Three-Dimensional Metallic Boron Nitrideqwang/_pdfs/13_JACS-BN.pdf · BN phases are insulating3,4 including cubic-BN (c-BN), wurtzite BN (w-BN), layered hexagonal BN (h-BN), and rhombic - [PDF Document] (2024)

Three-Dimensional Metallic Boron Nitrideqwang/_pdfs/13_JACS-BN.pdf· BN phases are insulating3,4 including cubic-BN (c-BN), wurtzite BN (w-BN), layered hexagonal BN (h-BN), and rhombic - [PDF Document] (1)

Three-Dimensional Metallic Boron NitrideShunhong Zhang,† Qian Wang,*,†,‡ Yoshiyuki Kawazoe,§ and Puru Jena‡

†Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China‡Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284, United States§Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577, Japan

*S Supporting Information

ABSTRACT: Boron nitride (BN) and carbon are chemicalanalogues of each other and share similar structures such asone-dimensional nanotubes, two-dimensional nanosheetscharacterized by sp2 bonding, and three-dimensional diamondstructures characterized by sp3 bonding. However, unlikecarbon which can be metallic in one, two, and threedimensions, BN is an insulator, irrespective of its structureand dimensionality. On the basis of state-of-the-art theoreticalcalculations, we propose a tetragonal phase of BN which isboth dynamically stable and metallic. Analysis of its bandstructure, density of states, and electron localization function confirms the origin of the metallic behavior to be due to thedelocalized B 2p electrons. The metallicity exhibited in the studied three-dimensional BN structures can lead to materials beyondconventional ceramics as well as to materials with potential for applications in electronic devices.


Boron and nitrogen, the left and right neighbors of carbon inthe periodic table, form an interesting family of binary boronnitride (BN) compounds similar to those of carbon materialsbut display different mechanical,1 thermal,2 optical,3−5 andcatalytic6 properties. Due to its exceptional thermal andchemical stability compared to carbon-based materials, BN iswidely used as a high-temperature ceramic material which canwithstand extremely harsh environment. Especially, because ofthe difference in electronegativity, B and N form stronglypolarized covalent bonds and BN is an insulator. Althoughelementary boron7 and nitrogen8 appear to be metallic underhigh pressure, BN remains an insulator even when severelycompressed.5,9 All currently identified three-dimensional (3D)BN phases are insulating3,4 including cubic-BN (c-BN),wurtzite BN (w-BN), layered hexagonal BN (h-BN), andrhombic BN (r-BN). No exception to this behavior is foundeven in the recently predicted new BN polymorphs.9−14 In twodimensions (2D), monolayer hexagonal BN, known as whitegraphene, was also found to be an insulator with a wide bandgap of around 6.0 eV.15 Other 2D BN allotropes have beenwidely studied and found to be semiconducting16 with wideband gaps. In one-dimensional (1D) systems, BN nanotubes,irrespective of their chirality and radius,17−19 are insulators, andBN nanoribbons20,21 are also semiconducting, irrespective oftheir shape and width. This is in contrast to carbon wherenanotubes and graphene nanoribbons can be metallic orsemiconducting depending on their chirality and morphology.Engineering of electronic structure of materials as a way to

tailor their electronic properties is a topic of great generalinterest in science and technology. For instance, extensive

attempts have been made to open the bandgap in gaplessgraphene22 and tune semiconducting silicon or germaniumfrom indirect-bandgap to direct-bandgap.23−25 In the case ofBN, practical application in electronic devices is hinderedbecause of its wide band gap. This has stimulated recentresearch in reducing or even closing the band gap. For example,H-terminated c-BN thin f ilm was found to become metallicwhen its thickness exceeds a critical threshold of 0.69 nm.26

The band gap closure in BN nanoribbons can also be achievedby introducing foreign atoms27,28 or applying electric field.21

However, in many practical applications, 3D structures arepreferable over functionalized thin films and edge-decoratednanoribbons. Because metallic 3D BN would be a promisingcandidate for application in electronic devices, the questionarises: is it possible to design and synthesize a new 3D BNstructure that can display intrinsic metallicity withoutintroduction of any foreign atoms or application of an externalelectric field? A comprehensive study is presented here todemonstrate such a possibility.

2. COMPUTATIONAL DETAILSDetermination of Geometry and Electronic Properties. Our

calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT) and areperformed using the Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP)29

with Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) potential.30 Plane waves withkinetic energy cutoff of 500 eV are used to expand the wave functionof valence electrons (2s22p3 for B and 2s22p5 for N). Wheninvestigating the structural properties, we use the revised Perdew−Burke−Ernzerhof functional for solid (PBEsol)31,32 within generalized

Received: October 1, 2013Published: November 5, 2013


© 2013 American Chemical Society 18216 | J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18216−18221

Three-Dimensional Metallic Boron Nitrideqwang/_pdfs/13_JACS-BN.pdf· BN phases are insulating3,4 including cubic-BN (c-BN), wurtzite BN (w-BN), layered hexagonal BN (h-BN), and rhombic - [PDF Document] (2)

gradient approximation (GGA) to treat the exchange-correlationinteraction between electrons. To ensure an accurate determination ofelectronic properties, calculations are repeated using the hybridHeyd−Scuseria−Ernzerhof functional (HSE06).33,34 Partial occupancyof valence electrons is described using a Gaussian smearing schemewith a width of 0.005 eV. Full geometry optimizations are carried outby using the convergence thresholds of 10−4 eV, 10−3 eV/Å, and 2π ×0.02 Å−1 for total energy, ionic force component, and k point spacing(Monkhorst−Pack sampling scheme35), respectively.Phonon Properties. Lattice vibrational properties are calculated

using the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT).36 Beforecalculation of the phonons, the structures are reoptimized using ahigher convergence criteria, namely, 10−8 eV for total energy and 10−6

eV/Å for Hellmann−Feynman Force, respectively. The dynamicalmatrix is then calculated by VASP 5.2, based on which force constantsare calculated using Phonopy code,37 and phonon band dispersionsand frequency DOS are obtained by solving the dynamical equations.Bader Charge Analysis. Most charge analysis methods such as

Mulliken population analysis are based on electron wave functions andthus sensitive to the type and cutoff of basis sets. Bader analysis,38 onthe other hand, makes use of what are called zero flux surfaces todivide atoms, and the analysis is merely dependent on charge densitydistribution. The charge enclosed within the Bader volume is a goodapproximation to the total electronic charge of an atom. In our work,Bader charge analysis is performed using the code developed byHenkelman’s group.39−41


Atomic Configuration. The inspiration to search for a newallotrope of BN that is metallic came from the analogy betweenBN and C. For all-sp3 bonded structures, both carbon and BNare insulating. However, in the presence of sp2 hybridizationmode, carbon is known to be metallic or semimetallic as innanotubes (with certain chirality), graphite, and graphene.However, unlike graphene, in the all-sp2 bonded h-BN sheet,the electronegativity difference between B and N breaks thesymmetry of the bipartite honeycomb lattice and leads to the awide bandgap.42 Hence, we considered building a sp2-sp3

hybrid BN system which can take advantage of boron’selectron-deficient feature to create multicenter bonds. In a 3DBN formed with interlocking hexagons, sp2 and sp3

configurations can coexist, and metallicity could arise providedelectron delocalization can be achieved.The new 3D BN structure we designed has a tetragonal

primitive cell (space group P4 m2, no. 115) containing threeformula units, as shown in Figure 1. We therefore term it as T-B3N3. The optimized lattice parameters are a = b = 2.64 Å, andc = 6.11 Å. There are four chemically nonequivalent atoms inthe primitive cell, labeled as B1, N1, B2, and N2 in Figure 1.Their atomic Wyckoff positions are given in Table 1. The B1(N1) atom adopts distorted sp3 hybridization and binds to fourN2 (B2) atoms with a bond length of 1.57 Å which iscomparable to that in the c-BN and w-BN. The B2 (N2) atomis sp2-hybridized and each B2 (N2) binds to two N1 (B1)atoms and one N2 (B2) atom. The bond length between N2and B2 atoms is 1.35 Å, showing unusual double bondcharacter43,44 which may induce some novel properties in thisnew polymorph.Dynamic Stability. We first calculate the phonon

dispersion and frequency density of states (DOS) to ensurethe dynamical stability of the T-B3N3 structure. The calculatedresults are plotted in Figure 1d. The absence of soft modeswithin the entire Brillouin Zone clearly indicates that thisconfiguration corresponds to a minimum in the potentialenergy surface (PES). A significant phonon gap is observed in

the band dispersion, separating the vibrational modes into thelow frequency (0−32.4 THz) and the high frequency (40.5−48THz) regions. The phonon DOS shows that the high frequencymodes are entirely contributed by the B2 and N2 atoms, andthe partial DOS of (B2 + N2) and total DOS overlap in thehigh frequency region. Detailed analysis indicates that thesemodes correspond to vibrations of the double bond formedbetween the B2 and N2 atoms.

Energetic Stability. Total energy calculations are per-formed to investigate the thermodynamic stability. Thecalculated total energy−volume curve for the T-B3N3 is plottedin Figure 2 and compared with some other BN allotropes.From the energetic point of view, the T-B3N3 is found to bemetastable as compared to the well-known c-BN and w-BN buthas a cohesive energy larger than that of the previously reportedrocksalt5,9 and NiAs-type9 structures. Due to its nanoporosity,T-B3N3 has lower density at equilibrium than that of the highpressure phases (bct-BN,9,10 Z-BN,11,13 P-BN,14 rocksalt,5,9 andNiAs-type9 BN). For comparison, additional calculations werealso performed for some BN nanostructures including small BNnanotubes19 (BNNTs) and BN cages.45,46 We found that theT-B3N3 is energetically more stable than (3, 0) BNNT, (4, 0)

Figure 1. (a) Perspective view, (b) view from the [001] direction, (c)view from the [100] direction, and (d) phonon dispersion andfrequency DOS of the T-B3N3 structure. The high symmetry q pointpath in the Brillouin Zone is chosen as: Γ (0, 0, 0) → X (1/2, 0, 0) →M (1/2, 1/2, 0) → Γ (0, 0, 0) → Z (0, 0, 1/2) → R (1/2, 0, 1/2) →A(1/2, 1/2, 1/2) → Z (0, 0, 1/2) (see the insert).

Table 1. Atomic Positions, Bader Charge and Volume, andBond Length of the T-B3N3 Structure

atom Wyckoff positionBader

charge, eBader volume

(Å3)bond length


B1 1c (0.5, 0.5, 0.5) 0.81 1.70 dB1−N2 = 1.57N1 1b (0.5, 0.5, 0.0) 7.23 12.00 dN1−B2 = 1.57B2 2g (0.0, 0.5,

0.8602)0.94 2.39 dB2−N2 = 1.35

N2 2g (0.0, 0.5,0.6378)

7.03 12.04 dN2−B2 = 1.35

Journal of the American Chemical Society Article | J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18216−1822118217

Three-Dimensional Metallic Boron Nitrideqwang/_pdfs/13_JACS-BN.pdf· BN phases are insulating3,4 including cubic-BN (c-BN), wurtzite BN (w-BN), layered hexagonal BN (h-BN), and rhombic - [PDF Document] (3)

BNNT, and B12N12 and B24N24 cages, respectively (see Table2).

Electronic Properties. The electronic properties of T-B3N3structure is studied by computing the electronic band structure.The results are given in Figure 3a. We see that a partiallyoccupied band (the 13th band from the bottom) crosses theFermi level in the vicinity of M point in the Brillouin Zone,suggesting that the T-B3N3 is metallic. Because standard DFTcalculations are well-known to underestimate the band gap, we

repeated the band structure calculations using the screenedhybrid functional HSE0633,34 which has been demonstrated tobe more accurate in describing the exchange-correlation energyof electrons in solids. The results are plotted in Figure 3. Thepartially occupied band-crossing feature at the Fermi level stillremains (see Figure 3a), thus confirming the metallicity of T-B3N3.To explore the origin of metallicity, we calculated the DOS

projected onto the atomic orbitals of the four nonequivalentatoms in the primitive cell. We note that the electronic statesnear the Fermi level are mainly contributed by the py orbitals ofB2, as shown in Figure 3b; the contribution from N2 is smalland that from B1 and N1 is negligible. Bader charge analysis(see Table 1) suggests that the B2 atoms have less chargetransferred to the neighboring N atoms and have atomicvolume (Bader volume) larger than that of the B1 atoms,indicating that electrons in the B2 atoms are more delocalized.To further visualize the partially occupied conduction band inreal space, we calculated the band decomposed charge densities.These are plotted in Figure 4a and 4b, showing that the charge

density of the partially occupied band is mainly contributed byB2 atoms with small contribution from N2 atoms. This isconsistent with our observation from the PDOS. It isinteresting to note that the charge densities around N1 andB1 are localized, while the charges in the region of the fournearest B2 atoms are delocalized and form a pyramid-likedistribution. A conducting network parallel to the (001) crystalsurface is thus formed by the two layers of B2 atoms connectedby these delocalized electrons. Therefore, it is reasonable toassume that the metallicity of T-B3N3 is derived from thesedelocalized states. The electron localization function (ELF)provides a good description of electron delocalization in

Figure 2. Volume dependence of total energy for some crystalline BNallotropes.

Table 2. Cohesive Energies (in eV/f.u.) of SomeNanostructured BN Allotropes Relative to the T-B3N3 andT-B7N7 Phases

structures symmetry relative energy

T-B3N3 P4m2 0.00T-B7N7 P4m2 −0.09B12N12 cage Th 0.64B24N24 cage S8 0.26(3, 0) BNNT Pmc21 0.94(4, 0) BNNT P4cc 0.19

Figure 3. Electronic structure of the T-B3N3. (a) Band structure (red:GGA/PBE; blue: HSE06) and (b) projected DOS for the B2 atom inthe unit cell (GGA/PBE). The Fermi level is shifted to 0.0 eV. Theelectronic DOS is in arbitrary units.

Figure 4. Band decomposed charge density distribution (the 13thband) and slices of electron localization function (ELF) of the T-B3N3.Panels a and c are viewed from the [010] direction, and panels b and dfrom the [001 ] direction. The isovalue for charge density is 0.15 e/Å3,and the reference bar for ELF value is provided at the bottom.

Journal of the American Chemical Society Article | J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18216−1822118218

Three-Dimensional Metallic Boron Nitrideqwang/_pdfs/13_JACS-BN.pdf· BN phases are insulating3,4 including cubic-BN (c-BN), wurtzite BN (w-BN), layered hexagonal BN (h-BN), and rhombic - [PDF Document] (4)

molecules47 and solids48 and is a useful tool for chemical bondclassification.49 The ELF refers to the jellium-like hom*ogeneouselectron gas and renormalizes the value to between 0.00 and1.00. The values of 1.00 and 0.50 correspond to fully localizedand fully delocalized electrons, respectively, while the value 0.00refers to very low charge density. We calculated the ELF of T-B3N3 to identify its delocalization character. Slices parallel tothe (010) and (001 ) crystal faces crossing the B2 atoms areplotted in Figure 4c and 4d, respectively. With the ELF valueclose to 0.50 resembling that in bulk Al and Al-based clusters,50

delocalization in the regions near the B2 atoms is evident. Thisfurther confirms that the presence of unusual metallicity of T-B3N3 is intimately associated with the delocalized statesoriginating from the peculiar atomic configuration.An Extension of the Metallic Phase. Having elucidated

the origin of metallicity in the T-B3N3, we extended thisstructure by increasing the number of B2 and N2 atoms in theunit cell to see if metallicity can be enhanced. This leads to thestructure shown in Figure 5a and 5b. We term it as T-B7N7, as

there are seven BN formula units in the primitive cell. Phononspectra confirm that T-B7N7 is also dynamically stable withoutany imaginary frequency (see Figure 5c). The total energycalculation shows that it has a slightly larger cohesive energy ascompared to the T-B3N3 structure (see Figure 2 and Table 2).A parallel study on the electronic structure reveals that the T-B7N7 is metallic as expected (see the band structure in Figure6a). The ELF analysis shown in Figure 6b confirms that thedelocalized charges are also from B2 sites. A systematic study ofthe stability and metallicity of T-BxNx (x = 11, 15, and 19) hasbeen carried out further. The calculated results are plotted inFigure 7. Similarly, the conducting networks formed by thedelocalized electrons in the planes parallel to the (001) face arealso observed for all the studied systems with sp2-sp3-hybridizedBN allotropes. From the calculated total energy, we see thatincreasing the ratio of B2 and N2 atoms not only enhances themetallicity but also improves the thermodynamic stability, as isshown in Figure 7. This in essence implies a paradigm shift forconstructing a metallic BN by “fusing” the AA stackedmultilayer h-BN alternatively. This is distinct from the

conventional compression of h-BN that leads to all sp3

hybridization and an insulating state.9−11,13,14 The present“fused” configurations exhibit sp2-sp3 hybrid characteristics,where the B1 and N1 atoms with sp3 bonding anchor the h-BNlayers with an interlayer distance of 2.64 Å. This separation ismuch smaller than that in ordinary layered h-BN structures(3.33 Å14). The reduced distance enhances the interlayerinteractions, leading to the electron delocalization on the B2sites with sp2 configurations and hence resulting in metallicity.

Figure 5. (a) Perspective view, (b) view from the [001] direction, and(c) phonon dispersion and vibrational DOS of the T-B7N7 structure.

Figure 6. Electronic structure of the T-B7N7. (a) Electronic bandstructure of the T-B7N7 using HSE06 functional. The Fermi level isshifted to 0.00 eV. (b) Selected slices 1, 2, and 3 for plotting the ELF.The lower panel with the color map shows the isodensity values.

Figure 7. Variation of total energy per BN unit of the metallic T-BxNx(x = 4n − 1, n = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) allotropes with respect to theproportion of B2 and N2 atoms.

Journal of the American Chemical Society Article | J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18216−1822118219

Three-Dimensional Metallic Boron Nitrideqwang/_pdfs/13_JACS-BN.pdf· BN phases are insulating3,4 including cubic-BN (c-BN), wurtzite BN (w-BN), layered hexagonal BN (h-BN), and rhombic - [PDF Document] (5)


To better understand the metallicity displayed in the studied3D BN structures, it is worth recalling the following facts. (1)Boron is a versatile element which can form multielectron-multicenter bonds due to its electron-deficient character.51 Forexample, in the well-known superconducting magnesiumdiboride (MgB2), B atoms form graphitic layers with Mgintercalated between them. Here the 2p states of B form adelocalized π network responsible for the metallicity of MgB2,and the strong coupling with the in-plane vibrational modes ofB atoms leads to high-Tc superconductivity.52,53 Therefore,similar to the situation in MgB2, the metallicity exhibited in T-B3N3 is understandable. (2) The electron delocalization featurein T-B3N3 is also reminiscent of the well-known BN system,namely, the cyclic borazine (B3N3H6). As an inorganicisoelectronic analogue of benzene, the cyclic borazine resemblesbenzene in structure as well as in some properties. For instance,many studies have found that in both benzene and borazine theπ electrons are delocalized overall.54,55 Although aromaticity inborazine is only half of that of benzene, the unusual parallelbehavior between benzene and its BN analogue, borazine, inelectron delocalization implies the possibility to achievemetallicity in BN materials. (3) During the revision process,we came to know of a tetragonal carbon allotrope known as“glitter”,56−58 which can be viewed as a chemical analogue of T-B3N3. However, the metallicity of “glitter”, according toBucknum et al.,56−58 is due to its special “spiroconjugation”geometry and the resultant overlap of the dispersive π and π*band near the Fermi level, while the metallicity of T-B3N3 ismainly due to the delocalized electrons at B sites. (4) Recentexperimental and theoretical advances have demonstrated thatsome elements would undergo intriguing insulator−metal (likehydrogen59 and boron7) or metal−insulator (like lithium60−62

and sodium63) transitions when the atomic configurations arechanged under compression.64 Here for the first time we showthat the well-known insulating BN can become metallic whenits atomic configuration is changed. Our finding provides newinsights into the understanding of BN materials.To aid experimentalists in the synthesis of this new phase of

BN, we stress that the building blocks of the tetragonal phase ofBN are interlocked BN hexagons. This can be achieved byusing borazine (B3N3H6) as a precursor. Note that borazine isthe chemical analogue of benzene (C6H6) which has alreadybeen used in the synthesis of hexagonal carbon structures suchas nanotubes and graphene. Similarly, borazine has beenrecently used in the synthesis of BN nanotubes and BNsheets.65,66 The procedure for forming interlocking molecularstructures has also been recently discussed by Ayme et al.67


In summary, a comprehensive first-principles DFT study ofpossible metallicity in 3D BN is performed. We have shownthat the 3D BN structures composed of interlocking BNhexagons are metallic and dynamically stable. These newlydesigned 3D BN structures (T-BxNx, x = 4n − 1, n = 1, 2, 3...)are hybrid systems with one B and one N atom in sp3

hybridization and (4n − 2) sp2-bonded B and N atomsrespectively per unit cell. The sp3 bonded B (N) atom binds toits surrounding four sp2 bonded N (B) atoms forming the 3Dbackbone and is responsible for stability. The sp2 bonded Batoms, on the other hand, play the key role in rendering theconducting network and metallicity. This special geometrical

feature results in a unique property: unlike previously reportedfunctionalized c-BN thin film whose metallicity stems fromstrong inbuilt polarization, the metallicity in 3D T-BxNx isintrinsic and comes from the delocalized electrons distributedaround the B2 sites. The metallicity exhibited in the studiedstructures opens new door for BN materials with potentialapplications in electron transport, metal-free catalysis, andelectronic devices. We hope that the present theoreticalprediction will stimulate experimental interest.

■ ASSOCIATED CONTENT*S Supporting InformationTotal energies (in Hartrees) and the atomic coordinates of theoptimized BN structures studied in this work. This material isavailable free of charge via the Internet at

■ AUTHOR INFORMATIONCorresponding [emailprotected] authors declare no competing financial interests.

■ ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThis work is supported by grants from the National NaturalScience Foundation of China (NSFC-11174014, NSFC-21273012) and the National Grand Fundamental Research973 Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921404). P.J.acknowledges support from the U.S. Department of Energy,Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciencesand Engineering under award no. DE-FG02-96ER45579. Theauthors thank the crew of the Center for ComputationalMaterials Science, the Institute for Materials Research, TohokuUniversity (Japan), for their continuous support of theHITACHSR11000 supercomputing facility.

■ REFERENCES(1) Tian, Y.; Xu, B.; Yu, D.; Ma, Y.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Hu, W.;Tang, C.; Gao, Y.; Luo, K.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, L.-M.; Wen, B.; He, J.;Liu, Z. Nature 2013, 493, 385.(2) Kern, G.; Kresse, G.; Hafner, J. Phys. Rev. B 1999, 59, 8551.(3) Miyata, N.; Moriki, K.; Mishima, O.; Fujisawa, M.; Hattori, T.Phys. Rev. B 1989, 40, 12028.(4) Xu, Y.-N.; Ching, W. Y. Phys. Rev. B 1991, 44, 7787.(5) Christensen, N. E.; Gorczyca, I. Phys. Rev. B 1994, 50, 4397.(6) Li, X.; Zhao, J.; Yang, J. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1858, DOI: 10.1038/srep01858 (accessed May 17, 2013).(7) Haussermann, U.; Simak, S. I.; Ahuja, R.; Johansson, B. Phys. Rev.Lett. 2003, 90, 065701.(8) Sun, J.; Martinez-Canales, M.; Klug, D. D.; Pickard, C. J.; Needs,R. J. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2013, 111, 175502.(9) Hromadova, L.; Martonak, R. Phys. Rev. B 2011, 84, 224108.(10) Wen, B.; Zhao, J.; Melnik, R.; Tian, Y. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.2011, 13, 14566.(11) He, C.; Sun, L.; Zhang, C.; Peng, X.; Zhang, K.; Zhong, J. Phys.Chem. Chem. Phys. 2012, 14, 10967.(12) Eric, G.; Gang, S.; Qing-Rong, Z. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2013,25, 125504.(13) Huang, Q.; Yu, D.; Zhao, Z.; Fu, S.; Xiong, M.; Wang, Q.; Gao,Y.; Luo, K.; He, J.; Tian, Y. J. Appl. Phys. 2012, 112, 053518.(14) Jiang, X.; Zhao, J.; Ahuja, R. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2013, 25,122204.(15) Zeng, H.; Zhi, C.; Zhang, Z.; Wei, X.; Wang, X.; Guo, W.;Bando, Y.; Golberg, D. Nano Lett. 2010, 10, 5049.(16) Enyashin, A. N.; Ivanovskii, A. L. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2011, 509,143.

Journal of the American Chemical Society Article | J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18216−1822118220


Three-Dimensional Metallic Boron Nitrideqwang/_pdfs/13_JACS-BN.pdf· BN phases are insulating3,4 including cubic-BN (c-BN), wurtzite BN (w-BN), layered hexagonal BN (h-BN), and rhombic - [PDF Document] (6)

(17) Blase, X.; Rubio, A.; Louie, S. G.; Cohen, M. L. Europhys. Lett.1994, 28, 335.(18) Rubio, A.; Corkill, J. L.; Cohen, M. L. Phys. Rev. B 1994, 49,5081.(19) Xiang, H. J.; Yang, J.; Hou, J. G.; Zhu, Q. Phys. Rev. B 2003, 68,035427.(20) Park, C.-H.; Louie, S. G. Nano Lett. 2008, 8, 2200.(21) Zhang, Z.; Guo, W. Phys. Rev. B 2008, 77, 075403.(22) Zhou, S. Y.; Gweon, G. H.; Fedorov, A. V.; First, P. N.; de Heer,W. A.; Lee, D. H.; Guinea, F.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Lanzara, A. Nat.Mater. 2007, 6, 770.(23) Xiang, H. J.; Huang, B.; Kan, E.; Wei, S.-H.; Gong, X. G. Phys.Rev. Lett. 2013, 110, 118702.(24) Botti, S.; Flores-Livas, J. A.; Amsler, M.; Goedecker, S.;Marques, M. A. L. Phys. Rev. B 2012, 86, 121204.(25) Tahini, H.; Chroneos, A.; Grimes, R. W.; Schwingenschlogl, U.;Dimoulas, A. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2012, 24, 195802.(26) Zhang, Z.; Guo, W. Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 3650.(27) Wang, Y.; Ding, Y.; Ni, J. Phys. Rev. B 2010, 81, 193407.(28) Lopez-Bezanilla, A.; Huang, J.; Terrones, H.; Sumpter, B. G.Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 3267.(29) Kresse, G.; Furthmuller, J. Phys. Rev. B 1996, 54, 11169.(30) Blochl, P. E. Phys. Rev. B 1994, 50, 17953.(31) Perdew, J. P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1996, 77,3865.(32) Perdew, J. P.; Ruzsinszky, A.; Csonka, G. I.; Vydrov, O. A.;Scuseria, G. E.; Constantin, L. A.; Zhou, X.; Burke, K. Phys. Rev. Lett.2008, 100, 136406.(33) Heyd, J.; Scuseria, G. E.; Ernzerhof, M. J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 118,8207.(34) Heyd, J.; Scuseria, G. E.; Ernzerhof, M. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124,219906.(35) Monkhorst, H. J.; Pack, J. D. Phys. Rev. B 1976, 13, 5188.(36) Baroni, S.; de Gironcoli, S.; Dal Corso, A.; Giannozzi, P. Rev.Mod. Phys. 2001, 73, 515.(37) Togo, A.; Oba, F.; Tanaka, I. Phys. Rev. B 2008, 78, 134106.(38) Bader, R. F. W. Chem. Rev. 1991, 91, 893.(39) Henkelman, G.; Arnaldsson, A.; Jonsson, H. Comput. Mater. Sci.2006, 36, 354.(40) Sanville, E.; Kenny, S. D.; Smith, R.; Henkelman, G. J. Comput.Chem. 2007, 28 (5), 899−908.(41) Tang, W.; Sanville, E.; Henkelman, G. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter2009, 21, 084204.(42) Ayala, P.; Arenal, R.; Loiseau, A.; Rubio, A.; Pichler, T. Rev. Mod.Phys. 2010, 82, 1843.(43) Pierce, G. A.; Aldridge, S.; Jones, C.; Gans-Eichler, T.; Stasch,A.; Coombs, N. D.; Willock, D. J. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2007, 46,2043.(44) Winkelhaus, D.; Vishnevskiy, Y. V.; Berger, R. J. F.; Stammler,H.-G.; Neumann, B.; Mitzel, N. W. Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 2013, 639,2086.(45) Strout, D. L. J. Phys. Chem. A 2000, 104, 3364.(46) Oku, T.; Nishiwaki, A.; Narita, I.; Gonda, M. Chem. Phys. Lett.2003, 380, 620.(47) Becke, A. D.; Edgecombe, K. E. J. Chem. Phys. 1990, 92, 5397.(48) Savin, A.; Jepsen, O.; Flad, J.; Andersen, O. K.; Preuss, H.; vonSchnering, H. G. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 1992, 31, 187.(49) Silvi, B.; Savin, A. Nature 1994, 371, 683.(50) Sun, Q.; Wang, Q.; Yu, J. Z.; Kumar, V.; Kawazoe, Y. Phys. Rev.B 2001, 63, 193408.(51) Tang, H.; Ismail-Beigi, S. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2007, 99, 115501.(52) Kortus, J.; Mazin, I. I.; Belashchenko, K. D.; Antropov, V. P.;Boyer, L. L. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001, 86, 4656.(53) Singh, P. P. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001, 87, 087004.(54) Kiran, B.; phu*kan, A. K.; Jemmis, E. D. Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40,3615.(55) Islas, R.; Chamorro, E.; Robles, J.; Heine, T.; Santos, J.; Merino,G. Struct. Chem. 2007, 18, 833.

(56) Bucknum, M. J.; Hoffmann, R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994, 116,11456.(57) Bucknum, M. J. Carbon 1997, 35, 1.(58) Bucknum, M.; Castro, E. J. Math. Chem. 2004, 36, 381.(59) Eremets, M. I.; Troyan, I. A. Nat. Mater. 2011, 10, 927.(60) Yao, Y.; Tse, J. S.; Klug, D. D. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 102, 115503.(61) Guillaume, C. L.; Gregoryanz, E.; Degtyareva, O.; McMahon,M. I.; Hanfland, M.; Evans, S.; Guthrie, M.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Mao, H.K. Nat. Phys. 2011, 7, 211.(62) Lv, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, L.; Ma, Y. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011, 106,015503.(63) Ma, Y.; Eremets, M.; Oganov, A. R.; Xie, Y.; Trojan, I.;Medvedev, S.; Lyakhov, A. O.; Valle, M.; Prakapenka, V. Nature 2009,458, 182.(64) Wang, Z.; Okude, M.; Saito, M.; Tsukimoto, S.; Ohtomo, A.;Tsukada, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Ikuhara, Y. Nat. Commun. 2010, 1, 106.(65) Chatterjee, S.; Kim, M. J.; Zakharov, D. N.; Kim, S. M.; Stach, E.A.; Maruyama, B.; Sneddon, L. G. Chem. Mater. 2012, 24, 2872.(66) Kim, S.-K.; Cho, H.; Kim, M. J.; Lee, H.-J.; Park, J.-h.; Lee, Y.-B.;Kim, H. C.; Yoon, C. W.; Nam, S. W.; Kang, S. O. J. Mater. Chem., A2013, 1, 1976.(67) Ayme, J.-F.; Beves, J. E.; Campbell, C. J.; Leigh, D. A. Chem. Soc.Rev. 2013, 42, 1700.

Journal of the American Chemical Society Article | J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18216−1822118221

Three-Dimensional Metallic Boron Nitrideqwang/_pdfs/13_JACS-BN.pdf · BN phases are insulating3,4 including cubic-BN (c-BN), wurtzite BN (w-BN), layered hexagonal BN (h-BN), and rhombic - [PDF Document] (2024)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Jerrold Considine

Last Updated:

Views: 5501

Rating: 4.8 / 5 (58 voted)

Reviews: 89% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Jerrold Considine

Birthday: 1993-11-03

Address: Suite 447 3463 Marybelle Circles, New Marlin, AL 20765

Phone: +5816749283868

Job: Sales Executive

Hobby: Air sports, Sand art, Electronics, LARPing, Baseball, Book restoration, Puzzles

Introduction: My name is Jerrold Considine, I am a combative, cheerful, encouraging, happy, enthusiastic, funny, kind person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.