULTRA VIOLETA SIN AUTOVERIFICACIÓN DINÁMICA FOTORESISTENCIA DE SULFURO DE PLOMO CON AUTOVERIFICACIÓN DINÁMICA FOTOTUBO SENSIBLE A RADIÁCIÓN ULTRAVIOLETA CON AUTOVERIFICACIÓN DINÁMICA HONEYWELL C705A CON AMPLIFICADOR R7248A 6750 (4 '000,000) (47.7) HONEYWELL C7027A CON AMPLIFICADOR R7249A CONTROL DE FLAMAS IC2200 HONEYWELL C705A CON AMPLIFICADOR R72488 HONEYWELL C7076A CON AMPLIFICADOR R7476A 6750 (4'000,000) (47.37) SIN LIMITE SIN LIMITE DIESEUGAS/COMBUSTOLEO DIESEUGAS/COMBUSTOLEO DIESEUGAS/COMBUSTOLEO DIESEUGAS/COMBUSTOLEO Nota: a partir de instalaciones cuya capacidad de liberación de calor sobrepase los 57 Mjlbr (37,500 kcavhr) (4.44 c.c), indepcndientememe del upo de combustible que utilicen; se deberá de utilizar control de seguridad contra falla de nama con detección de nama por medios electrónicos (no térmico) ' ' GZA ' -....l~... -' "

304 NOM-027-SEDG-996 NOMENCLATURA DE TABLA No.l I.l.= l. T.= P.C.= P.I.= PT= PP= TVA TPEF= TDPF= TDFF= TBS= TP= TPA TPB= TCE= TRI= TPPE= TAPE= o TPP= TACHD= Ignición intermitente hasta 8.9 c.c. se mantiene energizado todo el tiempo no lleva piloto y solo se utiliza para combustible diesel. Ignición interrumpida..- - Piloto continuo. Piloto intermitente. Piloto interrumpido. Piloto probado Tiempo de verificación en arranque. Ti~mpo para establecimiento de flama Tiempo para detección de presencia de flama Tiempo para detección de falla de flama Tiempo para bloqueo de seguridad. Tiempo de purga Tiempo de purga en alta Tiempo de purga en baja Tiempo para calefacción de electrodos. Tiempo restringido de ignición con bloqueo de señal de flama al circuito sensor. Tiempo para prueba de piloto encendido. Tiempo para apagado de piloto encendedor de quemador principal. Tiempo de pospurga Tiempo de autoverificación dinámica -. - j - \ ' GZA

305 ; i i i i i i i i ; i i ~ ~ ~ w - ' e! e! e! e! e! e! e! e! e!! e! e! e!!!!! o a a a a ; a a a ; ; ; ; ; K - - w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w K K K K K K K K!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! S!!!!! ; ; = ~ ~ ; ; ;!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5 ~. " ~ ~ ~ ~!!!! ~ ~!! ~ ~!! ~ ~ ~!! ~!!!!!! ~.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! h j ~ \ ; ; =;;;;;!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5!!!! i ~~ " ~~ "S n e: e VOI:IO OlliVIC L66 Of'O!InfOP9 '"l<=q!l'l

306 EQUIVALENCIA DE CONTROLES DE RAMA DE ACUERDO A DISTINTOS FABRICANTES HONE\'WEI..L ARnE CONTROL DE FLAMAS (NACIONAL) RA890 F TIP029RFS TACISRL RA890G MODEL060S TACISRL R479S A TACS4SBNR R440L TIP026R)8 R440G MODEL0608 CB-20 CB - BC 7000 FLAME MONITOR Modelos exduslvos p.'3 calderas mara Oeaver Brooks !...., ' '2

307 4.- TERMÓMETRO DE CHIMENEA Éste es un indicador de importancia en la operación de las calderas, una alta temperatura puede ser por dos causas: - Que este hollinada la caldera. - Que exista fuga de gases por alguna de las mamparas. La causa más frecuente, es la primera; Cuando tenga 80 C por arriba de la temperatura del vapor, indica que la caldera tiene hollín y/o incrustación, se debe proceder a lavado y deshollinado. Si la presión de trabajo de la caldera es de 7.0 Kg/cm 2, de tablas de vapor, la temperatura que corresponde al vapor para ésta presión es de 69.5 C, entonces tenemos: = e En una caldera de tubos de fuego, la temperatura normal de los gases en la base de la chimenea es de 200 a 225 C. Por lo anterior, es muy importante que la caldera este siempre bien carburada en toda su gama de modulación.. En base a la capacidad de la caldera y al tipo de combustible que utilice su quemador, es la frecuencia con la cual se analizan los gases ' producto de la combustión. El fabricante del quemador indica cual es el % de C0 2 ( bióxido de carbono ) más idóneo para el funcionamiento eficiente del mismo. En la practica se recomiendan los siguientes valores: RANGO Gas L.P. o N. Diesel o G. Combustóleo Excelente Bueno Regular Pobre 8 o menos 9 o menos.5 o menos Los resultados de una carburación, deben tener los valores de los siguientes parámetros: Bióxido de carbono, oxigeno, exceso de aire, monóxido de carbono, temperatura de los gases y eficiencia del quemador. A continuación tenemos las tablas 5 y 6 de la norma oficial mexicana NOM-085-ECOL-994.

308 (0.06) (0.085) : :.' ' r.. llj\0 NOM-085-ECOL-994 (D.O. 2- DIC- 994) TABLA 5 lo. ENERO DE 998 EN ADELANTE CAPACIDAD DEL EQU!PO DE COMBUSTIÓN MJ/h TIPO DE COMBUSTIBLE EMPLEADO Combusto leo o aasoleo Hasta Otros l'f~t,, llquidos Gaseosos IYU t. De 5,250a Llquidos 43,~ Gaseosos 2~~(. Uquidos De 43,000a 0,000 Gaseosos :lot~rr. Sólidos Mayor de 0,000 Uquidos Gaseosos DENSIDAD PARTICULAS (PST) BIÓXIDO DE DE mglm' (kg/0" kcal) AZUFRE HUMO ( ) (2) ppm V (Kg/ O" kcal) () (2) Niimero de mancha u ZMCM zc (3) RP ZMCM ZC(J) RP opacidad 3 NA NA NA 550,00 2,200 (2.04) (4.08) (8.6) 2 NA NA NA 550,00 2,200 (2.04) (4.08) (8.6) o NA NA NA NA NA NA NA ,00 2,200 (0.497) (0.639) (2.04) (4.08) (8.6) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA ,00 2,200 (0.426) (0.568) (2.04) (4.08) (8.6) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA ,00 2,200 (0.090) (0.375) (0.525) (2.6) (4.3) (8.6) NA ,00 2,200 (0.085) (0.355 (0.497) (2.04) (4.08) (8.6) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA ÓXIDOS DE EXCESO DE NITRÓGENO AIRE DE ppm V (Kg/0" kcal) COMBUSTIÓN () %volumen (5) ZMCM ZC(4) RP NA NA NA NA NA NA 50 NA NA NA (0.507) (0.507) (.0) (0.486) (0.486) (0.959) (0.294) (0.294) (.0) (0.28) (0.28) (0.959) (0.309) (0.309) (.052) (0.294) (0.294) (.0) (0.28) (0.28) (0.959)

309 TABLA6 MEDICIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE GASES DE COMBUSTIÓN CAPACIDAD DEL EQUIPO PARÁMETRO FRECUENCIA TIPO DE EVALUACIÓN TIPO DE DE MÍNIMA DE COMBUSTIBLE COMBUSTIÓN MEDICIÓN MJ/b Denstdad de vez cada 3 puntual (3 muestras); líquido y gas humo meses mancha de bollin Hasta vez cada 3 puntual (3 muestras); ver anexo 3 liquido y gas (47 C.C.) COiCO.G,,N, meses SO, vez cada 3 medición indirecta a través de cenificados de calidad líquido meses de combustibles que emita el proveedor Partículas una vez por ísocinético (mínimo durante 60 minutos); 2 muestras líquido suspendidas ado definitivas (2) totales De NOx una vez por continuo (4); quimiluminiscencia líquido y gas (47 C. C.) ado o~uivalente a SO, una vez por medición indirecta a través de cenificados de calidad (204 C. C.). ado de combustibles que emita el proveedor liquido. puntual (3 muestras); ver anexo 3 liquido y gas CO,,CO.O,,N, diario o ente Partículas. una vez por isocinético (mínimo durante 60 minutos); 2 muestras líquido... suspendidas ado definitivas totales De NOx una vez cada continuo (4); quimilnmínísceucia o equivalente líquido y gas a meses (204 a SO, una vez por medición indirecta a través de cenificados de calídad líquido 3080 C. C.) ado de combustibles que emita el proveedor Cü,.CO.O,.N, una vez por puntual (3 muestras); ver anexo 3 líquido y gas tumo o ente Partículas vez cada ísocinético (mimmo durante 60 minutos); 2 muestras sólído. líquido suspendidas 6 definitivas totales meses Mayor de N~ permanente (3) continuo (4); quimilnminiscencia o equivalente sólido. liquido y gas (3080 C. C.) o, permanente continua; campo magnético o equivalente, con liquido y gas NOTAS: () Ver (2) Ver6...5 SO, una vez por ato registrador como mínimo o ente medición indirecta a través de cenificados de calidad de combustibles que emita el proveedor (3) El monitoreo continuo de No,. será permanente en las zonas metropolitanas de las ciudades de México, Guadalajara y Monterrey; con una duración de cuando menos 7 dlas una vez cada tres meses en las zonas criticas; y con una duración de cuando menos 7 dlas una vez cada seis meses en el resto del país. (4) Ver4.3 sólido. líquido..., ?l!

310 ANEX03 CONTAMINANTES Y SUS MÉTODOS DE EVALUACIÓN PARA FUENTES FUAS Y MÉTODOS EQUIVALENTES CONTAMINANTE MÉTODO DE EV ALUÁCIÓN MÉTODO EQUivALENTE Densidad de huella o mancha de holl!n humo opacidad Partículas isocinético suspendidas totales Oxidos de quimiluminiscencia infrarrojo no dispersivo.. nitrógeno infrarrojo no dispersivo ÓXidos de celdas electroquímicas* carbono orsat (Oz,COz y CO) celdas electroquímicas orsat (Oz,COz y CO) Oxígeno paramagnéticos óxidos de zirconio (celdas el!micas) medición indirecta a través de Capacidad Hasta 5,250: sen certificados de calidad de del equipo de vla húmeda (torino) combustibles que emita el proveedor combustión MJ/h Se calcula el valor dado que no se obtiene por medición directa. infrarrojo no dispersivo celdas electroaulmicas Mayores de 5,250: vla húmeda infrarrojo no disoersivo ~ - : --, 7)

311 5.- TRATAMIENTO DEL AGUA Y PURGAS. El descuido del mantenimiento por el lado del agua trae como resultado la formación de incrustaciones, picaduras, corrosión, espuma, arrastre de humedad y crestas de nivel de agua. Es importante un tratamiento de agua con procedimiento adecuado de purgas para conservar las superficies de calefacción de la caldera libres de incrustación y prolongar la vida útil de la misma. Se recomienda consultar a empresas expertas en tratamiento de agua. Ellos analizarán el agua y propondrán el tratamiento adecuado basado en el análisis y cantidad de agua cruda que se usará, también dirán la frecuencia de las purgas para reducir la concentración de sales y lodos dentro de la caldera. El tratamiento se divide en: Externo.- A través del equipo suavizador, la dureza a la salida debe ser= O ppm. El operador dentro de sus actividades toma muestra del agua a la salida del equipo suavizador y checa su dureza, si le marca algún valor, es el momento para regenerar la resina. Interno.- Dosificación de productos químicos, puede ser en el tanque de condensados o directamente a la caldera. La cantidad y frecuencia la determina el experto en tratamiento de agua. ;._. ' '. PURGAS DE LA CALDERA.- Normalmente se recomienda purgar la caldera mínimo cada tumo ( la frecuencia real la determina el experto en tratamiento de agua ). Purga de fondo.- Se hace de la siguiente manera: - Teniendo la caldera con presión ( normalmente la presión de trabajo ), se sube el nivel del agua a la mitad de la mirilla de cristal con la bomba en posición manual. - Se coloca la bomba de agua en posición de automático. -Abrir primero la válvula de cierre rápido. - después se abre la válvula de cierre lento. - - Se espera a que baje el nivel hasta que arranque la bomba de agua. - Se cier a la válvula de cierre lento. - Se cierra la válvula de cierre rápido. Las demás purgas tardan aprox. 5 seg. ""'r.

312 6.- CONTROL DE PRESIÓN LÍMITE. Éste control es muy importante su funcionamiento correcto, en el ajustamos la presión de vapor a al cual va a trabajar la caldera. Tiene dos escalas, la principal es para delimitar la presión de paro del quemador de la caldera, la otra es la diferencial, se indica la presión a la cual enciende de nuevo el quemador. 7.- BITÁCORA. Éste documento es muy útil ya que en el se lleva el historial de la caldera en cuanto a su operación y mantenimiento, desde que se arranca por pnmera vez. En base a ese historial se puede formar un programa de mantenimiento preventivo para la caldera. PARÁMETROS PARA ANOTAR EN UNA BITÁCORA POR TURNO. Fecha. 2. Hora. 3. Presión de vapor. 4. Temperatura de gases productos de la combustión. 5. Temperatura del agua de alimentación. 6. Temperatura de combustible (solo si se utiliza combustóleo): - En tanque de almacenamiento general - En tanque de día. - A la entrada del quemador 7. Presión de atomización con aire o vapor ( comb. Líquido) 8. Presión de combustible ( líquido ): - A la salida de la bomba de alimentación - A la entrada del quemador -De retomo 9. Presión de combustible ( gas ): -En el tanque de almacenamiento (gas LP.) - En alta presión regulada - En baja presión 0. Purgas: De fondo, columna de nivel, cristal de nivel, tren de controles y de superficie.

313 .Tratamiento interno. 2.Tratamiento externo. 3.Consumo de combustible. 4.Pruebas de paro por: alta presión de vapor, bajo nivel de agua y falla de flama. 5.Mantenimientos rutinarios. 6.Análisis de gases. 7. Observaciones. 8. Nombre y firma del operador. RECOMENDACIONES PARA EL CUIDADO DE LAS CALDERAS Las calderas de prestigio indudablemente son construidas de acuerdo con el código ASME o alguna otra norma de fabricación de reconocida competencia. En forma similar, el quemador y controles son de marcas de prestigio. Consiguientemente la caldera que se tiene es digna de confianza en cuanto a la seguridad de su operación. Sin embargo, la seguridad, confiabilidad y eficiencia de operación, solamente pueden conservarse con un programa básico de mantenimiento. Se recomienda tener un programa de mantenimiento preventivo de acuerdo al tipo de caldera, combustible utilizado y régimen de trabajo. A continuación se muestra un programa de mantenimiento preventivo descriptivo, más no limitativo.

314 .- DIARIO. Realizar las purgas de la caldera por lo menos cada ocho horas de operacon. 2. Checar la dureza del agua después del suavizador para saber cuando hay que regenerar la resina. Después de un tiempo de operación se tendrá medida la frecuencia de ésta actividad. 3. Dosificación del tratamiento interno. 4. Si utiiíza combustóleo limpiar la boquilla del quemador y el filtro de combustible. 5. Llenar la bitácora con los parámetros de operación. 6. Realizar una inspección ocular a la instalación completa para descubrir cualquier anomalía. 7. Mantener limpia la caldera, sus accesorios y la casa de máquinas..- CADA OCHO DÍAS. Si utiliza diesel o gasóleo limpiar la boquilla del quemador y filtro. 2. Comprobar que no hay fugas de gases ni de aire en las juntas de e e ambas tapas y mirilla trasera. 3. Comprobar la tensión de la banda al compresor y/o ventilador en su caso. 4. Si utiliza atomización con aire limpiar el filtro del compresor. 5. Limpiar el electrodo de ignición del piloto de gas. 6. Apretar las conexiones del cable de ignición.

315 7. Si utiliza combustóleo, comprobar que los interruptores termostáticos del calentador del combustible operen a la temperatura a que fueron calibrados al hacer la puesta en marcha. 8. Inspeccionar los prensa estopas de la bomba de alimentación de agua. 9. Comprobar que la trampa del calentador de vapor opera correctamente (si se usa Combustóleo). La descarga va al drenaje. O. Asegúrese que la fotocelda esté limpia, así como el conductor en donde se encuentra colocada.. Comprobar el voltaje y amperaje de los motores..- CADA MES.,,... Lavar el filtro que esta en la succión de la bomba de agua. 2. Si utiliza gas L. P. o natural limpiar el filtro de combustible. 3. Comprobar que los niveles de agua son los indicados: 63 mm de nivel máximo. 45 mm arranque de la bomba. 38 mm corte por bajo nivel. 4. Comprobar el C()rte.por_ bajo nivel de agua.- Bajando el interruptor de la bomba de alimentación, el agua al evaporarse irá disminuyendo el nivel, al llegar a 38 mm la caldera debe apagarse. En el caso de.no apagarse, hay que parar inmediatamente la caldera e inspeccionar la cápsula de mercurio de tres hilos ( en el control de nivel ), así como también asegurarse de un correcto funcionamiento del flotador estando la columna excenta de lodos o acumulaciones.

316 5. Realizar la prueba por falla de flama. 6. Limpiar la malla del ventilador del sistema de aire. 7. Verificar el funcionamiento del piloto de gas. 8. Revisar el apriete del mecanismo de modulación 9. Checar el apriete de las conexiones del tablero de control. O. Reengrasar los baleros de la bomba de agua.. Tirar ligeramente de la palanca de la(s) válvula(s) de seguridad ::>~Y~ que escapen y evitar que se peguen en su asiento, ésta actividad se debe realizar estando la caldera a una presión no menor del 75% de la presión de trabajo. IV.- CADA TRES MESES. Revisar la carburación del quemador de la caldera tomando lectura de los gases producto de la combustión. 2. Revisión del mecanismo y cápsulas de mercurio del control de nivel. 3. Las válvulas solenoide deben ser examinadas. Observe la flama cuando el quemador deba apagar. Si la flama no se apaga súbitamente en el momento preciso, puede significar falla o desgaste de la válvula solenoide. ReemplaCe la válvula para evitar serios problemas. V.- CADA SEIS MESES Estando la caldera fría realizar un servicio de limpieza general, el cual consiste en : ~\

317 . Retirar tubo del piloto de gas. 2. Retirar el quemador. 3. Destapar la caldera por ambos lados. 4. Retirar los empaques de ambas tapas y de las mamparas. 5. Limpiar los fluxes por el lado del hollín con un escobillón, que se debe de pasar a todo lo largo de los mismos. 6. Limpiar ambos espejos con un cepillo de alambre. 7. Se inspecciona el refractario del hogar, tapa intermedia y tapa trasera que no tenga grietas o que esté desprendido el material. Si es necesario se le aplica un resane.. 8. Ya que está limpia por el lado de los gases se procede a hacer el lavado lado agua. Se tira toda el agua que tenga la caldera. 9. Estando completamente vacía, se retiran los registros de mano y el registro de hombre. O. Se retira el tapón que esta en la entrada de agua a la caldera y los '::., que tiene el control de nivel en sus cruces superior e inferior; r. además se retira la cabeza del cont~ol de nivel para descubrir el ' flotador.. Se retiran los controles de presión y el manómetro principal de vapor, dejando al descubierto la tubería del tren de controles. 2. A la descarga de la bomba de agua se instala una toma para conectar una manguera y se cierra la llave de alimentación de agua a la caldera. 3. Se atranca la bomba de agua, por la manguera saldrá un chorro de agua con cierta presión, se introduce ésta por cada uno de los registros con objeto de lavar los tubos flux por el lado del agua,

318 todos los lodos saldrán por los registros inferiores y una vez que el agua sale clara indicará que ha quedado limpia. 4. Con el mismo procedimiento se limpia: el interior del control de nivel, la toma de alimentación de agua, la tubería del tren de controles y las cruces de la columna de nivel. 5. Cambiar el empaque del flotador de la columna. de nivel, a los tornillos se les pone una mezcla de grafito con aceite para que no se peguen. 6. Cambio del tapón fusible ( si la caldera lo tiene ). 7. Colocar los controles de presión y el manómetro principal en el tren de controles. 8. Instalar los tapones macho de las cruces de la columna de nivel y de la entrada de alimentación de agua a la caldera, también se le pone la mezcla de grafito con aceite. 9. Cambio de la mirilla de nivel con sus empaques. 20. Cambio de empaques a los registros de mano y al registro de hombre, si son de asbesto se cubren con grafito. 2. Llenar la caldera con agua y realizar prueba hidrostática a la presión de operación para verificar que no haya fuga en los registros. 22. Tapar la caldera por ambos lados cambiando sus empaquetaduras, a todos los tornillos se les aplica la mezcla de grafito con aceite. 23. Colocar el quemador y conectar el piloto de gas. 24. Se tiene la caldera lista para su arranque y revisión de la carburación. 25. Prueba de la(s) válvula(s) de seguridad automáticamente. :n

319 CALDERAS Y SERVICIOS ESPECIA _ ZADOS VI.- FALLAS MÁS COMUNES EL QUEMADOR NO INICIA SU CICLO DE ENCENDIDO Verifique que haya energla eléctrica en el tablero de control de la caldera. Verifique que los controles limite se encuentren cerrados. Ejemplo: Control de presión de vapor, control de nivel de agua, relevadores bimetálicos de los arrancadores, control de combustión sin restablecer o averiado, control contra baja presión de aire en el quemador, control de baja presión de gas L.P., control de alta presión de gas L. P., terminales eléctricas principales flojas. EL QUEMADOR INICIA SU CICLO PERO NO HAY CHISPA Electrodo con porcelana fisurada o danada. Electrodo aterrizado, descalibrado o con carbón en su punta. Transformador de ignición danado o con cable de ignición flojo en sus terminales. EL QUEMADOR INICIA CICLO HAY CHISPA PERO NO PRENDE Exceso de aire por compuerta muy abierta. Falta gas L. P. en el piloto Presión en el piloto de gas insuficiente Impurezas en la linea de gas L.P. del piloto Válvula solenoide del piloto de gas L.P. danada u obstruida Regulador del piloto de gas L.P. danado o desajustado Control de presión modulante no manda cerrar la compuerta del aire en el arranque Compuerta del aire atorada o mecanismo del damper desajustado PRENDE EL PILOTO, PERO SE SEPARA LA FLAMA DE LA BOQUILLA Demasiada presión de gas L. P. en la linea del piloto. Regulador de presión de gas L. P. del piloto danado PILOTO ENCENDIDO, PERO NO PRENDE LA FLAMA PRINCIPAL Flama del piloto de poca intensidad Válvula principal de combustible no opera Filtro de combustible tapado Falla en el control programador Detector de flama sucio, defectuoso, obstruido o que no apunte a la flama principal Falso contacto en el amplificador o que este danado Válvula mariposa o moduladora de gas L.P. atorada u obstruida Control de baja presión de aire danado Controles de alta o baja presión de gas L. P. danados EL QUEMADOR SOLO TRABAJA EN FLAMA BAJA Interruptor selector de flama baja danado Control de presión modulante danado Motor modutrol danado Mecanismo de modulación trabado "' 24 DE FEBRERO No. 74 COL FRANCISCOSARABIA C.P NICOLAS ROMERO. EDO. DE MEXICO TEL. YFAX:

320 CALDERAS Y SERVICIOS ESPECIALIZADOS QUEMADOR SE APAGA SIN RAZÓN APARENTE. Falta combustible o baja presión de gas L.P. Detector de flama averiado Cápsula de mercurio en el control de presión limite defectuosa Mecanismo de modulación trabado Leva de modulación con tomillos desajustados o sea desajuste en la carburación Alta presión de gas L.P. Falta de aire para la combustión, actúa el control del aire, posiblemente rotas las bandas que mueven el ventilador. MOTOR MODULANTE NO OPERA Selector de modulación dallado Mecanismo de modulación atorado o dallado Transformador de 24 V dallado Control de presión modulante sucio o dallado MOTOR MODULANTE NO ABRE O CIERRA DURANTE LA PRE-PURGA Revisar sujeción de contactos Potenciómetro invertido o dallado Cables invertidos entre motor y control modulante EXPLOSIONES EN EL HOGAR DE LA CALDERA Impurezas o falta de presión para el piloto de gas L. P. Presión de combustible inestable Impurezas en la válvula principal de combustible Compuerta de aire trabada o motor modulante dallado Averías en la leva dosificadora de combustible, alterando la relación aire-combustible Manipulación del control de flama PRESENCIA DE HUMO BLANCO EN LA CHIMENEA Falta de combustible o exceso de aire PRESENCIA DE HUMO NEGRO EN LA CHIMENEA Exceso de combustible o falta de aire FALTA DE AGUA DE ALIMENTACIÓN Impurezas en el tanque de condensados Filtro de agua tapado Trampas de vapor averiadas, por lo que regresa vapor vivo al tanque de condensados y eleva demasiado la temperatura del agua, la bomba trabaja pero no inyecta el agua. Si la bomba trabaja por tiempos largos en estas condiciones se dallará. La temperatura normal de operación es de 60" C. Altura reducida entre el tanque de condensados y la bomba del agua. Posible obstrucción a la entrada del agua en la caldera Bomba de agua dallada 24 DE FEBRERO No. 74 COL. FRANCISCO SARABIA C.P NICOLAS ROMERO. EDO. DE MEXICO TEL. Y FAX:

321 ' '. CALDERAS Y SERVICIOS ESPECIA _ ZA )OS ALTA TEMPERATURA DE GASES DE COMBUSTIÓN Hollinamiento de los tubos flux por mala combustión Mamparas datladas NO SE RECUPERA EL NIVEL DE AGUA EN LA CALDERA Filtro de agua sucio Falta de agua en el tanque de condensados Control de nivel averiado Bomba de agua averiada Falta de energía eléctrica Demanda súbita de vapor sin alimentar agua - Tubería de alimentación de agua incrustada u obstruida. CALDERA INCRUSTADA Falla en el tratamiento del agua Purgas inadecuadas Falta de purgas A continuación se presenta un resumen de la norma para calderas NOM-22-STPS ' 24 DE FEBRERO No. 74 COL. FRANCISCOSARABIA C.P NICOLAS ROMERO, EDO. DE MEXICO TEL. Y FPIX:

322 Resumen de la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-22-STPS-996 Relativa a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene para el funcionamiento de los recipientes sujetos a presión y generadores de vapor o calderas que operen en los centros de trabajo. l. Objetivo Esta norma Oficial Mexicana establece los requisitos mínimos de seguridad e higiene con que deben contar los recipientes sujetos a presión y los generadores de vapor o calderas que se instalen en los centros de trabajo, así como las características de las inspecciones que se realicen con el fin de vigilar el cumplimiento de esta Norma. 2. Campo de aplicación. Esta Norma Oficial Mexicana es de observancia obligatoria en los centros de trabajo donde se utilicen los recipientes sujetos a presión y generadores de vapor o calderas a que la misma se refiere. 5. Obligaciones 5.. Obligaciones del Patrón Tener autorizados por la Secretaría los equipos y conservar su vigencia de autorización de funcionamiento durante la vida útil de los equipos, así como el documento seí'ialado en el numeral 6., del anexo n Contar con el personal capacitado para la operación y mantenimiento de los equipos Elaborar y estaelecer por escrito un manual de seguridad e higiene para la operación y mantenimiento de los equipos, sus accesorios y dispositivos, conforme al articulo 30 párrafo tercero del Reglamento Federal de Seguridad, Higiene y Medio Ambiente de Trabajo. El manual debe contener: Medidas de seguridad durante el arranque, operación, paro, y para el mantenimiento de los equipos, dispositivos, accesorios y equipos auxiliares, así como los procedimientos para el control y manejo en situaciones de emergencia y retomo a condiciones normales.

323 Difundir el manual entre los trabajadores encargados de la operación, mantenimiento y seguridad. 5. L 7 _ Marcar o pintar en un lugar visible del equipo, el número de control que la Secretaría le asignó y entregó por escrito al momento de su autorización. Queda prohibido alterar, cambiar o desaparecer dicho número Aislar, proteger e identificar los equipos y tuberías que se encuentren a temperaturas extremas en las áreas de- tránsito de los trabajadores y en las áreas de operación de los equipos, conforme a las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas NOM-028-STPS-993 y NOM-4- STPS Dar aviso a la Dirección o a la Delegación correspondiente cuando se pretenda modificar la instalación o las condiciones de operación de los equipos, de acuerdo al artículo 33 del Reglamento Federal de Seguridad, Higiene y Medio Ambiente de Trabajo. ~ 5.. O. Conservar el registro por cada equipo o grupos de ellos interconectados, conforme al artículo 37 del Reglamento Federal de Seguridad, Higiene y Medio Ambiente de Trabajo, ver anexo IV. 5.. L Solicitar la continuidad de la vigencia de la autorización de funcionamiento de los equipos en los términos del punto 6.2 de esta Norma Solicitar al fabricante del equipo el certificado de fabricación, la memoria de cálculo y dibujo indicados en el numeral 6. del anexo. 5. L 3. En caso de que el patrón no cuente con la documentación anterior, para los efectos de la autorización deberá presentar - constancia de la memoria de cálculo y dibujo del equipo, elaborados por un ingeniero calificado, con base a los datos técnicos del equipo Obligaciones de los trabajadores L.Participar en los cursos de capacitación y adiestramiento para el manejo de los equipos Realizar las anotaciones correspondientes que señala el punto consignando y reportando las condiciones de operación de los equipos, asi como cualquier alteración que pueda causar algún accidente o desperfecto. -~ '. '

324 Operar los equipos de conformidad con lo establecido en los manuales de procedimiento de seguridad proporcionados por el patrón La autorización de funcionamiento a que se refiere el punto 6. tendrá una vigencia de O años para equipos nuevos y de 5 años para equipos usados. 7. Condiciones de seguridad e higiene. 7.3 La presión de operación de los equipos no deben exceder a la presión de calibración de las válvulas de seguridad señalada en la autorización de los mismos Los equipos deben instalarse libres de impactos y vibraciones, con iluminación y ventilación permanente, adecuadas a los procesos que realicen conforme a las NOM-06-STPS-993, NOM-024-STPS- 993 y NOM-025-STPS Los pisos y accesos a los equipos deben mantenerse libres de obstáculos y materiales que entorpezcan el libre acceso, de tal manera ~- que sea posible realizar fácilmente maniobras en su cercanía Los accesos a los dispositivos de seguridad y equipos auxiliares deben mantenerse libres en todo momento Los generadores de vapor o calderas deben ser instalados en locales o áreas destinadas específicamente para ellos Los generadores de vapor o calderas deben instalarse de tal manera que cuenten con un espacio mínimo de.5 m entre el techo del local y la parte más alta del equipo, a fin de permitir efectuar reparaciones, inspecciones, ajustes y pruebas Los generadores de vapor o calderas deben instalarse entre ellos o entre las divisiones que limitan el local, con un espacio mínimo de un metro a partir del cuerpo de la caldera o del accesorio más sobresaliente, de tal manera que permita al personal efectuar la operación y las reparaciones sin dificultad Los depósitos de combustible para el abastecimiento de los generadores de vapor o calderas deben cumplir las condiciones de seguridad de acuerdo a las NOM-002-STPS-993, NOM-005-STPS- 993 y NOM-022-STPS-993.

325 7.. El generador de vapor o caldera, independientemente de que opere en forma manual o automática, debe estar vigilado permanentemente durante el tiempo que esté en operación. 8. De los dispositivos de seguridad en los equipos. 8.. Los generadores de vapor o calderas deben contar cuando menos con una válvula de seguridad calculada técnicamente para evitar riesgos durante la operación del equipo, cuyas características estén de acuerdo con las condiciones de operación Las válvulas de seguridad de los generadores de vapor o calderas deben instalarse en la parte superior de los mismos y tener la capacidad de descarga acorde al flujo de desfogue teórico La presión de la calibración de las válvulas de seguridad utilizadas en ningún caso debe rebasar la presión de trabajo máxima permisible Los generadores de vapor o calderas deben tener al menos un ~ manómetro graduado en Kg/cm2: kpa O bar, calibrado periódicamente, conectado a la cámara de vapor de tal manera que no esté sujeto a vibraciones y ofrezca una visión clara y libre de obstáculos. " 8.5. La presión de operación debe estar ubicada en el tercio medio de.. la escala de la carátula del manómetro... ~. ~.~,,, ~"i ~ \< ' ~7: - J

326 lh ,.., ,...,,..., - _ , :.. PiiiM~~r"iP.I!I # :. NL»fiMHr ZUNii»UUM" - P VIAWA.;,.

327 .- e o u o -e:.! ;; -8 o ::: o D.a D... E o e D / Q. : j a i... a -.. e: ll o u.. :!!!.. "! -...! o.. i J... ~ i :!:.... l! A.... = u l ~. " 47.

328 RECULADOR DE 'RESION?EL PILOTO DE CA$ LLAVE DE CIERRE DEL PILOTO DE CA$ loowiometro DE LA '"ESIOH DEL PILOTO DE CA$ VÁLVULA SOLENOIDE DEL PILOTO DE CA$ CASAL QUEMADOR INTERRUPTOR DE BA..IA PRESION DE GAS INTERRUPTOR DE ALTA PRESION DE CAS v.llvula SOLENOIDE DEL PILOTO DE CAS CONJUNTO BÁSICO DEL GAS.

329 VAPOR DE CALDERA <>7 POR DE LA ERA OTRA COMBUSltlLE ODEL TANQUE T RANSFER RETORNO AL TANQUE TAANSFER 7 ~~ '7 ~ " VALYI.l..A 5 VIAS, ~ AIRE CQMPRIMIDO _...8 ' 9 FILTRO '"'8... -ñi -"7 ~ 90t.eA _n_n (@) VALVULA MOI:IlLADO AA -- 4 ;... - "' <;>3 D -rr -~ -93 RETORNO ~ 9 0 'V. V _..l, ~L CONTROL...,.._ 9 ="-"'.""t. 'I:'Q..':'t:t: --- /;:tp ~ PRECALENTADOR DE VAPOR 0 9 ~~lp u -- <?"' ~ROGRAMADOR t ~-- PAECALENTADOR ELECTRICO t -...,_ COMBUSTOLEO AIRE COMPRIMIDO ~VAPOR SISTEMA DE ALIMENTACION DE COMBUSTOLEO LIGERO N 6 - MODULANTE-,. CONTRa.. DE TEMPERATURA al N:CIONA LA VALYU...A sa...enoide DE VAPOR. 2r CXM'ROL DE TEMPERATURA DUAL a) ACCIONA EL PRECALEN'TlOOR ELECTRICO bt ACCIONA LA VALVULA SOLENOIDE DE COMBUSTOI..fO 3, INDICADOR DE PRESION 4.. INDICADOR DE TEMPERATURA ~ VALYULA SOLENOIDE &.- REGU ADORA DE PRESION 7.- VALVU..A.DE GL.OeO MANUAL 8.- VALVULA DE RETENCION 9~ FLTRO VAPOR AIRE 0,. TRAMPA DE VAPOR --..r;;

330 RETORNO y TANQUE TRANSftR ' ! ' ~A VAPOR DEL CABEZAL f--- ALIMENTACIOH COMBUSTDLEO ~ RETORNO COMBUSTOLIO IOMIA TRASIEGO 2 FILTRO 3 VAL V\A.A SOLENOIDE 4 CONTROL DE TEMPERATURA S VALVULA DE AGWA., VALV\A.A TRAMPA IIIOICADOR DE TEMPERA lula DERRAME,, r ' TANQUE DE ALMA CEiiAMIENTO DE COMBUSTOLEO DETALLE DE GUIA DE TUBERIAS EN TRINCHERA SLAMIENlO CAMPANA SUCCION TUBERIA DE T ANQU[ PRINCIPAL DE ALMA CENAMIENTO A TAN QUE TRANSFER ' n.ria DE RETORNO

331 ,...,.. u...,.. u.sr ) luo IUittl.--- )00.; í j_,.... ~ soo -- ( '..,![ _J,... " 00.. n.n.s.., -:-rr '"'"''' IS - -,.,, too ~- " :......,.~,~- ---.,.,,,,,,,, u uatootollt ltltl ctll.,thl z.,....,_,,,... teltl ttl -...,... ''"'... " DETALLE TRINCHER~ f!diesel],..... }lojzol ~.,.,.... le "''''.. 00.,,,,_ llt&iu lt Ultrn lt lf ' ~!..., ~~ ---~'C'-!'C''"''''e'C ,, / _,.... "''... "'...,.,.,, ~ ,..... "''''..... S- ftlt tt ltlllltt U tltttttt tt. -,,.,.,;,,.,,... ltlll...,.,,, _t- AIJ tllttlh lt ttlt lthl Ctl.trtltl, J DETALLE TRINCHERA f (PETROLEO PESADOJ

332 j_ o o o N N O N o ~..i.l " lo r--~: ~ - r-r--- --"r - " d ~ J - u l!:i--=~-:3 i ~ rr 'J. Cl) e j (!» a : ~ ~ ~ ~. - a. o ; J..;..... & Q.-~.... ~ e n o o o ~ ill '.. t; o -= = g -: :: :. Cl) o &. o o

333 IC IC DIIIEMSIOMII DH ''' ooa 'IMT.orUIO, u..,,.,,4. ltfc l v,,,...,... " c... llh/pollll '.. Ltt. t, o lid 0. IISOI 0. o lid DI 4... " r. / 4... / 4 M e., o ( IH/ e,,.. e:.tr ~----J ~----, ' -~ SEPARADOR CENTRIFUGO] -

334 - t C) o. ea +====-=~= t DDJ~~9[JJ0 FIG J.. o.ssh + LOO + E e 20 o 80 a A FIG. 5., FIG. 6 FIG. 4 VISTA LATERAL DE PUERTOS Y PLATAFORMA PARA MUESTREO FIG. 5: PERFIL DE PUERTOS Y PLATAFORMA PARA MUESTREO FIG. 6: INSTALACION CONPLETA DE PUERTOS Y PLATAFORMA DE MUESTREO

335 ...,, ' ; ;.. :...,, o ::....:. ~... -~.. ~ ~, : ~<......~... ~!f.,; o.,.!';~ ~ ' '... o,.... : :..

336 IS,.. ~ :,.,.. ~,.;; (J - J ''...,,. :. :...,.. :..- ' '. ~~.í ~..... ' ''... ~ '" ~ <... ~.- " ~ ~

337 . - FACULTAD DE INc;ENIERÍA UNA/V\ DIVISIÓN DE EDUCACIÓN CC>NTINUA "Tres décadas de orgullosa excelencia" DIPLOMADO EN INGENIERÍA DE CALDERAS Y RECIPIENTES A PRESIÓN MÓDULO IV : MATERIALES, SOLDADURA Y CALDERAS DE POTENCIA TEMA: VERIFICACIÓN DE RECIPIENTES SUJETOS A PRESIÓN EXPEDIENTE DE INTEGRIDAD MECÁNICA EXPOSITOR: ING. ANTONIO GARCÍA MORENO SEDE: PALACIO DE MINERÍA MAYO 2003 Palacio de Minen a. Calle de Tocuba No. 5. Pnmer piso. Delegación Cuouhtémoc. CP Col. Centro. México D.F. APDO Postal M-2285 Tels, al y Fax

338 VERIFICACION DE RECIPIENTES SUJETOS A PRESION EXPEDIENTE DE INTEGRIDAD MECANICA La empresa donde se encuentra instalado el equipo cuenta con un Sistema de Administración de la Seguridad El Sistema de Administración de la Seguridad está dirigido a los equipos El Sistema de Administración de la Seguridad contiene elementos aplicables a la integridad mecánica El Sistema de Administración de la Seguridad dirigido a los equipos demuestra cor, evidencias que cubre los aspectos siguientes: Mantenimiento Reparaciones o modificaciones Revisiones (inspección) Operación (procedimientos o instructivos) Planes de emergencia (procedimientos o guías) Análisis de riesgos (inspección) Documentación y registros (control de documentos) El Sistema de Administración de la Seguridad dirigido a los equipos está instrumentado en forma' de procedimientos o instructivos escritos Los procedimientos o instructivos escritos del Sistema de Administración de la Seguridad dirigido a los equipos están aprobados por los responsables técnicos operativos de los equipos Los procedimientos o instructivos escritos del Sistema de Administración de la Seguridad dirigido a los equipos están aprobados por el patrón Los procedimientos o instructivos escritos del Sistema de Administración de la Seguridad dirigido a los equipos contemplan la generación de evidencias documentales de las actividades El patrón presenta anexo al Formato N-020, una descripción resumida del Sistema de Administración de la Seguridad dirigido a los equipos La descripción del Sistema de Administración de la Seguridad dirigido a los equipos explica como su implementación provee un grado de confianza aceptable para la operación segura del equipo MANTENIMIENTO

339 Clasificación (mayor ó menor, rutina ó reparaciones, etc.) Procedimientos aplicables por clasificación Programas según clasificación Capacitación ó Calificación del personal implicado en el mantenimiento de acuerdo a la clasificación Registros de actividades REVISION EN SERVICIO Métodos y procedimientos de inspección Programas Calificación mínima del personal operador y evaluador Criterios de aceptación y rechazo Registros de actividades OPERACIÓN Procedimientos aplicables Descripción de actividades en caso de emergencia (instrucciones o planes de contingencia aplicables) que incluyan medios disponibles para mitigar los efectos Pruebas periódicas (a todo el equipo o a sus partes) Calibración de los instrumentos de medición Capacitación ó Calificación del personal de operación Registros de actividades DOCUMENTACION Y REGISTROS Control de actualizaciones de documentos para las actividades de mantenimiento, operación y revisión Control de la generación sistemática de registros de las actividades de mantenimiento, operación y revisión Control de registros (manejo) El patrón exhibe un expediente de integridad mecánica El expediente de integridad mecánica es el resultado de la implementación del Sistema de Administración de la Seguridad El expediente de integridad mecánica contiene los documentos esenciales que permiten conocer el estado de la integridad mecánica y operativa del equipo, incluyendo sus aparatos auxiliares y dispositivos de seguridad 2

340 El expediente de integridad mecánica está actualizado y contiene información de toda la vida operativa del equipo El expediente de integridad mecánica contiene los siguientes documentos: EQUIPO NUEVO O USADO Índice Formato N-020 (copia del presentado a la STPS) con sello FABRICACION Dibujo, plano o documento (libro de proyecto, manual, catálogo) del equipo Los dibujos o planos de los equipos contienen al menos los siguientes aspectos: Cortes principales del equipo Detalles relevantes (Ubicación de boquillas, por ejemplo) Acotaciones básicas (espesores, diámetros, longitudes, entre otras) Arreglo básico del sistema de soporte Los dibujos, planos o documentos deben estar avalados por el fabricante o constructor del equipo, o por un responsable técnico designado por el patrón. Si existe la necesidad de generar dibujos, planos o documentos nuevos por carecer de los de fabricación, el responsable técnico que los avale debe ser un profesional con experiencia en el área de diseño, mantenimiento o inspección de los equipos. La información presentada debe incluir la condición actual del equipo, y las modificaciones efectuadas deben estar avaladas como se indica, ya sea en documentos separados o en una revisión del dibujo, plano o documento. Fotografía o calca de placa de datos del equipo adherida o estampada por el fabricante del equipo Certificado de cumplimiento con norma o código de fabricación Certificado de pruebas hidrostáticas de fabrica La siguiente información está en el certificado de fabricación o en un documento respaldado por un ingeniero mediante su nombre, firma y anexando copia de su cédula profesional Presión y temperatura de diseño y de operación Presión de trabajo máxima permitida Dispositivos de seguridad (presión de calibración, área de desfogue y ubicación) Capacidad volumétrica, para recipientes sujetos a presión y recipientes criogénicos) '( ' 3

341 o o o o o o Capacidad generativa, para calderas Fluidos manejados Especificaciones de los materiales de las paredes sujetas a presión (designación y esfuerzo a la tensión) Normativa o código de construcción aplicable Las especificaciones técnicas tienen el respaldo en cálculos o tablas de la normativa o del código de construcción aplicable, basados en las condiciones de diseño o de servicio del equipo. OPERACIÓN Descripción breve de la operación del equipo Función del equipo Riesgos inherentes Medios de control de riesgos ó la operación o DISPOSITIVOS DE SEGURIDAD Identificación de los dispositivos de seguridad que protegen al equipo Documentación de calibraciones EQUIPO USADO o REVISION Y MANTENIMIENTO Programa de revisiones Resumen cronológico de las revisiones efectuadas de acuerdo al programa Registros de revisiones Documentos relacionados con la revisión Resumen de resultados de revisiones en servicio Registro de revisiones en servicio Documentación de las revisiones en servicio Todos los resultados de las revisiones están avalados por escrito y firmados por el responsable técnico de mantenimiento, operación o inspección según aplica. o o o o Programa de mantenimiento Resumen cronológico del mantenimiento efectuado de acuerdo al programa Registros de mantenimiento Documentos relacionados con el mantenimiento o MODIFICACIONES Y ALTERACIONES Resumen cronológico de modificaciones y alteraciones efectuadas al equipo Registro de modificaciones y alteraciones Documentos relacionados con las modificaciones y alteraciones 4

342 Resumen cronológico de modificaciones y alteraciones efectuadas al equip0 que implicaron soldadura en el cuerpo a presión Registro de modificaciones y alteraciones que implicaron soldadura en el cuerpo a presión Documentos relacionados con las modificaciones y alteraciones que implicaron soldadura en el cuerpo a presión TRANSITORIOS Resumen de transitorios relevantes Resultados del análisis efectuado para determinar sus consecuencias INFORMACION ADICIONAL El patrón agrega la información necesaria para evidenciar el estado del equipo 5

343 FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA UNA/V\ DIVISIÓN DE EDUCACIÓN C<:>NTINUA "Tres décadas de orgullosa excelencia" DIPLOMADO EN INGENIERÍA DE CALDERAS Y RECIPIENTES A PRESIÓN MÓDULO IV : MATERIALES, SOLDADURA Y CALDERAS DE POTENCIA TEMA: ANEXO DEL EXPEDIENTE DE INTEGRIDAD MECÁNICA EXPOSITOR: ING. ANTONIO GARCÍA MORENO SEDE: PALACIO DE MINERÍA MAYO 2003 Palaoo de Minería. Calle de Tacuba No. S. Primer ptso. Delegactón Cuauhtémoc, CP 06000, Col. Centro, MéxiCO D.F., APDO Postal M-2285 Tels al 24, y Fax

344 Características de diseño de la caldera

345 Características de diseño de la caldera - --.!! -' cq) ---9

346 3 '. Características de diseño de la caldera

347 Líneas de alimentación

348 .. Líneas de alimentación 4

349 Control de nivel de agua

350 ' ' Controles de presión 6

351 Control de nivel de agua

352 .. Control de combustión 8

353 LA PAUSA DE SEGURIDAD. Sé lo que voy a hacer? 2. Conozco el método y/o procedimiento para este trabajo? 3. Estoy en condiciones emocionales y físicas para este trabajo? 4. Existe algún riesgo que pueda lastimarme? 5. Existen en el área sustancias o equipo ajeno al proceso? 6. Conozco que Equipo de Protección Personal (EPP) debo usar? 7. Mi EPP está completo y en buenas condiciones? 8. Las herramientas y equipo que voy a usar es el más adecuado? 9. Se encuentran en buen estado para este trabajo? 0. Requiero que alguién me ayude?. Me entregaron el equipo parado, vacío, limpio, despresurizado? 2. Requiero bloquear, etiquetar, candadear, etc.? 3. Necesito que me asesore mi supervisor durante el trabajo? 4. Necesito que me asesore personal de Seguridad Industrial durante el trabajo? RECUERDA: Ningún trabajo es tan importante que no puedas tomarte el tiempo para pensar en cómo hacerlo en forma segura.

354 ROMBO DE SEGURIDAD Especiales OXI Oxidantes ACID Acidos ALC Alcalinos CORR Corrosivos "Al yyr No usar agua Riesgo de radiación 0

355 FACULTAD DE IN<:;ENIERÍA UNA~ DIVISIÓN DE EDUCACIÓN CC>NTINUA "Tres décadas de orgullosa excelencia" DIPLOMADO EN INGENIERÍA DE CALDERAS Y RECIPIENTES A PRESIÓN fvodulo IV : MATERIALES, SOLDADURA Y CALDERAS DE POTENCIA TEMA: CUDADO DE CALDERAS EXPOSITOR: ING. ANTONIO GARCÍA MORENO SEDE: PALACIO DE MINERÍA MAYO 2003 \ ' Palacio de Mineña. Calle de Tacuba No. 5, Primer piso, Delegación Cuauhtémoc, CP 06000, Col. Centro, México D.F.., APDO Postol M-2285 Tels al24, y Fax

356 '. CUIDADOS DE LA CALDERA lng. Antonio García Moreno

357 INTRODUCCION La operación segura, confiable y eficiente de su caldera comienza desde la selección de un sistema bien diseñado que satisfa*ga todas la normas correspondientes: Capacidad adecuada para el servicio Combustible a utilizar Fabricación bajo normas (ASME, NOM, etc)

358 ' ' INTRODUCCION De la misma forma que cualquier equipo industrial una caldera requiere un programa de mantenimiento planificado a fin de proporcionar una operación adecuada y duradera.

359 INTRODUCCION Un manual completo debe incluir: Descripción general del equipo y principios de operación Información sobre el recipiente a presión Requerimientos de calidad del agua Instrucciones sobre la limpieza Recomendaciones sobre los sistemas de tratamiento de agua

360 ' ' INTRODUCCION Información sobre la inspección Instrucciones de encendido y operación Procedimientos de ajuste Diagnóstico de averias Detalles de inspección y mantenimiento Información para ordenar refacciones

361 CUIDADOS DE LA PAI?rTE INTEI?riOI?r DEL '?recipiente A Pl?rESION Un cuidado adecuado del interior del recipiente de presión le traerá las siguientes ventajas: Larga duración de la caldera Aumento en el tiempo efectivo de operación Mayor eficiencia y por lo tanto menor consumo de combustible

362 '. TRATAMIENTO DE AGUA Un programa de tratamiento de agua adecuado y procedimientos de purga correctos son vitales para mantener las superficies de calefacción de su caldera libres de efectos dañinos que puedan reducir su vida útil.

363 TRATAMIENTO DE AGUA Un programa de tratamiento de agua bien orientado debe prevenir la formación de incrustaciones, eliminar la corrosión causada por el oxigeno en el agua cruda y disminuir el arrastre de humedad causado por espumeo.

364 TRATAMIENTO DE AGUA El personal encargado del tratamiento de aguas deberá recomendar los procedimientos y frecuencia de purgas requeridas a fin de reducir la concentración de sólidos en la caldera. Se debe de llevar un control estricto de : Parámetros de tratamiento. Equipo de tratamiento, productos químicos y control de registros. Inspecciones al interior del equipo y la instalación.

365 CORROSION POR OXIGENO Para verificar la corrosión por oxigeno, drene la unidad y remueva los registros de mano y de hombre para una inspección visual de toda la superficie en contacto con el agua. Inspeccione las superficies interiores del recipiente (especialmente de la zona posterior de la caldera) utilizando una linterna y espejos buscando que no haya evidencias de burbujas, "marcas de viruela", o erosión en la superficie del metal. ' CJ

366 FORMACION DE INCRUSTACIONES Las incrustaciones actúan como aislantes y pueden originar a su ves esfuerzos térmicos en la superficie en contacto con los gases calientes, estos esfuerzos y/o deformaciones pueden caer en problemas críticos de fugas y daños en uniones entre otros.

367 INCRUSTACIONES Una incrustación de.6mm, de espesor aumenta el consumo de combustible en un 5 /o,una incrustación de 3.2mm requiere 20o/o más de combustible y una de 6.4mm hasta un 39 /o más. RECUERDE. Las verificaciones periódicas se requieren aún con un buen programa de tratamiento de aguas.

368 INCRUSTACIONES Durante la inspección visual del interior del recipiente utilice herramienta para obtener muestras de cualquier incrustación que se haya formado, especialmente en la parte posterior de la caldera. Analice las muestras para determinar su composición. Recuerde que el origen de las incrustaciones generalmente se debe a presencia de sales de calcio, magnesio y/o sílice. :'>

369 ACUMULACION DE SEDIMENTOS. Muchas veces un tratamiento o condiciones inadecuadas de operación pueden provocar una acumulación excesiva de sedimentos en el fondo de la caldera. Durante la operación estos sedimentos deben ser controlados a base de un programa de purgas. Durante la inspección deben ser retirados con un lavado de agua a alta presión.,-..~.

370 ARRASTRES DE HUMEDAD El vapor húmedo y el condensado pueden ser ocasionados por: Altas concentraciones de sólidos por falta de purgas. Tratamiento inadecuado de agua de alimentación. Línea de vapor "estrangulada" o de dimensión inadecuada. Cargas repentinas debidas a aperturas súbitas de válvulas. Sobrecarga constante (sobredemanda). Líneas de vapor sin trampas. ':>

371 ARRASTRES DE HUMEDAD Los efectos principales de los arrastres de humedad son: Golpe de ariete en las líneas de vapor. Vapor de baja temperatura. Sobredemanda ocasionada por la baja cantidad de calor disponible. ~

372 . EMPAQUES Siempre que realice una inspección deberá considerar suficientes empaques para registros, estos deben ser cambiados en su totalidad, siempre que se abra algún registro. Es muy importante el sello en el recipiente, la más mínima fuga causará que el metal de la caldera sufra corrosión y dañe los asientos de los registros.

373 PROCEDIMIENTOS DE CONSERVACION Cuando una caldera estará fuera de servicio por un periodo de tiempo menor a los 3 meses es conveniente para disminuir la corrosión por oxígeno inundar la caldera: Encienda la caldera para qu~ produzca vapor ventilando desde el punto más alto para eliminar la mayor parte de oxígeno retenido. Agregue el tratamiento químico adecuado y/o recomendado.

374 '. PROCEDIMIENTOS DE CONSERVACI

375 , ON Asegúrese que no haya posibilidad de que el agua se congele. Cierre todas las válvulas (aísle el equipo) y desconecte la energía eléctrica. Abra la puerta de la caldera del lado de la chimenea para evitar el flujo de aire natural y húmedo a través de los tubos.

376 .. PROCEDIMIENTOS DE, CONSERVACION El método "seco" para mantener una caldera fuera de servicio es: Drene la caldera y quite las tapas de todos los registros. Coloque encima de los tubos charolas con productos que absorvan humedad. Cierre las tapas de los registros. Abra la puerta de la caldera del lado de la chimenea para evitar el flujo de aire natural y húmedo a través de los tubos.

377 CUIDADOS EN EL LADO DE FUEGO El problema más importante en el hogar. y los tubos de la caldera es la acumulación de hollín y otros elementos no combustibles con la consiguiente reducción de transferencia de calor e incremento en el consumo de combustible. La acumulación de hollín aumenta la temperatura en la chimenea de la caldera lo que indica que hay necesidad de limpieza.. \

378 La frecuencia con que se realice esta dependerá de la carga de la caldera, tipo y calidad de combustible y eficiencia de combustión. Los productos de combustión requieren atención rigurosa. Estos pueden contener óxidos sulfurosos o nitrosos, los cuales absorven humedad, formando ácidos que corroen las superficies de la zona de combustión y desalojo de gases.

379 HOGAR, TUBOS Y PLACAS Cheque cuidadosamente el hogar, los tubos y las placas para determinar si hay evidencia de ampollas. o "marcas de viruela" que indican, corroson. La corrosión puede controlarse: Manteniendo una temperatura adecuada en el agua de alimentación. Ajustando la proporción aire combustible (carburación adecuada). Ajustando los controles de operación para que el equipo se mantenga encendido la nayor parte del ciclo. (

380 LIMPIEZA DE TUBOS La evidencia de una acumulación densa de hollín en breves periodos de tiempo puede significar una proporción inadecuada de aire combustible. La temperatura de tos gases en la chimenea es un indicador importante para programar. una limpieza o mantenimiento. Como regla general un aumento de 4 C en la temperatura de la salida de gases equivale a un /o de perdida de eficiencia.

381 LIMPIEZA DE TUBOS La evidencia de una acumulación densa de hollín en breves periodos de tiempo puede significar una proporción inadecuada de aire combustible. La temperatura de los gases en la chimenea es un indicador importante para programar una limpieza o mantenimiento. Como regla general un aumento de 4 C en la temperatura de la salida de gases equivale a un /o de perdida de eficiencia. i

382 \ ' EMPAQUES Verifique visualmente los empaques de las puertas para asegurarse que están en buenas condiciones y bien sujetos. Se requiere un sello efectivo en la zona de combustión para evitar pérdida de eficiencia, quema de los empaques y deformación del metal de las puertas. Los empaques deben ser reemplazados siempre que se abran las puertas, recuerde que por disposición internacional está prohibido el uso de empaques de base asbesto. :),

383 REFRACTARIO Cheque el hogar al mismo tiempo que verifica la parte interior del recipiente. Abra las puertas dela caldera de manera que el refractario quede al "descubierto". Verifique la presencia de grietas y/o erosión en la superficie del material cuando esta sea significativa será necesario el reemplazo total del material, cuando sea posible por el grado de deterioro menor resane la superficie con un material refractario aplicado con brocha (lechada). r r

384 \.. REFRACTARIOS.j l

385 REFRACTARIOS El emboquillado del hogar y las mamparas deflectoras en la zona de combustión están regularmente armadas a base de ladrillos, cuando estos presenten daños o quebraduras es conveniente su reemplazo para evitar problemas de combustión. '' )

386 CUIDADOS DEL QUEMADOR La mejor forma de determinar si las boquillas o inyectores de combustible necesitan limpieza, ajustes en la presión, ajustes en las conexiones, etc., es manteniendo un registro diario de presiones, temperaturas. y cualquier otra información de los indicadores. En una caldera alimentada con combustible líquido una caída de presión puede indicar un filtro obstruido, una válvula reguladora defectuosa, o una fuga de aire en la línea de., SUCCIOn..\

387 CUIDADOS DEL QUEMADOR En una caldera alimentada con gas, una caída en la presión puede significar un problema en la línea principal de suministro (línea pública) o funcionamiento defectuoso de reguladores. Una elevación de temperatura en la chimenea no siempre significa una combustión pobre, o un hogar o la parte interior del recipiente defectuosa, en un arranque las variaciones de temperatura son normales durante el cambio de carga.

388 Las chimeneas deben estar limpias sin trazas de humo, una chimenea emitiendo humos indica una necesidad de ajuste en el quemador, o problernas de carburación. Por otro lado debe verificarse visualmente la operación de válvulas manuales y automáticas, sobre todo durante el paro de la unidad. Si la flama no se extingue inmediatamente será indicio de problemas de sello y requerirá seguramente de cambio de válvulas )'

389 CUIDADO DE LOS CONTROLES El indicador de nivel y el control de operación de la alimentación de agua deberá estar libre de obstrucciones por lo que es muy importante purgarlos periódicamente. Una prueba de operación programada evita posibles emergencias. La revisión de interconexiones y el empleo de crucetas, facilita la inspección y limpieza. Recuerde que un programa de mantenimiento bien planificado garantiza una operación segura y confiable.

390 CON ~..

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